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patriotic dictum, 'Millions for defense, not a cent for tribute,' ought to be remembered now."

The conclusion of the whole matter, as viewed by many people, is thus stated by the Kansas City "Star" (Rep.):

In its first important move the Harding Administration has made an exceedingly bad impression on the country. The Colombian treaty is simply a sale of National honor for

commercial privileges. The Adminis-
tration goes before the country as
ready to help the big oil interests at
the expense of the Nation's treasure
and the Nation's good name.

There has been no change in the
merits of the Colombian situation
since the Senate refused to ratify the
proposed blackmail treaty. The strik-
ing out of the apology to Colombia is
simply a subterfuge. The payment of
the $25,000,000 is the essential apol-

ogy, the essential admission of wrongdoing.

The contention is openly made that the United States must pay Colombia $25,000,000 blackmail in order to give American investors the chance to develop Colombian oil concessions. What sort of a policy is that for a self-respecting nation to pursue? What sort of ideals are embodied in it before the young men of America, before the world?

CANADIAN-AMERICAN RELATIONS

SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE

HERE is nothing so dead as a dead duty in respect to the development try in Canada. His experience of fifteen slogan. Take, for instance, the of trade with our great neighbor to months in the United States had shown slogan which did such yeoman ser

the south. What are the conditions? him the advisability of such a course. vice in Canada in 1911—"No truck or

The United States Government has

At first glance, it would appear strange trade with the Yankees." He would be

to-day in Canada over one hundred

that Canada should apparently neglect rash individual indeed who would consuls, the great majority of these

such a rich field in favor of Rumania

being in reality trade agents. You seek to rehabilitate that battle-cry in

find them scattered over this country

and Greece, where the money has had to Canada to-day-not that there are not from the Pacific to the Atlantic. be advanced by the Canadian Governsome politicians, and others, who would What are they doing? They are, in ment before orders were forthcomingmake the attempt quickly enough if their way, quite properly, placing or at least before the goods could be they thought there was a chance that with prospective Canadian customers paid for. The explanation is simple: the public could be hoodwinked by it

the advantages of trading with and

Sir George Foster, who heads the DeAgain; in fact, these persons hailed with

buying from firms in the United

partment of Trade and Commerce, is

States. We have agents abroad; but lelight the recent agitation in the

one of the few men in Canada who have

where do we find them? We have a Cnited States which resulted in the

trade agent in the Argentine Repub

remained true to the old slogan of Fordney Bill, but there was not much

lic; we have one in Australia; we

1911. response throughout the country.

have one in Brazil; we have trade Circumstances, however, have played On the other hand, the two political representatives in China; we have havoc with the plans of 1911. A great parties which are likely to return the them in New Zealand, in Italy, in

cataclysm has shaken the world. It argest groups to the next Parliament

France, in Holland, and in South

had its origin in the age-long rivalries he Liberals and the National Progress

Africa; but we have not one in the

and imperialisms of Europe. Canada, as

United States. I would suggest, I Ives (Agrarian)-each have as a plank

an outpost of a European country, was

hope in a spirit of constructiveness, in their political platform, "Reciprocity

the need, the advisability, of the De

quickly engulfed — some people, when with the United States.”

partment over which my right honor

they consider the national debt of over It was a Government preponderantly

able friend presides getting busy in two and a quarter billions of dollars, Conservative, and headed by Sir Robert this direction. We have our great are inclined to think the word "subBorden—who attained power in 1911 by est customers to the south. More merged" is more suitable. The convicmeans of the cry of "No truck or trade than one-half of the trade of Canada

tion is slowly crystallizing in the minds with the Yankees"-which last year pro

is done with the United States, and

of vast numbers of Canadians that the vided for the establishment at Washing

in that direction lies the best oppor

destiny of this country lies in the West

tunity we have in the near years apton of a Canadian Minister Plenipo

proaching for the development and

ern Hemisphere; that Canada's most tentiary. The appointment has not

extension of our trade.

