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HOW TO KEEP THE PARKS CLEAN Alton Bishop, as "Father D. C.," is giving a demonstration to the children of Washington as to the right way to keep the parks clean. This event was a feature of the inauguration of

the American Forestry Association's Forest Protection Week at Rock Creek Park

the present writing plans are under
way to raise a fund to rebuild the
houses destroyed.

What is the significance of this tragedy for the rest of the Nation? Tulsa is not essentially different from any American city in which there is a considerable Negro element. Contemplating the dark episode, almost any other city might echo the humble thanksgiving, “But for the grace of God there goes John Bunyan.” So long as race feeling exists there is danger of such outbursts. Deprecate it all we please, the foundations of order are secured through effective police backed by a firm demand for law and order by all decent citizens and helped by the earnest desire of white and colored people to draw together in just and friendly civic relations and to abstain from forcing the questions of social relations to the front. Potentially disorderly elements are restrained by fear of the instruments by which society defends itself. Prompt and energetic action on the part of the peace officers at the first sign of trouble in Tulsa that Tuesday night would have prevented the riots. Governor Robertson, who arrived in the city soon after the disturbances were over, expressed a general opinion when he called the affair "damnable and inexcusable" and blamed the ineptitude of the officers responsible for maintaining order. At the outset a few well-directed policemen could have dispersed the trouble-makers at the Court-House. Once the mob spirit was aroused and armed crowds had gathered, the situation was out of control until the display of overwhelming force by several hundred determined Guardsmen.

In the long run civilization must depend on the education, tolerance, and intelligence of the mass of the people. But, as the experience of Tulsa and so many other cities shows, police forces cannot be demoralized by politics or by neglect except at risk of disaster.


of perhaps a million dollars? Superficially, the answer might be that it was a strange misunderstanding of facts. General Barrett, in command of the State Militia, is quoted in the papers as saying that the riot was caused by "an impudent Negro, a hysterical girl, and a yellow journal reporter." Again superficially, it may be said that this horror was caused by the misuse of a word; it was reported that a white girl had been "assaulted" by a colored man; the fact was, it now appears, that a boot black stepped on an elevator girl's foot, that she slapped him, and he grasped her by the throat.

But the real causes lie deeper. Americans take the observance of law and order for granted. Civilization, they assume, has reached a stage where force is not needed. Then, under some comparatively slight provocation, the wildbeast element in society leaps up, the peace officers are unready, and we have the race riots of Washington, Omaha, East St. Louis, Chicago, and Tulsa. Especially is this true when race feeling is involved. Race aversion (from which few of us are free) easily becomes race prejudice; race prejudice is quickly fanned into race hatred; race hatred among the ignorant and violent elements, black and white, may at any moment blaze into race war.

The following account comes to The Outlook from a well-informed Western correspondent upon our telegraphic request:

Tulsa, the scene of the recent rioting, is an Oklahoma oil city of mush

room growth. It has a population of seventy-three thousand, of whom perhaps eight thousand are Negroes. The Negroes are employed chiefly in forms of service not sought by the whites. The men are porters, barbers, bootblacks, day laborers; the women cooks, charwomen, laundresses. There has been no industrial race friction.

The industrial depression had brought an unusual number of idle men from the oil fields to Tulsa. A few gathered at the Court-House where the Negro was confined. The sheriff ordered them away, but did not enforce his order. An altercation followed. Word spread that a lynching was contemplated. Several armed Negroes appeared. A Negro peace officer appealed to them to disperse, assuring them the prisoner would be protected. Most of them started away, but leaders called them back. Whites and blacks continued to gather. The police did nothing. Then a shot was fired and a white man fell.

