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sided is due largely to the fact that our Government sent General Crowder to Cuba to act as observer. This convinced reasonable Cubans of the necessity of composing Cuban political quarrels without so misconducting themselves as to make intervention by this country likely. At all events, the Liberal members of Congress abandoned the novel plan proposed of "going on strike"—that is, refusing to take part in the sessions of the Cuban Congress and thereby leaving Congress without a quorum. One of the reforms promised by President Zayas in his inaugural speech is to change the quorum from two-thirds to one-half the members.

Other features of President Zayas's programme are measures to improve the financial and commercial situation, an amendment to forbid second consecutive Presidential terms, negotiation of a new reciprocity treaty with the United States to give Cuba better terms as regards sugar and tobacco, the creation of a Secretary of Communications, and a large reduction of the military budget.

Dr. Zayas was himself at one time a prominent Liberal and was elected as Vice-President when his present rival,

(C) Keystone Gomez, was chosen President. Zayas in

MARSHAL FOCH (CENTER) IN CITIZEN CLOTHES the last election was the candidate of a

He is shown in London, where he attended the recent Allied Conference. Doubtless France

leans heavily upon the advice of her great General in the determination of her Silesian policy coalition of Liberals and Conservatives, while Gomez was supported by the radi- lIavana newspaper: "I'll never be tired troops to suppress this attempt to anticical element of the old Liberal party of repeating and practicing the memo- pate the decision of the Supreme

President Zayas has an interesting rable motto of Abraham Lincoln: 'With Council.
personality. Both he and his Vice- malice to none; with charity toward Lloyd George, in a persuasively
President, General Carillo, were ardent all.'” Dr. Zayas has a high reputation phrased speech in the House of Com-
revolutionists under the Spanish rule. as a lawyer and has had a long career mons, declared that Poland had violated
Like his father before him, Zayas has in political life. He has an interesting the Treaty of Versailles, a Treaty which
been a lifelong admirer of Abraham personal side as an ethnologist and gave to Poland her freedom, a freedom
Lincoln, as is evidenced in the accom- student of the language of the aboriginal which she did not win by her own en-
panying message from the new President Indian tribes found by the Spaniards in deavor. He said: “Not merely to dis-
to The Outlook, sent through a friend in Cuba, as a lover and collector of books arm Germany but to say that such
Cuba. Dr. Zayas recently wrote to a on history, literature, and poetry, and troops as she has are not to be permitted

he is himself the writer of several to take part in restoring order is not
poems, some of which, we are told, were fair play."
composed by him while a prisoner in Premier Briand, in a statement to the
Madrid on his way with other Cuban press, pointed out that it had not yet
patriots to the African prison in which been determined definitely what terri-
they were immured. He has also, a tory would go to Poland and what to
correspondent tells us, a fluent knowl. Germany. He said that France with
edge of languages, is a thorough demo- only twelve thousand troops had pre-
crat in his manners, and is a speaker of vented the disorders from reaching
great force, as well as "a clever, wise, serious proportions and that it was the
and far-sighted politician, with a marked duty of the Allies to impose their will
faculty for patient long-suffering and upon Germans as well as Poles. M.
real Anglo-Saxon coolness."

Briand pointed out that the original in

tention of the Allies was to give the POLAND, LLOYD GEORGE, AND whole Silesian region to Poland, and BRIAND

that only at a later date was it decided He long delay in the settlement of to organize a system of advisory plebiI the Silesian question has caused a scites. "I did not invent the system of clash between Great Britain and France. plebiscites," Premier Briand said, with Impatience with the failure of the Allies a smile, "I found it in the Treaty." to determine definitely the division be- M. Briand added pertinently: "We tween German and Polish territory led have been getting a lot of advice from

to the revolt of certain Poles under Kor England recently, but it would be more DR. ALFREDO ZAYAS, THE NEW PRESTDENT OF CUBA

fanty and thence to the use of German useful for the re-establishment of order if we could get the men to help our power or prominence to the military in the Japanese Diet a resolution favor twelve thousand."