natural allies are on this continent; actually been made up to the time of

and that a community of interest is the writing, but a Minister of the Govern Mr. Crerar is the President of the best safeguard for the future. This last nent in March of this year, in answer great United Grain Growers, Limited, exists beyond question between Canada to a question in the House of Commons, the largest co-operative farmers' organi. and the United States. stated that the appointment would be zation in the world. He was Minister There is, however, no sentiment in mede when a suitable man had been of Agriculture in the Union Government Canada for annexation-there never has Fund for the post.

during the war, but resigned in 1919 be been any of much extent. The CanaIn the year 1920 Canada spent in the cause he did not agree with the fiscal dian people believe that there is room Cnited States approximately $925,000,- policy of the Government. He is the on this North American continent for 000. In the same year the United States asknowledged leader of the organized two great nations; but they also believe spent $600,000,000 in Canada Canada farmers of Canada, comprising practic that close co-operation is not inconsiss Uncle Sam's second-best customer. cally every province in the Dominion. tent with national independence. The United States is Canada's best cus. It is conceded in political circles on all Of course there are many Imperialists omer.

sides that the party which he leads will in Canada who view with alarm any In connection with Canada's trade hold the balance of power after the next move towards closer business, or other, with the United States, the view ex- election. In view of all these facts, his relations with any country other than pressed by the Hon. T. A. Crerar, leader opinion carries with it much weight. Great Britain. There will likely always of the National Progressive party, in While Canada does not maintain a be a very strong sentimental tie between be House of Commons on February 24 single trade representative in the Canada and Great Britain; but proof this year is of interest as showing United States, a publicity bureau has pinquity and mutual interests are probhe trend of opinion in the Dominion. been maintained in New York under the ably the stronger bonds. Canada now Mr. Crerar said, in part:

recent direction of Colonel J. A. Cooper. claims to be an independent nation

Speaking at a Canadian Club banquet still, of course, under the British King There is, however, one other criti

in New York on March 7, Colonel —but free to choose her own path and cism that I have to make, in the most

Cooper stated that he had recommended her own goal. friendly way, of the Minister of Trade and Commerce (Sir George

to the Canadian Government the ap- Failing some unforeseen calamity, the Foster), and that is that the Depart

pointment in the United States of an slogan of 1911 is about as inanimate in ment of Trade and Commerce is not equal number of trade representatives Canada as a last year's bird's-nest. at the present time discharging its to that maintained by the latter coun

D. M. LE BOURDAIS.

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(C) Underwood
PRESIDENT HARDING HELPS THE BOYS TO RAISE FUNDS FOR A SWIMMING POOL

President Harding exhibited his genius as a "good mixer" when he met a number of boys who called
on him at the White House to secure his help in raising funds for a swimming pool fund. Memories
of the "old swimmin' hole" of his boyhood days at Caledonia, Ohio, helped on the sale of the tickets
which the lad at the President's right brought with him when he called to enlist the aid of the

Nation's head

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Wide World Photos
A GROUP OF FRENCH ATHLETES ARRIVING IN AMERICA TO COMPETE

IN THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA GAMES
These young men will take part in the International Relay Race. Their names are: Front row, left
to right: M. Delvart, R. Goullioux, J. Seurin, R. Biget. Back row, left to right: G. Fery, and R.

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International

THE LAUNCHING OF THE L. A. DUNTON AT ESSEX, MASSACHUSETTS

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Here are three possible contenders for the trophy won by the Gloucester schooner Esperanto last year. This is an international trophy, open

BY LYMAN ABBOTT
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES_PEACEMAKER

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to me once, "are trying to drive the wedge into the log butt end foremost, and they'll only spilt their beetle." This they did. By the second term of Grant's Administration the Republican party existed in two bitterly hostile factions.

