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miners were demanding an American scale of wages! One can live in Eng. land on the equivalent of $16 a week. Millions are doing it. One does not live well; one exists. One cannot live on $9.25.

Now try to put yourself in the place FRANK HODGES, of the other members of the Triple

SECRETARY OF Alliance. “Let the miners fight their

THE MINERS' own battles," is your first thought. But

FEDERATION, your second is: "Steady on!

'Arf a mo'! What about my own wages?"

So the Triple Alliance threatened to strike, and the country apparently veered toward the edge of civil war.

pro During the next week, when all union President of the labor in England was talking of a gen

tion eral strike, there came the flood tide of Smith, but he has Labor's power. But the Government's been entirely over

shadowed by the energetic preparations to "carry on"


fiery had undermined the morale of the in- Hodges" tending strikers; the mine-owners made a new and more generous offer (to forego

International all profits for an indefinite period), which the miners refused, and by doing so alienated themselves from tube train. There were dozens of other them are (as Robert Smillie interrupted the rest of the Alliance; and the general passengers, of all ages and callings, and a strike conference last fall to whisper strike collapsed.

not one found occasion to say anything to the writer of this article) frankly out The answer? That may be left to the more violent than "That's right!” or “I for the abolition of the present social conferences which the miners, their em- don't blame you!”

order. But they all have too much sense ployers, and the Government still are No bands played; there were no to advocate forcible overthrow of gove holding. It is probable that some sort sweethearts to send their lovers off to ernment. of a truce will be patched up. The com- the wars. One could not escape the idea In the first place, they would be cutplete solution is far in the future, and that this was mobilization as it should ting away their own supports. The the man who knows what it is will be be, stripped of the pageantry and the Labor Party numbers more than 3,000,the man who won the peace.

glamour and the trappings that usually 000 voters in its ranks; it is by far the My concern is with showing that for lend it a romantic appeal. It certainly most formidable part of the ParliaBritain that solution is not, and will not did not furnish half of the picture for mentary Opposition. A Labor Governbe, revolution.

the popularly accepted idea of the early ment may or may not come in the near On Saturday evening, April 9, the days of the revolution.

future. Lloyd George, who has swung newspapers of London announced that And who are these men who were clear around the circle from extreme "it was like 1914" again. But it wasn't. cast for the part of the leaders of the Radicalism to extreme Toryism, says Everywhere there was plastered the mob?

that if only four per cent of the electo"Appeal to Loyal Citizens—Male," which The three chief Labor figures were rate were to switch allegiance it would was the call for volunteers for the new Frank Hodges, Secretary of the Miners' mean that Labor would sweep the counnational defense force—a sort of indus- Federation; J. H. Thomas, President of try. And if Labor did, it would set trial militia. Beside it one found the the National Union of Railwaymen; and about the nationalization of public utili. proclamation calling up the army re- Robert Williams, Secretary of the ties and about several other measures. serves—brief, black and white, official, Transport Workers' Federation. It will It would not confiscate; see the text of with the royal arms and the "George R" be noticed that in two cases the secre- the bill prepared by J. H. Thomas for at the top. And yes, there were queues taries, not the presidents, of the unions nationalization of the railways, and proof civilians at the recruiting offices. are mentioned as being the most prom- viding for the full compensation of the

Nevertheless it was not like 1914. inent. The pro tem. President of the present shareholders (rather more, by There was no such spirit in the air. Miners' Federation is Herbert Smith, the way, than we did for the manufacMost of the men in those queues were but he has been entirely overshadowed turers of alcohol when we decided they men who had already seen behind mobili- by the young and fiery Hodges. Will- had to get out of business). zation proclamations—men who remem- iams, likewise, big, raw-boned, self- Nor is Labor unused to governing. bered Ypres, Mons, the Somme, Cambrai, confident, is more in the public eye than the mayors of numerous London borAnzac. Once before his Majesty had' his superior officer.

oughs are Labor men. There are hunbeen graciously pleased to call them to. “Who's Who" does not mention dreds of Labor mayors, Labor coun. his service, and they knew what it Hodges. He is a man of a pleasing per. cilors, in other cities. Labor's record is meant.

sonality, a former mine worker, some. not very brilliant; to take only one inThere was no enthusiasm. Ma thing of a fire-eater, but an able econ. stance, the rates, or local taxes, have sponded from a sense of duty. Others omist. He writes letters to the London gone up as much, if not more, in the (it must be admitted) answered because "Times," and the “Times" prints them. Labor boroughs than in the others. But two-and-fourpence a day and "all found" James Henry Thomas, M.P., according the vision of a British Terror, of Angloseemed better than sleeping on the Em- to “Who's Who," commenced work at Saxon Robespierres and Dantons, is bankment, where it is decidedly chilly nine years of age as an errand boy. merely fantastic. these April days.