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arm of the Government. In the second ing the reduction of armament, that a The French press has been bitter in place, the American people are restive postal-card canvass in Japan has reits expressions of displeasure at Mr. under the expenditure of money for mili- corded a great majority in favor of Mr. Lloyd George's attitude. A date for a tary and naval provisions for which Ozaki's proposal. Great Britain has also conference between Lloyd George and there seems to be no immediate need. been moving in the direction of limiting M. Briand for a discussion of their con- They do not relish the thought of having armaments for the past two years. flicting aims has been frequently set and the cost of a military and naval estab- The time seems ripe for following out as frequently postponed. It is probable lishment both a heavy and a continuous Senator Borah's suggestion that a conthat the conference will be held before burden. They may overlook the fact ference be called to consider the questhis issue of The Outlook reaches our that the cost of a war for which no tion of a holiday in naval construction readers. This conference will do much preparation has been made may ulti- or a mutual reduction of naval forces. towards determining whether the com- mately entail greater expenditure than Perhaps a formal conference of ambasmercial interests of Great Britain and the cost of a war which has been well sadors or prime ministers or delegates Germany will weigh more heavily in the prepared for. They see clearly the may not be the best way to reach a conibalance than the human rights of Poles necessity of paying past debts for war, mon agreement among nations in favor and the protection of the national life but do not relish spending money for of a common limiting of armaments. of France.

wars which have not yet appeared. The informal and quiet, less disputaThat the French policy is in the Neither of these reasons is a pacifist tious, but generally more frank interascendant may be indicated by the an- reason; and they are both consistent change of ideas and plans through the nouncement of May 24, which states with the conviction in favor of national usual diplomatic channels is very likely that Germany (under threat-as al defense.

to prove more effective. ways-of penalties) has agreed to with The primary and essential function of If we could procure a mutual redraw her forces from the disputed a national government is self-preserva- adjustment of naval strength among the territory.

tion. It does not matter how many nations, we would confer a boon upon other functions the national government the tax-laden peoples of the world, the

may assume under our present compliWORTH TRYING

value of which it would be hard to esti. cated civilization, all of these other func- mate. There does not appear to be any. MERICANS are not pacifists. A tions rest upon the foundation of self- thing in the proposal for a discussion of A few Americans are; but they are preservation.

this question which would jeopardize I I not representative of our people Though this principle remains un our National safety in the slightest as a whole. Whatever movement there changed, the application of it alters degree. is for peace finds its support in the from time to time. The military and United States chiefly from people who naval preparedness required in 1914 may CHIEF JUSTICE WHITE have proved that when the time for be a very different thing from that refighting comes they can fight with all quired in 1921. We do not want to pay NDWARD DOUGLASS WHITE, their hearts.

a dollar less for preparedness to-day K. Chief Justice of the United States This must be remembered in consider than the total of the sum which is re

Supreme Court, died in Washinging the present movement in behalf of quired. We cannot afford to pay a ton at the age of seventy-five, on May 19. the limitation of armaments. Mr. dollar more.

He had been in the full exercise of his Borah's amendment to the Naval Bill Seven years ago the Navy of the remarkable powers as jurist and judge calling upon the President to engage United States was surpassed by both until a short time before his death, with other nations in a conference with that of Germany and Great Britain and which followed an operation. the object of limiting armament has re- was closely pressed by that of Japan. In the judgment of the legal profesceived its support from the same kind To-day the German navy is no longer sion and of all who have watched the of people who have hardly finished their in existence, the British navy has been findings and decisions of the Supreme experience of making America a formi- reduced to a level with our own, and the Court, Chief Justice White is worthy of dable belligerent in the biggest war of Japanese navy is markedly inferior in being classed with the most famous of history.

size. If our present programme of naval his predecessors. John Marshall, to be The reasons which have led to the construction is carried to completion, our sure, looms head and shoulders above support of the Borah Amendment are, Navy will exceed that of Great Britain all the Chief Justices, and, indeed. as a we think, twofold.

in power by from thirty to fifty per cent. great publicist, a great lawyer, and a In the first place, the American peo- These facts we take from a recent great expounder of the Constitution has ple, although they can be warlike, are editorial in the "Scientific American," a no American counterpart, but among the unmilitary. The overwhelming majority journal which has long been a well- other able judges who have held office of them dislike military trappings and informed advocate of naval prepared- none, unless it be John Jay, has stood military traditions. They believe so ness, and a journal, it may be added, higher than Chief Justice White. thoroughly in the supremacy of the civil which is willing to recognize the fact It is interesting and rather remarkauthority that they are jealous of any that circumstances have changed and able to note that from 1789, when Presi. thing that seems to encroach upon it. that the measure of our preparedness dent Washington appointed John Jay as Americans, therefore, have to reason requirement has been altered by the the first Chief Justice, down to Chief themselves into whatever preparedness World War.

