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The Mortality of Football.

But it would be still better if we The glorious season of football has could replace the game by one free come and gone, battles have been

from danger and at the same time sefought and won, the dead have been

cure the physical development of a buried and the wounded are in hospi

much larger number. We once wittals; some of these are slowly recover

nessed an international game of laing, some are raving maniacs, others

crosse, and a study of that contest imare maimed for life. Under the guise of

pressed us with the idea that for a athletic training our colleges are yearly

training in agility and rapidity of acproviding a pastime as barbarous as the

tion in eye and muscle it is an ideal bullfight, and educating the public in

in pastime.

In the first place, the cosbrutality as demoralizing as the prize

tume of the players is graceful and ring

pleasing to the eye of the onlookerThe latest returns at our disposal

the football player is clothed for walsum up a total of 12 deaths, more than

lowing in the mud. The lacrosse play80 serious injuries, including frac

ers display the fleetness of the deer, tured skulls, injured spines, brain in

the football player the brute strength juries resulting in insanity, broken legs,

egs of the ox. Let us have more lacrosse

o arms and collar bones, with sprains, and

bones with sorains and less football. bruises and minor injuries without

The Football Game.. number. This is a terrible price to pay The football game as now played by for the benefit which a few students the students of our colleges, high have gained in the way of physical de schools and other institutions for eduvelopment. That college makes a poor cation is claiming and receiving more showing which turns out fifty athletes attention than any other game or drill and five hundred gamblers, not to except, perhaps, that of the military. speak of the killed and maimed.

Its claims for such enthusiasm and genWe cannot shut our eyes to the fact eral notice may be considered from that the game is year by year becoming several points of view, and its merits more brutal. One account describes a and disadvantages noted. player as injured by a "kick on the And first as to its claims as an athhead"; another as “stabbed in the letic exercise. On this point it may back.” There may be some truth in be said, and it will not be disputed, that the old saying that “all is fair in love it is calculated to improve the muscular and war," but how much farther could powers wonderfully in those who are these kicks on the head or stabs in elected to participate in the game, but the back be carried before they consti- it can never become a national game tuted the crime of murder?

in the sense of universality, such as If the game is to continue as the lead baseball, golf, lawn tennis, croquet and ing feature of college athletics, for the others which are adapted to the aversake of humanity and common decency age physical health and strength of the let these brutal features be eliminated, majority of the human family. So long let the side which wins by such "dirty as it is usual to select a score or two work" be ruled out of the game, and from a thousand or more students of a let the slugger who kicks or stabs be college to play, while all the others tried in the criminal courts like other are only rooters (so-called) to encourruffians.

age the active members in the game,

it cannot be of much advantage to the would rather present a contrary aspect. body of students, as a whole, as an The victorious crowd after a game are athletic exercise. As a national, or not found at the churches or prayer universal game, for the improvement meetings, but more frequently in the of physical health in general, it must streets with boisterous manners, and at therefore be labelled "a failure.”

the saloons and other places of amuseSecondly—the game from an intel- ment. lectual point of view. It is claimed, and Fourthly—Then there is the feature this will not be contradicted, that the of betting on the result, which cannot members of the "elected eleven” are be eliminated and cannot fail to have usually at the front in all their classes an evil effect on the excited and imitain our schools. This is not much of an tive youths. Thus the argument of argument in favor of the game as a morality, except to a limited number, stimulant in intellectual studies when cannot be sustained by competent eviit is found that in the selection of mem- dence. bers a symmetrically developed muscu Fifthly—The medical point of view. lar system, of more than ordinary This appears the most serious of all power, usually is found in men of more considerations, and should be carefully than average brain force, who can and candidly stated. Some of the most maintain their standing with ordinary objectionable and dangerous features and less gifted persons without extraor- may have been recently eliminated as dinary application. Our best athletes far as those in authority have been able are our best scholars because they have to dictate; but the long list of killed, more than the ordinary ability for the maimed for life and numerous other start and more endurance in the injuries of more or less severity testify intellectual race. As an argument that to the great danger yet remaining from the game of football develops the in- accidents and other causes to those tellectual faculties as a whole, it is not who mingle in the fray. When a proreasonable or sound. In some respects fessional prize fighter like Corbett says it does quicken the mental processes, he would rather take his chances of and stimulates the powers of observa- injury in a regular prize fight than in a tion. Watching the opponents for mix-up in a football game, we can unopenings for attacks, and responding derstand great danger of physical disapromptly to assaults, are among the bility to the players still remains as a chief advantages to be gained in an in not unlooked for result. A bruised tellectual view—these are substantial shin, or a black eye. or a fractured inerits that can be freely admitted, clavicle, arm or leg, are minor injuries but would not materially assist the compared with brain shocks and herstudent in the pursuit of scientific

nias and the foundation of heart disknowledge or in most of the common

ease. luties of life.