Finally he got to be an engine cleaner, The British press realizes this. Read Moreover, it wasn't Germans they then a fireman, and later an engineer. the London "Times," the “Daily News," were being called out against. It was He is distinctly moderate in tendency. the "Westminster Gazette," the ManEnglishmen—the railway brakeman in The personality of England's Labor chester "Guardian," and one will find the next block, the truck-driver in the leaders furnishes one basis for the asser- the workers' case allowed its full and flat downstairs.

tion that revolution will not be fomented fair share of claim to public recognition. "I tell you straight, they can mobilize under their guidance. The majority of It is the hopelessly prejudiced paper, me, but I'll never fire on an English- them could hold their own in debate like the Tory “Morning Post” or the man," spoke up a young reservist on a with professors of economics. Some of “Daily Herald” (Labor's only daily in



London, remarkably poor as propaganda work they may not soon come out again. and worse as news), which sees only one But no prospective visitors need cancel side of the case.

steamship bookings on this account. Let it be repeated, the worker and his The best text-book for studying Engemployer are far from lying down to- land from across the ocean was written gether like the lion and the lamb. As by one Rudyard Kipling, who was born this is written, the miners are still idle; in India, and a part of it may well be nor does it follow that if they go back to reproduced here:

If England were what England seems
And only putty, brass, and paint,
And not the England of our dreams-
'Ow quick we'd chuck her—but she


That is sentimental, but it is also good sound psychology.





HE Prussia of the Orient!” The Japan the England of the Orient. As generally speaking, all are more or less phrase rings well, but, militaristic Japan, after the defeat of France in strangled by labyrinthic tangles of

as Japan remains to a great ex- 1870, chose victorious Prussia as her bureaucratic red tape. While many of tent, recent years have wrought changes model, so she is now, more or less un- them furnish food for constant wonder which render characterization far more consciously perhaps, following the lead that inefficiency and ignorance can be complex. To-day the navy, even though of the British victor. As a matter of tolerated on the scale in which it exists, the army is far inore intelligent and in fact, this course is the more natural of the War Department, with its quiet, conmuch closer touch with the trend of the the two because of the geographic posi- stantly alert efficiency, furnishes a vivid times, has the support of the people and tion of the Empire and the fact that her contrast to the rest. This circumstance, captures the lion's share of the appropria- tendency towards overpopulation makes coupled with the fact that Japan owes tions, while, most important of all, big necessary her change from an agricul- her position as one of the Great Powers business exercises an influence over pol- tural to a manufacturing nation if she almost entirely to her military prowess, icy which is as potent as it is subtle, as is to support within Nippon and its sur renders it easy to understand that, in powerful as it is unknown outside Japan, rounding territories her increasing mill. spite of all, the army retains a powerful where its generalship is not even yet ions, for which emigration is being ren- position in the shaping of the destiny fully appreciated by the common people. dered more and more impracticable by of the Empire.

The ambitions of Japan have changed growing antipathy in America, Canada, On the other hand, the army has dur. direction, as world opinion has changed Australia, and elsewhere.

ing the last few years become increassince the war. The ideal of political Japan became a military nation as a ingly unpopular with the people at large. dominance with the sword is, reluctantly matter of course. In the days of feudal. Gradually realization of the fact that probably, being replaced by the more in- ism the soldier was predominant, and militarism is looked upon with repug. sidious ambition of economic domination even after the Restoration the best nance the world over has been brought of the Far East, and the army and, par- brains of the country devoted themselves home to Japan. One cannot help conticularly, the navy have become in the to the army. Even to-day, although the trasting the time of the Russo-Japanese main the potent tools with which Japan formerly despised trader has now be- War, when Japan was the world's favor. seeks to fulfill what she believes to be come a great power in the land and en- ite, with to-day, when she in vain scans her destiny as economic mistress of the rolls many of the most promising youths the horizon for a sincere friend. Ineast coast of Asia, from north to south. under his banner, the army still com- creasing evidences of the growing disThe great business houses of the Em- mands by far the best men in the Gov- trust on the part of other nations of pire dream of control of raw materials, ernment service. Other departments the nation as a military Empire has led by means of which they expect to make have their share of competent men, but, to placing the blame therefor at the

door of the War Department, and violent condemnation thereof in the press has become common.