Justice White's death the other daythey provide for their country, and then In two articles in this issue there is that is, for one hundred and thirty-two usually do it only under the compulsion reported a movement in Japan away years there have been only eight Chie of an imminent peril. As a consequence from the militarist party. Public opin- Justices of the United States Supreme they have sacrificed in their wars hun- ion may not be as controlling in Japan Court. When we remember that the dreds of thousands of lives and hundreds as it is in America, but its influence is average age of these eight men at the of millions of dollars in tardy prepara distinctly away from militarism. It has time of taking office was almost fifty. tion because they preferred such sacri- been recently reported by Madame and that two of the terms served, those fice to the chance of giving too much Ozaki, whose husband has been urging of Jay and Ellsworth, were very short, one is inclined to draw the inference that intellectual exertion of the highest kind is conducive to the continuance of mental vigor and power of close application to work. Marshall served as Chief Justice for thirty-four years, Taney for twenty-eight years, and Melville Fuller twenty-two years. Until Chief Justice White's death four Supreme Court Justices over seventy years of age were serving on the bench.

Another interesting point connected with Chief Justice White's service is that he was the first to be appointed Chief Justice from the bench of the Supreme Court. The custom of appointing some great lawyer or judge outside the bench had grown up, SO that the course of President Taft in promoting Judge White was unusual, and the more so that Judge White was in his political affiliation a member of the party opposed to President Taft. Justice White was appointed to the Supreme Court bench by President Cleveland, and it was generally supposed that the President's choice of a man from Louisiana was partly based on the impossibility of appointing one from New York State owing to opposition within the State Democratic party led by Governor Hill. There never was any question, however, as to Judge White's ability as a lawyer and a publicist. He was a Confederate soldier; after the war he was admitted to the Louisiana bar, became a State Senator, then an Associate Justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court, and finally United States Senator. He was a Roman Catholic.

Photo © Harris #Ewing Among the most important decisions of the Supreme Court during the period Courtesy of the New York Times”

EDWARD DOUGLASS WHITE in which Chief Justice White presided over it were those of the Standard Oil and American Tobacco cases, in which SYSTEM AT LAST The average Senator or Representative, his emphasis on “the rule of reason"

none too familiar with inside depart

N May 24, before the Academy of was notable; that in which the status

mental workings, tries to atone for his

Political Science' in New York of the United States Steel Corporation

lack of information by a brave show

City, President Harding made was held to be legal under the Sherman

of enforcing economy. Hence bureau this cheering statement: Anti-Trust Act; that of the Danbury

chiefs are likely to ask for more than

We shall, I trust, have a budget hatters, in which he joined in the dic

they need on the theory that only so

system in operation under the law tum that under the Sherman Act mem

will they get what they must have.

before the opening of the new fiscal bers of labor unions were not immune year [July 1). This is a long step

The heads of the executive departfrom prosecution and that the secondary

toward introducing into Government ments transmit the estimates of all their

the sound methods that great private boycott was illegal; and (quite re

bureau chiefs to the Secretary of the

business establishments have adopted. cently) that in which the profiteering

Treasury, and he transmits them to

... The establishment of a budget sections of the Lever Act were held system is the foundation on which

Congress. Thereupon, in the budget's invalid.

reorganization must be based.... history, the administrative side ends The breadth of Chief Justice White's A budget is a statement of estimated and the legislative side begins. view of the relations of the Supreme receipts and estimated expenditures. At Court to life, as well as to law, is shown least once a year, we believe, every one Under the present administrative sysby his statement that it is "not an insti. ought to make a budget.

tem we have endured extravagance and tution separate from the country, re. Some people mistakenly think that waste. Because we have not had a straining and controlling all other insti. our Government already does so. Once proper administrative budget, citizens tutions, but a court in direct contact with a year the chiefs of the bureaus of have been heavily and outrageously the best and most enlightened American the executive departments estimate their taxed. It has long been evident that minds, unfolding these minds for the expenditures during the ensuing year. reform is necessary. Finally a budget bill lasting benefit of our people and our Now these estimates as a rule, we sup- passed the Sixty-sixth Congress a year institutions."

pose, do not represent actual needs. ago. President Wilson vetoed t

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because it took from the Executive the past extravagance and could be simpli- inaries within its territory and report right to remove one of the budget officials. fied in three ways: By

at its next meeting in 1921, at Des Similar measures have now passed (1) Ending the practice of making Moines, Iowa, and he asks, Is this invesboth houses of the present Congress. indefinite appropriations.