Thirdly-Some one has stated that Digitalis and Aconite in Cardiac Disthe game is a promoter of good morals. ease. This may be true if limited to the Dr. Hobart A. Hare read a paper on “elected elevens”; but if all the en- the above subject at the last meeting thusiastic followers of the game are in- of the American Medical Association, cluded many facts and circumstances and explained how the valuable powers of digitalis could be secured and at the ery. The line must be drawn by such same time some of its disadvantages patients, excluding football games. avoided. The Doctor thinks too large running matches, and to overtake a doses are often given, and continued · train of cars on the point of starting, longer than necessary. Large doses wrestling, and all athletic feats of may be required at first, but they should strength that demand violent or probe rapidly decreased, as he has found longed exercise. An even disposition small amounts, as one or two minims of in meeting the daily business, and the an active physiologically tested tinc- trials of life, and a prudent husbanding ture, given three or four times a day, of strength has saved the lives of many produce excellent results; the patient men of weak and diseased hearts to an resting to give the heart therapeutic age even beyond the scripture limit. aid. “Digitalis," he says, “may do more

B. harm than good if the coronary arteries are so nearly closed that it is Oxygen and Sodium Chloride as Life with great difficulty the heart can force Elixir. blood through them in increased quan- From the physiological laboratory of tity, and again if the myocardium is in the l'niversity of Chicago comes the a state of advanced degeneration.” report that a new scientific fact has be

Dr. Hare is also of the opinion that come established. in some cases of valvular disease the Professor David J. Lingle announces patient does not need digitalis, or any through the last issue of the American other cardiac stimulant for his relief of Journal of Physiology that not only cardiac symptoms; but suggests rest does sodium chloride act as a stimulant and the administration of aconite, to the heart's action but that there is a "which has a steadying effect on the more important element in this conheart through its influence on the vagi nection, which is oxygen, the mainas has digitalis.” By its sedative ac- tainer of the heart's action. tion on the heart muscle in hypertro- Professor Lingle, who is an assistant phy, which sometimes produces an ex- of Prof. Loeb, came upon his discovcessive irregularity, and by its relaxing ery partly by accident. When experieffect on the blood vessels good results menting with a strip of turtle's heart follow. In closing the discussion on which he was removing from a soluthe paper, Dr. Hare said: “That if you tion of sodium chloride, he noticed that gave digitalis without nitroglycerine to its beats greatly increased when guard against the increased rise of brought in contact with the air. Furpressure, you stimulate the heart with ther experimentation showed that in out removing its burden; if you com- placing a piece of the heart, which had bine the nitroglycerine with the digi- ceased to beat on account of mechanitalis you both stimulate the heart and cal violence imparted in the preparaalso relieve it of some of its burden." tion, into a solution of sodium chloride

Rest and careful moderation of mus- that the strip of heart began to beat. cular exercise are powerful remedies in lpon placing the now beating strip in the matter of restoration of any weak a jar of oxygen this condition was ness of the heart, as well as in the pre

maintained for seventy-two hours.

Vever before has any one been able vention of sudden collapse in hearts to accomplish this for such a length of cliseased bevond expectation of recov


• Professor Lingle sums up his in- low of the New York Obstetric Sovestigations as follows:

ciety, gives this subject lengthy consid"1. Sodium chloride is absolutely eration in the Medical and Surgical necessary for the origination of rhyth- Monitor. mic activity of heart strips.

The writer discusses the subject “2. Agencies like caffein that can in- from the standpoint of the obstetrician tensify rhythmic activity cannot origi- and general practitioner, rather than nate it.

that of the X-ray expert. The author "3. What has been described as the does not believe that this method of sodium chloride arrest is probably due examination will ever supplant the to a lack of oxygen in the salt solutions. older diagnostic resources, i. e., palThe presence of oxygen in these post- pation and pelvimetry. These latter pones its development and starts the methods when practised by the skilled rhythm again.

obstetrician are highly satisfactory. If "4. Ordinary salt solutions do not they are to be displaced or supplanted contain enough oxygen for normal ac- it must come from the discovery of tivity of heart strips.