Politicians, university men, and others do not hesitate to criticise the anomalous condition whereby the For. eign Office may follow one policy and the General Staff another, leading to the apparent insincerities which have caused Japan's unpopularity. The War Minister still possesses the unique privilege of reporting direct to the Emperor, while other Ministers must bring their problems before the Cabinet, and, as a consequence, the War Department enjoys a power of initiative entirely its own, which occasionally leads to the army following its own desires without much care as to what may be the policy of the Foreign Office or the Cabinet in general. The militarists are inclined to deny that this is the case. A very high army officer, in the closest possible touch with the War Minister, gave me an explana. tion which seems illuminative. It was at the time of the discussion of with


drawal from the farther regions of (c) Adachi JAPANESE TROOPS

Siberia, and he used this as his text. The army retains a powerful position in the shaping of the destiny of the Empire.

"Suppose that the Cabinet decides other hand, the army has during the last few years become increasingly unpopular"

that we must evacuate,” he said. "The

On the


War Department will certainly follow its dictates. If, however, for the sake of argument, the Cabinet decides that we must evacuate within, say, ten days, and we find that, for strategic reasons, so rapid a withdrawal is impracticable, we shall follow our own ideas in regard to the question of time. It should also be remembered that we are far better informed with regard to foreign affairs than is the Foreign Office, as we have men abroad who live in foreign countries for decades, where the diplomats reniain only for years, and our resources for obtaining information are far more complete."

This is literally true. The military men have at their command vast funds, while the diplomatic service is constantly cramped for lack of such, and even the latest budget reduces the already scant appropriations allowed it. Thus, while it is the popular thing to rail at the weakness of the Foreign Office, it is obviously difficult for that service, even though it contains many good men, to compete with the army

IMPERIAL DIET OF JAPAN ADDRESSED BY PRIME MINISTER HARA with its Fortunatus purse. The Navy "The growth in the strength of the political parties," says Dr. Yoshino, of the Imperial University

at Tokyo, “threatens the Elder Statesmen and the militarists" Department presents still another aspect. It is extremely reactionary, a bewilder- able tool for the future planned by the tirely from an agricultural into a manuing tangle of bureaucratic inefficiency, financiers that the former has become facturing nation. in striking contrast to the machine-like the favorite child.

Realization of this plan involves not efficiency of the army. "Administra- Manufacture and creation of a great so much political conquest of territory tively the navy is still in the seventeenth export trade have become the ambition command of raw materials. The century,” said a bright young official of Japan. The Spartan patriotism of the former being impractical under the new with much foreign experience to whom days of the great Meiji and his group code of morals adopted by the world, the I gave my impression. "It contains a has given way to the seeking of pleas- latter affords the logical means for salnumber of up-to-date young men, who anter rewards of trade. The day when vation. Japan's position is becoming will some day bring it up to a modern the individual submerged his ego in the like that of England. She has obtained standard; but a lot of old fogies will common quest for greater glory for the a merchant fleet with which to bring have to die out first."

Empire has been replaced by self-seek- raw materials to her factories and to Under these circumstances, it would ing individualism, when men place their carry the finished products to market. seem difficult at first blush to understand own gain first and look upon the ad- Like England, Japan will be at the why the Japanese public storms at army vance of the state as the means and not mercy of any Power which can blockade increases, why it condemns the expendi- the end. Furthermore, the money pow- her and shut off raw materials and ture of lives and money in Siberia, pro- ers, which more and more are coming food supplies from the outside.