This was the beginning of a series of battles between rapidly growing mobs of whites and blacks, which the small police force was unable to control. The fighting lasted into the morning. It resulted in the death of nine white men and more than twenty Negroes and in the wanton burning of the Negro residence district, leaving thousands of innocent persons homeless. Tulsa was impotent, but the Government of Oklahoma functioned promptly. By early morning the State was pouring National Guardsmen into the city. Governor Robertson proclaimed martial law, and the rioting abruptly ended. A citizens' committee with the local Red Cross unit at once took the situation in hand and organized relief work. Tulsa is a wealthy community. It cannot spare its Negro workers. At

WHAT MAKES THE WILD WOODS WILD NHE mental makeup of men and

women who scatter papers along

the highroads, who trample down growing crops, who break down farmers' fences, and who are responsible for surrounding our woodland streams with a beadwork of tomato cans is quite easy to understand. Such people are merely primitive individualists. They have not yet advanced in civilization to a point where they can visualize the property rights of others. They scatter their trash broadcast through the land because they have not imagination enough to see how such action can rebound to

their own hurt. There are many who parks of to-morrow may be as pop. There is no household or community are neither homeless nor landless them bottleless as the beech-shaded sward of in the land which cannot study itself or selves who can still act and live, so far Hampstead Heath.

its surroundings to advantage. There as the rights of others are concerned, as

are few households and communities though they were a race of nomads

which do not at times study themselves

HOUSES THAT CAN wandering across a trackless desert of

and their surroundings in a way which swiftly cleansing sand. Their mental

STAND STUDY NEED reacts seriously to their disadvantage. processes are as obvious as the trail they


Malicious gossip and unfounded rumors leave behind them in the landscape. We

disport themselves through neighbor

DIVISION can understand them, but we do not like

hoods with a rapidity which affords a them.

M HE announcement of The Outlook's modern instance of the process which There is another group of wayfarers third contest has called forth an Chaucer describes in his "Hous of which, though allied closely to the first, 1 indignant letter signed W. and Fame." Individual members of housewe both dislike and cannot understand. W. F. A. which concludes: "If there is holds brood over dark imaginings which This is the group which not only scat not a deluge of protests from other mem- need only a frank explanation and ters refuse over private lands, but also bers of your family, it will be to us a wholesome laughter for their speedy leaves a trail which he who runs may most sinister and depressing sign of the dissipation. read over the land belonging to cities, weakness of present-day home and .com Parents, lay not the flattering unction States, and the Nation. A public park, munity life. If we are absolutely alone to your souls that your children inwhether it be but a triangle of grass at in our protest, we feel that it should be variably regard you as the fountainthe intersection of three village streets, made and have confidence that you will head of all wisdom. Their questioning or a rolling meadow land set down in give it fair consideration."

may come first only in such simple form the heart of a great city, or a Forest The protest has been as conspicuous as, “Well, Jimmy's father lets him sit up Reserve of a hundred thousand acres of by its singularity as a gold dollar in a till half-past seven." Later on, and not the National domain, is property to Soviet treasury; but perhaps this so much later at that, it may appear in which each and every one of us has an neither indicates that our subscribers the unspoken thought, "If I ever have inalienable right. · To scatter trash over are alone in their feeling or that com any children, I won't do so and so." a bit of green in the heart of a city or to munity and family life are bound for The subject of The Outlook's contest slash off the top of a pine tree in a the dogs.

was selected with no thought or fear National park is to damage part of the The reason for our subscribers' pro. that it would serve to divide households common land to which every citizen is test is to be found in the following quo- or communities against themselves by heir. We can understand how a man tation from their letter:

bringing into the light the reasons for can disregard the rights of a neighbor, "To invite complaints by children of such questioning. but it is not so easy to understand how their parents, etc., etc., may be worthy The subject of the contest was chosen a man can destroy the beauty of land of a Hearst publication, but that The because it seemed to us to afford a which is his own and his children's. If Outlook should open such a door is chance for personal and community we are to continue to build parks in our almost unbelievable.