Meanwhile the corruption which the radicals had unwittingly fastened on the South returned to plague the North. A successful war is almost inevitably followed by corruption. Germany suffered more from her victory in the FrancoPrussian War than France suffered from her defeat. The most corrupt period in our National history was that which fol. lowed the Civil War. It was the period of the carpetbag government in the Southern States, of the Tweed Ring in New York State, of the Crédit Mobilier in the Federal Government. The most corrupt election in our history was that which followed the second term of General Grant. Charges of intimidation, of fraudulent registration, of flagrant bribery, were preferred by each party against the other and were substantiated by indubitable evidence. When the election was over, it was very doubtful who had been elected. Threats of civil war were freely made by partisans; fears of civil war were seriously entertained by men behind the scenes. It was solemnly affirmed that 145,000 well-disciplined troops were ready to fight to seat the Democratic candidate. An army of men not disciplined and not organized, who had been thrown out of em

ployment by one of the worst panics RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES

which ever struck the American market, President of the United States, 1877-1881

were believed to be ready for a campaign

of plunder. Three circumstances conTHE spirit in which General Lee full citizenship. The burden of that spired to ward off the danger: the as and General Grant met at Appo- education must not be thrown upon the surance that General Grant would use

mattox Court House when, after South alone. Federal aid must be given all the resources of the Nation to pre four years of skillful and courageous to Southern education. But there were serve order; the dread of civil war by fighting, the Southern leader surrendered radicals of a different opinion. They a generation just emerging from one: to his chivalric antagonist augured well held that suffrage is a natural right and and the poise of both the Presidential for the early establishment of friendly that democracy means government by candidates who showed equal anxiety • relations between the South and the the majority. Their policy was: “Give secure a peaceable decision of the issue. North. These leaders truly represented the Negro the ballot and he will take In the election Mr. Hayes had taken their respective sections.

care of himself. His late masters will no such active part as has now become But the assassination of Abraham be his enemies. If he cannot protect the fashion of Presidential candidates. Lincoln, which so quickly followed that himself against them, the Federal Gov. In the post-election controversy his insurrender, wrought an almost instant ernment must protect him."

fluence is indicated by a letter he wrote revolution; it inspired bitterness in the The incompetence and corruption to Senator Sherman at New Orleans: North and despair in the South. Presi- which this policy inflicted on the South "We are not to allow our friends to dedent Johnson combined hatred of the surpasses belief. James Ford Rhodes feat one outrage and fraud by another. ex-slaveholder with contempt for the in his history of this period tells us There must be nothing crooked on our ex-slave. For four years a new political that at first Southern men attempted to part. Let Mr. Tilden have the place by battle raged between the South and the co-operate with the Republican party in violence, intimidation, and fraud, rather North after the four years of military rebuilding a new civilization on the than undertake to prevent it by means battle had ended. There were statesmen ruins of that which slavery and war that will not bear the severest scrutiny." who welcomed Grant's "Let us have had destroyed. But they soon gave up Finally, by an almost unanimous conpeace," and saw clearly how it could the endeavor in despair. Nine-tenths sent a tribunal was created to determine be attained. If the ex-slaveholder and of the Republican party in the South the issue; and when this tribunal, by a the ex-slave were to live prosper. were Negroes; one-tenth was white; and majority of one, declared Mr. Hayes duly ously together in the same commu- the one-tenth were rarely wise and not elected the decision was accepted by the nity, mutual respect and mutual friend always honest. The inevitable effect of Congress and by the country-sullenly. ship must be cultivated between them. this policy on the Republican party but still accepted. To this day history Years of education would be needed Henry Ward Beecher foretold in a is doubtful whether this decision was to prepare the uneducated Negro for graphic figure. "The radicals," he said right or wrong.

When Mr. Hayes was inaugurated President in March, 1877, the conditions which confronted him were these.