The posed increases of the forces in Korea, into control of the steering gear of the war taught Japan several lessons, and and similar army measures, while at the Empire, realize that the world no longer not least of these was that demonstrated same time it declares its willingness to countenances ruthless conquest by the when danger of success of Germany's shoulder the gigantic expense involved sword; so where they cannot go over submarine campaign brought home to in the creation of the proposed new they go around, and, giving up the idea England the fact that her very existence navy, the so-called "eight-and-eight" of political dominance over contiguous depended upon the efficiency of her fleet. programme, which is to amount during parts of Asia, they are content to let Here, rather than in any hope of aggresthe coming fiscal year alone to 499,000,000 others look forward to enjoyment of the sive campaigning, lies the reason for yen, as against the 263,000,000 yen pro- empty shell of government, as long as Japan's willingness to sacrifice for the posed for the army. they themselves have the meat of the

sake of her navy. That this sentiment is found among

raw-material resources contained within It is thus easy to understand that even the great masses of the people, who, hav. these territories. Here lies the secret of the most avaricious captain of industry ing no power of political expression, do the haste with which Japan is building is ready to support the great fleet probut little thinking of their own, is

her commercial fortifications in Shan- gramme, for his future safety depends easily understood, since the sensational tung, Manchuria, and, more recently, in thereon. The manner of the exercise of press constantly points to America as East Siberia and Saghalien, with their his influence on the Government is, the potential enemy, and this in spite

resources of minerals, food, timber, etc. owever, unique to Japan and is based of the gathering clouds in Siberia, Japan has good reason for her activi. on a difference in ethics between the which, unless the present course of

ties. While the constant cry of her East and the West which the latter finds events changes direction materially, is overcrowded islands is exaggerated to it hard to understand or condone, namely, bound to cause a conflict between Japan the extent that the home country still the placing of political leaders in finanand Russia, when a fleet will be of small affords room for a number of millions cial dependence on the great merchant value, whereas the army will be faced

in Hokkaido and in certain other un- houses which control the Empire's comwith the vital task of keeping the Bolsh

developed sections, development of these merce and finance, and the utter content evik flame away from the Korean tinder. affords only a postponement of the day on the part of the greater part of the The opinion of hoi polloi at present

when Japan will be compelled to find nation that this be so. Public office in counts for little, however.

It is the a means for providing for her surplus Japan is miserably paid. The Premier's voice of big business which is potent.

population. Shut off from emigration annual salary is but $6,000, and the Those in control of the nation are

to other countries bordering on the other Cabinet officers are paid in pro. rapidly turning from the temple of Mars

Pacific, she has no choice but to con- portion. A political career, with its to that of Mammon, and it is because

dense the teeming millions within her banquets and multitudinous other oblithe navy rather than the army is a suit

own borders by changing her nature en- gations, is enormously expensive, and no


one but a very rich man may succeed seizing a political opportunity rather The soldier remains apparently domi. without material support from wealthy than from any excess of virtue, quoted nant in Japan, while the navy is nearbackers. "Geisha politicians" the ver- chapter and verse to show how Cabinet ing the day when it will possess a tonnacular press calls them; men who, like members had taken flagrant advantage nage heretofore only dreamed of, but it the butterfly charmers, are kept, in re. of their positions for purposes of per- is to neither of these that the world turn for favors, by plutocratic patrons, sonal gain, they produced sufficient must look when it seeks to forecast the and, while a few leaders manage to re- smoke to indicate that some truth lay future policies of Japan; it is big busimain independent—Premier Hara, for in such allegations, even though the con- ness, grown into full strength through instance, is said to be so—the scandal trol which the Government party had in its Danae-like experience during the of the last session of the Diet was the Diet was abused to defeat the de-war, which will direct the destinies of significant. Then, when the Opposition, mand for an investigation.

the Empire.




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REMIER HARA, of Japan, says: tions, the greater will the disparity tributed to the defeat of Mr. Ozaki's "The statement that Japan is become.

resolution: (1) His many bitter politibuilding a navy against an imag- Animated by these convictions, last

cal enemies. (2) The desire of both inary foe, and that that foe is the

February, in the lower house of the Jap- parties to gain power in the Cabinet, United States, is fantastic nonsense."

anese Parliament, Mr. Ozaki, a member which can be done only through the "Even when her present programme of that body, presented a resolution favor

favor of the military party. (3) The is completed,” added the Prime Minis- ing armament reduction. The resolution

fact that Parliament does not truly repter, "Japan's naval strength will still be

was overwhelmingly defeated. This de- resent the spirit of the people and is far less than would be required for an feat, says Mr. I. Kawakami, a Japanese

not based on universal suffrage. attack on the United States. ... The writer, amazed and disappointed the

Mr. Ikuo Oyama, former professor in purpose of our construction is very clear Japanese people. He proceeds:

Waseda University, says in the "Tai. and simple-to defend our coasts and

Mr. Ozaki of course felt the need of

kwan" (which is Japanese for "Outcommerce, nothing more.... While

at least a small navy, but realized

look”): other Powers continue to expand their that naval competition would reduce

It is no wonder that Mr. Ozaki's navies Japan cannot afford to weaken Japan far below her normal power, resolution was defeated when we rehers. If the others agree to stop, no because of her scanty resources and member that Parliament ... is repcountry would enter on such an agree

industrial capacity. He argued, there- resentative of nationalism. Proposals ment more gladly than would Japan."

fore, even from the standpoint of an for the increase of armaments or for In the same spirit, Japan's alleged

adequate defense of the country, that the completion of national defense,

such a naval holiday would be benefi. attempt to compete with the American

so long as they are not alarmingly

cial to Japan. Mr. Ozaki also believes Navy is called "absurd and preposter

extreme, will be accepted by Parliathere is no great military Power from ous" by Admiral Kato, of the Japanese

ment, but we can never expect that a

which war is to be feared at present. proposition for disarmament will gain navy and Minister of Marine in the Japan should therefore also greatly

the support of a majority. For inJapanese Cabinet. He emphasizes the decrease her army, or at least should stance, one of the four planks of the fact that Japan's project to have eight support the League of Nations in

Seiyukai (the political party of which battleships and eight battle-cruisers not

plans for general disarmament.

Premier Hara is the head] is “The more than eight years old is not neces

In his own opinion, three facts con- Completion of National Defense," sarily irreducible. He intimates that if

while the Kensikai [the Opposition] all the naval Powers would agree to a

has a similar policy. "naval holiday''he would be willing to

Dr. Sakuzo Yoshino, of the Imperial enter on such an engagement and would

University at Tokyo, also explains as not insist upon the completion of the

follows: "The growth in the strength Government's naval programme. He

of the political parties threatens the adds: "The Japanese Government

Elder' Statesmen and the militarists; joined the League of Nations, and in so

they are attempting to retain their hold doing supported the principle of the re

by preventing these parties from making ciuction of armaments. Whenever there

decisions regarding military matters." is an international conference on arma

Mr. Ozaki, undismayed, carried his ment reduction, I will be only too glad

propaganda to the people. He lectured to co-operate with other Governments

in the various universities and large to give effect to this principle."

cities. So many came that an admisSo much for the Government's atti

sion fee had to be charged. Even then tude. Now for the people's..

many were turned away from the doors. "The 8-8 plan involves further increase

Straw votes were taken; nine-tenths of of already intolerable taxes, and at the

those voting favored disarmament in same time cripples every other move

some• degree. Even so conservative a ment for national welfare," objects

daily as the Tokyo "Jiji Shimpo" (CurYukio Ozaki, ex-Minister of Justice.

rent Problems) was moved to say: Moreover, as he says:

"When we realize that the influence of To devote fifty per cent of a na

militarism has been a hindrance and a tion's total expenditures for its army

menace both to internal and internaand navy is an example unparalleled

tional policies, it will be seen that the in the history of the world. This

necessity for military reduction is not policy is causing serious diplomatic,

solely a financial problem." political, and economic friction and is

It is clear, according to this and other isolating Japan from the rest of the civilized world. Japan is inevitably

Japanese papers, that the Japanese suspected as a militaristic nation.

(C) Keystone

naval programme depends closely on our This can be corrected only by appro

KEI HARA, JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER own. It is also clear that the Japanese priate deeds. . . . Japan's objective is "The statement that Japan is building a navy people would welcome a conference of England and America. But the more

against an imaginary foc, and that foc is the
l'nited States," says Premier Hara, "is fantastic

Great Britain, the United States, and compete with those powerful na

Japan looking towards an effective


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agreement in the direction of a radical curtailment of armaments.

Regarding Mr. Borah's disarmament resolution in the United States Senate, the Tokyo "Yomiuri" (the "Town Crier") recently remarked:

It is fundamentally necessary to arrive at a political agreement among the three countries, with a view to removing international bad feeling. ... In this country, if the present armament competition is to continue indefinitely, financial and economic pressure may drive people towards Bolshevism. . . . If the peoples of Japan, Great Britain, and America

calmly consider the situation, they
will find that the present tendency is
both foolish and dangerous.