some method which presents distinct "5. Oxygen gas and sodium chloride, advantages over the old in accuracy if properly used, will keep strips beat- or simplicity. ing as long as a mixture of salt solu- While it is true that an X-ray expert tion.

can outline with some precision the “6. Oxygen gas has a powerful influ bones of the pelvic cavity and deterence on rhythmn, but is of itself pow- mine the existence of abnormalities in erless to originate rhythm.

the non-pregnant, nevertheless to the *7. Oxalate solution that precipi inexperienced this is difficult. Almost tates calcium will permit beats to begin insurmountable difficulties arise upon if sodium chloride is present.”

the intervention of a fetus with its en

velopes and accompanying thick uterMore Announcements Expected.:

ine wall. It is expected that many new and im

Added to these obstacles may be portant steps and discoveries in the

mentioned the foetal movements and field of physiology will be announced

those of the mother, which combine to at the meeting of the American Physio

make the picture unreliable as a source logical Society during the holiday sea

of diagnostic data. son in Washington. Professor Mathews and Dr. Fisher are busily engaged at

The experiments of Varnier and Pinthe University of Chicago.

aud in the photographing of the gravid

uterus, both in the living and dead It was just one year ago that Professor Loeb startled the scientific world

subject, are reviewed by Williams in by his statement and demonstrated that

his book, “The Roentgen Ray in Medithe vital force of life comes from the

cine and Surgery,” as follows: electricity in the food which is eaten “In one patient who died of pulmonand not from heat elements contained ary congestion, the photograph showed in the food.

the outline of the uterus and within it

the vertebral column of the fetus. In The Roentgen Ray in Obstetrics. another who died of eclampsia when Joseph Brown Cooke, Surgeon to the the fetus was seven months old the New York Maternity Hospital and Fel- right border of the uterus was pressed ,, "RO 2011 cari of the fetus engagerra: carte estimated by the was porraented at the Superior trait. rays, a:r we s ted brother feat1:"; , niarie X-ray 61.storaphs 31 "he w ais si imzo.2:es the dis* zard stuf'se in six** *nen, nism, and darger of Porz exposures, w; weer had be preparant from which are necessary in order to secure 2 *', is frontho and nine from 5 to, alegi', e negative. 7/11 motothe The conci-1-1011e draws: B a court researches published from the fans were as ins: The 100 finds the rays of service in the maistai pelvis ran be coinpietely seen determination of exostoses. contracrif; to 1/2 month, and more clearly the ions and other deformities. but becarlint the photograph is taken: lut oi ieves them unreliable in the examinathe uterus and its content, no trace is tion of the setus in utero. paesi rived. These latter are traversed Vullerheim's conclusions coincide with such east by the rays that they do with those of Bouchacourt regarding 7100 interfere with the study of the pel the determination of pelvic deformities, vis. After five months the uterus and but is extreme in the belief that not itu mntents form on the negative a only can the presentation be deterveil, as it were, which is badly defined mined but also the dimensions of the and without definite contour, but which fetal head and pelvis. conceals the posterior wall of the pel- The author maintains that inasmuch V1, and the vertebral column. In two as the determination of the presenting caso a pale silhouette of the fetal head part of the fetus and its relation in size could be dimly defined in the pelvic to the pelvic strait is one of the rudiarea,

ments of palpation and mensuration, "In a second series of seven cases the Mullerheim's investigations do not same results, (that is to say, negative), prove that the employment of the were obtained whether the fetus was X-rays is a material help in obstetrics. alive or dead. Two of these patients Davis of Philadelphia has done conhad been pregnant from two to three siderable X-ray work along this line, months and five from five to eight but he is not impressed with their value months.

in diagnosis. "In the living patient the head of the The osseous portions of the skeleton fetus can be photographed at the open of the fetus can only be seen when the ing of the pelvis as well at 6/2 months uterus is removed from the body or as at the approach of full term, and the the fetus is directly examined. Acsize of the foetus, its orientation and cording to the experiments of Varnier the amount of flexion and engagement and Pinaud, neither the fetus nor the can be estimated. In such photographs uterus can be determined in the pregtaken in the reclining position neither nant woman till five and a half months the spinal column nor limbs of the fetus have passed. At this time the fetal are seen."

heart can be heard, fetal movements Dr. (ooke does not think that these can be distinguished and ballotement results are any better than those ob secured showing that as a practical aid taincel by the ordinary methods of ex- to an early diagnosis the X-ray is of amination. lle does not think that the little assistance. claims made by these investigators that . In cases of polyhydramnios where the presentation, position and degree of palpation is difficult the Roentgen ray

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