tigation necessary? He accompanies The chief difference between the Senate (2) Authorizing, in one act, all expen- this question with a pamphlet which and House bills is that the first estab- ditures. The chief difficulty facing this gives quotations from eminent Baptist lishes a Budget Bureau in the Treasury reform arises, we believe, from the Con- scholars showing quite evidently that Department, whereas the second, as stitutional provision that each Congress they do not all agree on some important seems to be more logical, places it shall prescribe rules governing its proce. theological questions, especially on the directly under the President. But what dure. Any attempt to provide that all nature and authority of the Bible. ever the final decision in the conference the expenditures should be considered at Our answer to his question may be between the two houses of Congress, one and the same time by Congress is very briefly put. either measure, in our opinion, signifies effective only during the life of that If this investigation is conducted for an enormous advance administratively. particular Congress. In order therefore the purpose of ascertaining what the

The bills provide that on the first day to bring about the consideration of all schools, colleges, and theological semof each regular session of Congress the appropriations in one bill, the House inaries teach in order to secure uniPresident shall furnish information con has passed a resolution taking from all formity in their teaching, it is certain cerning:

the standing committees authority to re- to be dangerous and may be disastrous (1) Permanent appropriations and ex- port appropriation bills, and has vested to their usefulness. If it is conducted pected receipts available for expenditure. that authority in the Committee on for the purpose of ascertaining how they

(2) An account of the present condi. Appropriations. Hence, when the Bud- teach, and for the purpose of safeguardtion of the Treasury.

get Bill becomes a law-at a very early ing and promoting in the Baptist min(3) Estimates of the necessary ex date, we hope—the budget will come to istry the “liberty of prophesying," it penditures for the Government's support the Appropriations Committee of this may increase the intellectual and spiritduring the ensuing fiscal year.

Congress, at least, and be reported to ual power not only of Baptist churches (4) Statements of the Government's the House as a single bill carrying all but of all Protestant churches. expenditures and receipts during the appropriations, and will be considered

appropriations, and will be considered Both the peril and the promise apply last fiscal year and the year in progress. and authorized in the one bill-despite especially to the theological seminaries.

If the estimated receipts, plus the the danger that some technical snag There is in certain quarters a notion estimated amounts in the Treasury, are regarding one particular' little revenue that the ecclesiastical authorities should less than the estimated expenditures, or one particular little appropriation , determine what is truth, that the theothe President shall recommend new might hold up an omnibus measure, the logical seminaries should teach what the taxes or loans. On the other hand, if immediate passage of which would be ecclesiastical authorities prescribe, that the estimated receipts and Treasury demanded by the whole country.

the students should receive what the amounts are greater than the estimated (3) Authorizing expenditures at a theological seminaries give, and that the expenditures, he shall make such recom- time when revenues to meet them are preachers should retail to their congremendations as public interest requires. provided. In establishing this reform gations what they have gathered from

A Bureau of the Budget is to be es- there is, we are convinced, even greater the theological seminaries. Wherever tablished to co-ordinate and to prepare difficulty in the way, for our expendi. this notion has prevailed piety has landepartmental estimates for Congress tures are so large that it will be guished, discussion has been stified, and and is also to make a special study of hardly possible at present to co-ordinate intelligence has died. the Departments so as to enable the the two subjects, closely related as they There is, on the other hand, the faith President to determine what changes are. At the same time, it seems to us, that every preacher should be able to should be made in their activities. it is not too much to expect that ulti- say, with his Master, “I have come that

A General Accounting Office is to be mately our whole financial programme ye might have life more abundantly;** created, independent of the executive the appropriation of money and the that he goes to school, college, and semidepartments. The heads are to hold raising of money to meet the appropria nary, not to get thoughts ready made, office for seven years and have charge of tion-may be undertaken in one and the but to get power to think for himself auditors who are to report on the budget. same bill. This is the ideal.

and power to inspire his hearers to Such a measure should accomplish As President Harding says: “The think for themselves. Mr. Crothers has three results administratively.

budget programme will not do every- said that many men do not think beIn the first place, all the people will thing. It must not be accounted a fiscal cause they lack the necessary conbe able quickly to understand the rea and efficiency panacea. There must still veniences. The object of a theological sons for necessary economies as well as be much and continuing effort to keep seminary should be to give its students for necessary expenses.

expenses down." But a budget, like that the necessary conveniences for doing In the second place, all estimates will here suggested, should clear the at their own thinking. be reviewed by an official other than mosphere of many problems of taxation If the effect of this investigation is those officials who originally made the and expenditure.

to make this distinction clear, and to estimates.

show the Baptist churches which of In the third place, there will be a

their theological seminaries are enspecial and independent proof by audit

WHAT SORT OF deavoring to endow their pupils to do as to inefficiency, duplication, or waste

INVESTIGATION

their own theological thinking, and in departmental activities, a proof con

which of them, if any, are endeavoring ducted by officials free from interference CORRESPONDENT reports to us to bestow upon them thoughts ready by changing administrations or Con

that the Northern Baptist Con- made which they can deal out to their gressional majorities.