The Tokyo "Nichi Nichi" ("Every
Day") concludes:

Japan is only compelled to proceed
with the prearranged plan because of
the necessity of self-preservation.
We believe the case is also the same
with Great Britain and America.

But, unless the question of disarmament is solved, no fundamental solution of financial problems is possible. In Japan many important social measures also are sacrificed for the sake of armaments. . . . Even if

no agreement be proposed by America, Japan should take steps to curtail armament expenses.

Another important paper of Tokyo, the "Asahi” (the “Morning Sun"), thus concludes:

Of all the nations, America is making the greatest efforts to enlarge her armaments. As a result, it is America that can most effectively urge disarmament. If such a proposal is made by her, Great Britain and Japan ... will enthusiastically respond.

The first step, therefore, would seem to be "up to us.



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NLY a few hours intervened be. “This matter," he said, "does not al- been responsible for this, but in advance

tween the arrival of Mr. René low one moment's discussion. I do not I certify that the mistake has been an

Viviani, returning from New think that within ten generations there involuntary one. No French Minister York, and the departure of Prime Minis- can be a single Frenchman who will has ever conceived the idea of harming ter Briand, leaving for London. And have forgotten what America did in this American interests in any way whatsoMr. Briand spent these few hours in war. And I do not believe that there ever. The rapidity with which I replied conference with Mr. René Viviani; this is a single Frenchman to-day who would personally to the note of the Secretary shows the great importance, in the days consent that America be deprived of any of State, Hughes, on the Yap question

and its mandates is the best proof of we are passing through, which the Gov- right whatsoever or of any benefit which ernment of the French Republic attaches victory has given to all of us. It is our desire to give immediate satisfacto all that comes from America.

possible that errors have been com- tion to America each time that she may Prime Minister Briand also received mitted in this respect; I do not want to be brought to express a claim owing to me for some length of time, and it goes look into the past and seek to know an incomprehensible error."

And Mr. Briand further stated: without saying that he spoke exclusively which of my predecessors may have about America. His opinion regarding

"In that house of the Quai d'Orsay, all things about America is extremely

where not a single day passes but some simple.

representative or other of a nation of "I cannot,” said he, "conceive any

the world enters, there is one person other policy for a French Minister, who

whose entrance is always most welcome soever he be, than to maintain the

to us, and that is that of the American closest, the most trusting and affection

Ambassador. There is no example in ate relations with the great sister Re

the records of the Ministry of Foreign public. I consider as a national calam

Affairs of France that there has ever ity any shadow which would come be

been any painful or annoying incident tween America and France. And I

with the representative of the United

States. deem it a national happiness all that

We always consider him, no unites and brings nearer to each other

matter what Administration be in power the two countries. Franco-American

in Washington, as a great friend. Mr. friendship is a dogma for me, an un

Hugh C. Wallace, who is on the point of alterable, intangible, and sacred thing.

leaving us, will leave nothing but the

regrets of his departure, and Mr. Myron I told the Prime Minister that this

T. Herrick, who is coming back, will feeling, in my opinion, was reciprocated

find only open hands to receive him. by nearly all the Americans unani

"This does not only depend on the mously; but that it was necessary to

great industrial power of the United express this feeling in its reality., And

States, which every one holds in respect, the reality was that Mr. Viviani and I

but it is because the United States is a had found in Washington a certain feel.

great moral power which every one ading of surprise at the manner in which

mires. The representatives of America the American interests have sometimes

have the right to say that they are been treated, after the peace, and in par

speaking in the name of the most disticular in the Pacific and in the matter

interested and most generous nation in of the cables and petroleum.

the whole world—that is a force which "America thinks," I said, "that she

dominates all the other forces. ..." helped to win the war and that under

Thus spoke Mr. Aristide Briand. these circumstances she has a right to

And truly, I do believe that what the see that her interests are not hurt in

Prime Minister of to-day said to me the peace by those with whom she was

(C) Keystone

Prime Minister of to-morrow would say

likewise. America enjoys at the Quai ARISTIDE BRIAND, PRESIDENT OF THE COUNMr. Briand did not permit me to

CIL OF MINISTERS IN THE FRENCH GOVERN- d'Orsay a special treatment—the treatfinish.

MENT, WHOSE INTERVIEW EXPRESSES THE ment of the everlastingly favored na


Paris, France.



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