stock-taking, which would be of value cities and set aside wildernesses for our "Is there to be no such thing as reti- not only to the stock-takers, but to those recreation, we must also build up, in the cence? Is there nothing too sacred to who would later share in their enmind and heart of every citizen, a put into print? What about loyalty? deavors. We said, “You don't have to spirit of jealousy for the beauty of these “Be objective. Well, we certainly ob- be bitter," because bitterness has no green places. Perhaps the present gen. ject!! 'You don't have to be bitter place in an inventory. We said. "Be eration of Americans is already past the That phrase alone exposes the danger of objective," because we wanted our concure, but there is another generation of this proposition."

test letter writers to analyze squarely citizens in the making, and, if we are To all of which we cry in the language their relationships and not to moon over wise, we will do for them what the of the court-room, "Exception," and them. Forestry Association has been doing in leave it to our readers, as judges, to The highest form of loyalty is underthe city of Washington. If we catch determine whether or not we should be standing loyalty, and the deepest love Young America young enough, our overruled.

does not need to be blind to endure.



N June 2 President Harding without distinction of party, were grati. should have been retired by his constitwalked from the White House to fied at his appointment. He has seen uents. Yet that is what organized

the Inter-State Commerce Com- long and distinguished service in Con- labor did, backed up by the Wisconsin mission's Building, not far way. Un gress-indeed, he has been in every Con- pro-Germans, who resented Mr. Esch's announced, he appeared before the Com- gress since and including the Fifty. patriotic attitude during the war. Some missioners personally to urge upon them sixth. He is fifty-nine years old, was voters also resented Mr. Esch's votes for the necessity of revising railway rates. born in Wisconsin, is a graduate of the the Eighteenth Amendment and the This, we think, is the first time that a University of that State and its Law Volstead Law. President has ever taken such a direct School, and practiced law at La Crosse. Another appointee to the Inter-State initiative with the Commission.

In Congress Mr. Esch's position as Chair: Commerce Commission is J. B. CampThe event calls particular attention to man of the House Inter-State Commerce bell, of Spokane, Washington. He is a the Commission and, in especial, to the Committee gave great force to that Com traffic lawyer, and for years has reprenew Commissioners. Among them, the mittee's policy in the framing of the sented various Western organizations most notable is John Jacob Esch, of Transportation Act of 1920. It seems before the Commission, particularly the Wisconsin. All Americans, we believe, strange that so efficient a statesman Spokane Merchants' Association. He

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has been a leading spokesman for the men. The committee's recommendation Dakota Regiment. Later he did an imrigid long-and-short-haul advocates. It was that the activities should be cen portant duty for the entire S. O. S., will be interesting to follow his further tralized under one head.

being given charge of returns, reclamaefforts in this direction now that he is a The new Director of the Bureau of tion, and service, in negotiations with member of the Commission.

War Risk Insurance also deserves men- the French Government for properties, Another appointee to the Commission tion. He is Colonel Charles R. Forbes, for camps, bases, and other large underis Ernest 1. Lewis, of Indianapolis. Mr. of Seattle. He saw active service over- takings. Lewis's early training and experience seas as the commanding officer of a regi. Probably the most talked-of appointwas that of a newspaper man. Four ment of infantry. He has lived for ment has been that of David H. Blair, years ago Governor Goodrich, of In many years on the Pacific coast. Now of Winston-Salem, North Carolina, the diana, appointed him Chairman of the that Secretary Mellon has transferred to new Commissioner of Internal Revenue. State Public Service Commission. As the Bureau a portion of the Public He is well known in the South as a such he has had contact with the Health Service, Colonel Forbes's posi- lawyer and successful business man. Indianapolis railways and more or less tion has increased in importance.

He has never before held a political with the Inter-State Commerce Commis- Another new Administration officer is office. He brings to the duties of the sion.