11 vention in its session at Buffalo, congregations without thinking, the

New York, in June, 1920, appointed a Committee, even if it should render a So much for the administrative side. committee to investigate the Baptist divided report, may render the churches The legislative is also to be blamed for schools, colleges, and theological sem a great service.

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NEW men in contemporaneous had apparently recovered from a very or three times, but always the other felK American political life have had a serious surgical operation.

low aimed poorly. I was being shot at I deeper and more constant feeling Both as Inter-State Commerce Com- because I was a newspaper man, and I for what we are pleased to call Ameri. missioner and as Secretary of the In- should have been shot at. There must canism than Franklin K. Lane, ex- terior he was one of the most efficient be public concern in what is printed, as Secretary of the Interior, who died on public servants this country has had in well as what is truth, to justify it. Wednesday, May 18.

recent years, commanding the devotion That is something that newspapers The facts of his life may be simply of his associates and subordinates and should get to know in this country." stated. He was born in 1864, on Prince the entire respect of those who might I do not believe that Franklin Lane Edward Island, Canada, the son of a doc- naturally be opposed to him on political was ever shot at because of anything he tor, but he found his home in California grounds or grounds of personal business wrote himself, for, as I look back over while yet a child. He was a graduate interest.

the thirty years that have intervened of the University of California in the I made Lane's acquaintance in Cali- since those early newspaper days, I class of 1886, and during his life re- fornia in the summer of 1888, when he think it may be said that “public conceived a number of honorary academic and I were fellow-reporters on the San cern" was the animating motive of degrees. On graduation from college he Francisco “Chronicle." When I got my Lane's career. He believed in America, became a newspaper man; was admitted place on that paper, I was a complete he believed in the men and women who to the California bar in 1889; was cor stranger in San Francisco, having ar- are making America, and in this sense poration counsel of San Francisco for rived on the Pacific coast only a few he had a passion for Americanism. five years from 1897; was one of the weeks earlier. Lane was younger in There is a little book, of only a trifle earliest moving spirits in the campaign years, but older in experience, and I more than a hundred pages, of his of reform in California, which resulted shall never forget how he helped me in addresses. It is entitled "The American in the complete change of the political learning the ropes. I was attracted to Spirit" and is published by the Fredcharacter of that State; was defeated him from the first, and, although he was erick A. Stokes Company, of New York. for Governor of California in 1902 as the only twenty-four years of age, I was im. Without Pharisaism or cant or pomposreform candidate on the Democratic pressed with his maturity, sound judg. ity in every one of these addresses he ticket: was appointed a member of the ment, and determination to do good urges the highest kind of American Inter-State Commerce Commission in work. Even in those days he displayed citizenship; the American pioneer, the December, 1905, by President Roosevelt the genial and engaging qualities which American soldier, the American painter, and held that important office for eight won him such hosts of friends in after sculptor, architect, landscapist, the years, the last four months being Chair life. But his enjoyment of human com- American engineer, the American physiman: and was chosen by President Wil panionship, which is only another way cian, the American philanthropist (and son as his first Secretary of the Interior, of saying he was a good mixer, never by philanthropist he did not mean the serving in that capacity for seven years. let him slight his work or indulge in millionaire, but the modest man or He resigned on March 1, 1920, partly careless or slipshod methods, which, I woman who bought a Liberty Bond or because of the condition of his health, think, constitute the one great serious worked in the Red Cross)--these are partly because he felt it necessary to fault of American daily newspapers. In Americans who appealed to him. practice his profession in order to pro- a letter which he wrote to some friends A few years ago, in the latter part of vide for his family, and partly because when he was convalescing from the his work as an Inter-State Commerce conditions in the Cabinet during the last surgical operation he said:

Commissioner or in the early part of his year or two of President Wilson's term “I have seen death come to men in incumbency of the Secretaryship of the were almost intolerably exasperating various ways, some rather novel and Interior-I forget which-I lunched He had suffered for some months before Western. I once saw a man hanged, and with him in New York, and afterwards, his death from angina pectoris, and died I have seen several men shot and came walking across Madison Square, he told from heart disease a few days after he very near going out that way myself two me that he had just been offered a guar.

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