He held his office with a clouded title. More than half of the white citizens of the United States believed that he had not been Constitutionally elected; less than half the voters had voted for him. He was called to administer the government over a Nation divided not more by the Civil War than by the undemocratic reconstruction policy, the effect of which had been to incite jealousy and suspicion between the sections and hostility between the races. Corruption in local, State, and National governments had brought government into contempt,

given to the term politician an odious meaning, destroyed some reputations and besmirched others. During the first two years of his term the Democrats had a majority in the House, during the last two years a majority in both House and Senate. And he had the hesitating and reluctant support of a divided party and the bitter hostility of some of its most influential and prominent leaders. During his stormy Administration he never lost his temper, never answered

VISITORS IN THE WHITE HOUSE—THE BLUE ROOM abuse with abuse, never sacrificed prin

About the time of the Hayes Administration ciple to policy, never fought fire with fire. retained the respect of his friends one Republican, the other Democratic. dent's veto. In the tangle of that hour, in defeat, and compelled the respect of He withdrew the Federal troops from when financiers were themselves perhis enemies in victory.

both States, and in both States the Re- plexed, Mr. Hayes gave to his diary in At the very beginning of his Adminis- publican governments collapsed. The a sentence the conclusion to which years tration he foreshadowed his break with wrath of the militant Republicans was after the whole country came: "I canthe "Old Guard" of his day by the per unbounded. To them this was a sur- not consent to a measure which stains sonnel of his Cabinet, selected upon the render to "unrepentant rebels." His our credit." following simple principles, stated in his reply to the fierce invectives in the Sen- The Democratic party attached a rider diary:

ate was confided to his diary, which was to the Appropriation Bill which would 1. A new Cabinet.

dumb. “My policy," he wrote, “is trust, have made it impossible for the Presi2. No Presidential candidate.

peace, and to put aside the bayonet. I dent to fulfill the duty laid upon him by 3. No appointment to "take care" of do not think that the wise policy is to the Constitution and preserve order in anybody.

decide contested elections in the State by the States if necessity should arise. The Seven weeks later he emphasized the the use of the National army."

President called an extra session, laid break by abandoning military rule in In his inaugural he declared that a the facts before Congress and the counthe South. In both Louisiana and South thorough, radical, and complete reform Carolina were two State governments, in our civil service was a paramount

necessity. He emphasized this convic-
tion by removing two of Senator Conk Phenocte a
ling's wards from the Custom House in

Mouto
New York. The Senate rejected his nomi-

- 22 Scht 1882
nation of their successors, and Conk-
ling's wards held over. "I am right,"
said Mr. Hayes to his diary, “and shall
not give up the fight." He did not. A

Ara fir:
year later his nominations were renewed

- Yoar note of the prettiesten-a and confirmed. His withdrawal of ne me, hith very deaches of minis as troops from the South had made Blaine to the role of tempronce brishte his enemy; his removal of Conkling's

dan yt bemacher that their hus. appointees made Conkling his enemy.

heation where, if any attrito mais Mr. Conkling had no use for what he called "snivel service reform."

fran athen The

herethe hofittes on. President confided to his silent diary

torney. Artani ex brimenty must, as I the political principle which compelled

See it be trill before then will be any his course. “I stand," he wrote, "for the gencial quarrence of Sentiment among equal and Constitutional independence te lunail funds of the house. The teu of the Executive. The independence of deng to divisin al desarial i alune up the different departments of the Gov

In strong that dan aruse to doing any. ernment is essential to the progress and

Chung oleh will also to it. The thoraguais existence of good government."

A plan to increase the money of the I for grool in the ank, an I look of the aut. country and lower the standard by re Ideal, are Example the ston, disfussin

monetizing silver he vetoed. Democrats I was the inferencefaligin SAMUEL JONES TILDEN Public servant and philanthropist, Mr. Hayes's

and Republicans, responding to a popuopponent in the Presidential election of 1876. lar demand reinforced undoubtedly by Both Presidential candidates showed equal

silver-mine owners and silver-producing FACSIMILE OF RUTHERFORD B. HAYES's anxiety to secure a peaceable decision of the issue" States, were able to overrule the Presi.

LETTER TO LYMAX ABBOTT

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18%

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Per Lernen Abbott

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