Frank White, the new Treasurer of the Commissionership a fine experience, for The latest Assistant Secretary of the United States. Colonel White has been he has prospered in the conduct of his Treasury is Colonel Edward Clifford, of a resident of North Dakota for many own affairs. In association with the Chicago. He is an investment banker. years. During sixteen of them he was a Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Blair will During the early part of the war he was farmer. In his home town of Valley probably have as one of his own imporin Washington as a "dollar a year man," City he has been in the insurance busi- tant appointments that of the Prohibiserving as a bond expert in the Treasuryness and also at the head of a leading tion Commissioner, although he may not Department in connection with the Lib- bank. He has been active in all civic have jurisdiction over that officer and erty Loans. Later he was commissioned affairs. In the Spanish-American War his big Bureau, as the Administration lieutenant-colonel in the Quartermaster he was a major of infantry. Upon his has indicated its desire to transfer the Corps and made a member of the War return he was elected Governor of the Bureau to the Department of Justice, Credit Board. He went overseas in the State. In the recent war he went to where, indeed, it would quite naturally Finance Service, and later was with our France as colonel of the Second North seem to belong. Army of Occupation in Germany. Re

Another much-talked-of person is turning here, he spent a year in the

John R. Tigert, nominated to succeed organization work of the American

Dr. P. P. Claxton as United States ComLegion. His training in the law, in

missioner of Education. Mr. Tigert is a finance, and his close contact with

Kentucky man of fine native ability and actual army conditions should fit him to

good culture. As a Rhodes Scholar he work out effectively, and with justice to

has been connected with higher educaall, the peace-time problems that have

tion in the State of Kentucky. We do arisen and will arise in the relations

not know of any experience which he between the Federal Government and

has had in the public schools. the ex-service men. And it is to this

In Washington, among people who particular task that Secretary Mellon

have done good work in Federal underhas called him. Under Colonel Clifford's

takings, the appointment of William W. immediate direction there will be a co

Husband, of Vermont, as Commissioner ordination of all activities in the behalf

of Immigration is regarded as an opporof ex-service men. He will be the

tunity given to a man specially equipped Director-General of this work, and will

for the duties of his office. Mr. Husband doubtless advance the recommendations

enters upon his work with a broad of the committee, headed by General

knowledge of the whole subject of immi(C) Harris & Ewing Dawes, which recently investigated all

gration and with that essential human

FRANK WHITE, TREASURER OF THE the activities in behalf of the ex-service

sympathy which this type of work reUNITED STATES


quires. Before the Department of Labor was created and before the office of Commissioner of Immigration existed Congress created a special Immigration Committee to study the subject. Mr. Husband served as secretary to this Commission. The hearings and much research as well were incorporated in a report of some thirty or forty volumes. A year or so before the war the Department of Labor sent Mr. Husband abroad to study the sources of immigration, particularly in the ports of Russia. His report of that study is recognized as an important and authoritative contribution to the general subject. With this background, it is not to be wondered at that his appointment should call forth general expressions of approval from all those interested in the perplexing problem of immigration. This selection certainly surprised the politicians.


(C) Clinedinst

Left to right: Ethelbert Stewart, U. S. Commissioner of Labor Statistics; Harry A. McBride,
Chief of the Visé Section, Dept. of State; W. W. Husband, Conimissioner-General of Immigra-
tion; Lawrence Martin, Division of Western European Affairs, Dept. of State; Joseph A. Hill,
Chief Statistician for Revision and Results, Bureau of Census; William C. Hunt, Chief Statisti-

cian for Population, Bureau of Census



"I only wish that all the occupations TS Coblenz a German town or an


of foreign territories be as moderate and American city?

as humane as ours. I wish that the

AMERICAN FORCES IN GERMANY, THE I As for me, when I was there lately,

occupation troops everywhere have the there was no doubt whatever it was an


same good conduct as the troops of the American city. In the streets I met SELVES WANT THE AMERICAN ARMY Allies in the Rhineland.” none but American boys in khaki; I saw


I told General Allen tbat the unanionly English inscriptions; I heard only

mous and profound desire of all the English spoken; I came across nothing

French was that he would remain still but gray automobiles circulating with apply in perfect agreement and in the a long time at Coblenz and that the the same order and the same discipline same spirit. And this is mostly due to American boys also remain there. as on Fifth Avenue. Above all, and General Allen. Go and see him.”

To which he replied: from every street corner of the town, I I called on General Allen, who re- "I share this wish. And I believe that could see on the other side of the Rhine ceived me in his cabinet, whose windows all the boys share it likewise. The life the flag of the Stars and Stripes waving overlook the Rhine and from which one they are leading here is a healthy, simproudly over the legendary fortress of can see the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein ple life. And it is evident that they do Ehrenbreitstein. ...

crowned with a large American flag. not dislike it, since the greatest punishBut Coblenz is not only a town that General Allen naturally told me jus' as ment I can inflict upon them is to send America will have marked with her many nice things about Mr. Tirard as the them back to America by one of the stamp for many years to come, but it latter had told me about General Allen. transports which every month takes also is the town where the entente be "I was," he said, “beside Mr. Tirard home the sick and discharged men. tween the four Allies—America, France, the other day when he was publicly re- “They are all fully conscious that they England, Belgium-will have been the ceiving the official delegations of the are accomplishing a duty here and that most frank and the most perfect.

Rhineland, and I can certify that the they are giving an example. They are When I called on Mr. Paul Tirard, complaints of the representatives of the accomplishing a duty in accompanying who is the French Commissioner and German occupied districts dealt only the American flag which, after having President of the High Interallied Com- with trifles, such as the billeting of the taken a share in the war, we have come mission, he said, laughing:

officers and upon certain restrictions re- to plant upon the Rhine, on the highest "You know, this is an Interallied garding the freedom of the press, while and oldest fortress of Kaiserism near Commission of a particular kind; every the language used by the French Com- the flag of the Allies. They give an one always agrees in it and no one ever missioner was full of equity, kindness, example, among the foreign troops which raises a dispute therein. This is prob- and common sense.

are camping here or in the vicinity, of ably due to the presence of Americans “I can likewise certify that all the the moderation, good conduct, and the and of General Allen. General Allen is tales spread both abroad and in America spirit of discipline of the American not only a great soldier, but he is also regarding the excesses supposed to have regarding the excesses supposed to hay

Army. a great administrator and a great diplo- been committed by the French or the "Personally," he said in conclusion, mat. With him aíi is easy, everything Allied troops on the Rhine are but pure “in my reports to the State Department, is clear, and all is simple. It is not only inventions and lies. Each time a com. I have never ceased requesting that we elbow to elbow but heart to heart that plaint is made to us by the German dele- may be permitted to pursue the accomwe are working here together. Besides, gate, Herr von Stark, we make a rapid plishing of this duty and to give this in the entire Rhineland uniformity of and impartial investigation. Up to now example; I should be infinitely happy if measures exists. There is not, accord. we have found only thirteen cases in my request be granted." ing to the sector occupied, a French which the complaint was based upon Thus spoke General Allen. It is now system, an American system, a Belgian fact, and each time we punished the up to Washington to accept or to refuse system, an English system; there is culprits most severely. But what are the request of General Allen and of the

unique Interallied system which we thirteen complaints for a corps of occu- American boys on the Rhine. But there vright, 1921, by The Outlook Company pation of ninety thousand men?

is one fact I cannot but help to state, and that is that for the first time perhaps in the military history of the world we are in presence of an army OCcupying a foreign territory whose maintenance there is ardently demanded by the inhabitants of the occupied territory, by the soldiers occupying the same, by the Allies, by the neutrals, by every one in general.

America may be proud to obtain such a unanimity on her troops. Happy America!


II When, at the beginning of this month of May, the news came to Paris that America was once more taking her place in the Council of Ambassadors, in the Reparations Commission, and in the Supreme Council, a veritable wave of great joy passed over political and parliamentary circles. They were even on the verge of putting up the flags!

"This is the best news we have received for months," declared the Presi. dent of the Republic, who is generally So sparing of declarations.

"Unity of the front of the Allies is re-established as it was during the war," exclaimed Mr. Raymond Poincaré in the corridors of the Senate.

And Mr. André Lefevre, former Minister of War, the head of the Opposition party at the Chamber, one of the men who have at present the greatest influence on the Deputies, was heard to say in public: “We have never had but one

0) Keystone real ally, America. We had lost her on

GENERAL WEYGAND, MARSHAL FOCH, MAJOR-GENERAL HENRY T. ALLEN, AND the road. We have just found her again."

STÉPHANE LAUZANNE I quote these words merely to show what an extraordinary importance every tected by France, but she is the child of showed a strong majority for Germany one here in France attaches to Amer America. She owes her liberation and in its votes, should go to Germany; the ica's co-operation. I wish to insist upon her birth just as much to America as industrial districts of the south, where the fact that those who said this had she does to France. History will do the population voted in a not less not the slightest idea of entangling President Wilson justice and say that strong majority for Poland, should go America in all the complications and on this point his vision was great and to the Poles. But there is an intermeintrigues of Europe. They were per right. It is he who, one of the first, diary district in which the votes were fectly well aware that America's co- made the resurrection of Poland one of very hard pressed, where the country Operation can be only a moral one. the peace terms, and at the Peace Con- places had a small German majority and They did not expect America to send ference there was never the slightest the mining districts a small Polish over either men, ships, or money. They difference of opinion between the French majority. merely expected America to convey delegation and the American delegation "The problem is infinitely more diffidirections and to give advice. And they on the Polish question. The Americans cult to solve there. It must be decided were perfectly satisfied with that.

and we walked hand in hand. This according to justice, and not according Now that some days have passed, the proves more than anything else that the to our sympathies or personal anjoy over the American decision has not independence of Poland is a right thing. tipathic only remained unchanged but it has per- We French people have a direct and “It sems to me that when the trihaps increased; it has become a very political interest that Poland be a free bunal of the Supreme Council will be strong and very peaceful confidence. and powerful state. But the Americans, called upon to pronounce upon this And this is particularly evident as re. what interest have they, if not one of question America must take part in it, gards Poland.

justice? ... Mr. Lloyd George has and cannot remain silent. When Mr. Lloyd George delivered his taken a clearly opposite attitude. He "Whatever be her judgment, all will most extraordinary and unfortunate dislikes the Poles and does not hide it; bow down to it. It is a guaranty for the speech recently, which was in truth a this is his right. But it is perhaps not whole world and for the populations inveritable attack against Poland, Prime a sufficient reason to prevent the Polish terested that the verdict given will absoMinister Briand exclaimed:

nation from obtaining what is its due. lutely be an impartial one if America "A

"In the interpretation of the vote of takes part in pronouncing this verdict." shall decide. But there, at the Supreme the populations in Upper Silesia two Thus spoke Mr. Briand. He had been Council, we shall not only be three part. things stand out clearly: the north of one of the first to rejoice at the reners to play the game, but we shall be Upper Silesia, where the population entrance of Americans upon the scene of four. And it is the fourth who will des

Europe; but he did not expect his joy cide the question."

to be so rapidly realized. No one exI saw Mr. Aristide Briand again re


pected it. The Polish question is one cently, and he made no difficulty whatso

of the numerous world matters in which

"SHE SHOULD DECIDE IN ALL JUSTICE ever to explain his rather enigmatic

America can and must make her voice

ABOUT POLAND AND UPPER SILESIA," exclamation to me and to tell me what

heard and in which she is certain to he thought.


serve the interests of peace and justice "Poland,” said he, “is not only pro

merely by speaking.

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