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FROM time immemorial there have of co-operation, for when war breaks, as of weather reports, fog signals, landing

been but two theaters of opera- it will in the future as surely as it has signals, and lighthouses and beacons

tion for commerce and war—the in the past, all activities will be turned along the National air highways. Governwater and the land. But within the last to the common end of National defense. ment and State owned landing-fields and decade a heretofore undiscovered sphere Our country does not believe, in gen- terminal facilities should be provided. has been opened up—that of the air. eral, in direct subsidies. We have not To handle these activities a bureau No nation that expects to hold its own held it sound for the Government to should be established by the Department can afford to neglect its air service. contribute in cash to mercantile ven- of Commerce which should have under Land and water have been the means of tures. We have, however, held in its special supervision the activities communication up to the present time. numerous instances that what might be named above, and such others in addiTo them in the future will be added the termed an indirect subsidy is permis- tion as the licensing of pilots, manuhighways of the air. Not alone because sible. In our income tax we allow cer- facturers, and equipment. By placing of its military and naval value, but also tain small exemptions for children and these grouped activities in the Departbecause of its potential commercial dependents, which amounts to nothing ment of Commerce, which has cogvalue, aeronautics must be carefully more nor less than a subsidy. Merchant nizance of inter-State traffic, the organistudied and thoroughly developed by shipping is indirectly subsidized byzation already available, with few addiour country.

dredging harbors, building docks, main- tions, can take up readily the added In all new departures, such as aero- taining a lighthouse service, storm warn- work involved. This may be done at a nautics, activities tend to be ill consid- ings, channel buoys, radio compass sta- moderate cost and far-reaching results ered. In order to avoid this we must, tions, and safeguards and aids of a like can be obtained. as a first step, establish a consistent nature. Moreover, the tariff is in its Another most important step that Governmental air policy. If we do not nature an indirect subsidy; for by it should be taken immediately is the do this, we are certain to run into home industries are permitted to sell codification and formulation of a comtrouble; development will be haphazard their commodities at higher prices than prehensive code of air laws. At the and wasteful. We consider but one would be possible with the general mar- present time there is little, if anything, aspect of a given question, and as a re- ket of the world opened unrestricted to along this line. This is essentially a sult the ultimate action will often serve the purchaser.

Federal duty, for aircraft moves so fast but one purpose where it might have Our policy as to mercantile air de. that most of its work will be inter-State. served two or more.

velopment should therefore follow the The need for these laws has been felt In our big cities, especially in the line of indirect aid. We should at once already. At the present moment many East, the older streets crisscross con- map out and adopt a comprehensive sys- States have under consideration, and tinually and curve like fish-hooks. I can tem of National air highways. If we do some have already passed, regulatory recall when I first went to Boston com- this, we can establish them in such statutes. Should this continue, an aling upon Beacon Street a few blocks fashion as to be of use equally for com- most unraveled tangle will occur which after I had left it directly behind me, mercial purposes in time of peace and will seriously impede development. and as a result almost giving up myself for military purpose in time of war. We The next broad feature of our air as lost. The reason for this "mix-up" will also give to all those who desire to policy is the military. There should be is that there was no city plan when provide capital to establish units for air no united, independent air force; but, these streets were laid out. They were traffic the assurance that they are ex- on the contrary, bureaus of aeronautics made as the need arose; sometimes, as pending their money in places where the within the departments. In general, one poem says, merely because a cow development is permanent, being Na- military and naval authorities are wandered that way. Our air develop- tionally sanctioned. Moreover, there are agreed on this. Generals Pershing and ment will be the same unless we adopt at this time certain Governmental de Wood, Admirals CoontzSims, and now at its inception a comprehensive partments, namely the Navy, War, and others, the General Staff of the Army, Governmental policy.

Postal, which are expending moneys on the General Board of the Navy, have all The air policy should consist of two their air activities. When National made declarations to this effect. In branches—our mercantile policy and our highways are determined upon, these addition, the equivalent of this idea has military policy. Under these two broad moneys will be spent along a compre- been advanced by the most prominent heads the majority of the existing neces- hensive scheme and will not be wasted British naval and military authoritiessary activities will divide themselves. upon places later abandoned.

namely, Admirals Jellicoe and Beatty Though grouped under two heads, there The Government should furthermore and Marshal Haig. hould be nevertheless the closest kind establish navigational aids in the shape Though the air is a new theater of operations, it is not an exact parallel to the land and the sea. The land and sea touch only on their extreme limits; therefore land and naval forces do not, as a rule, function intimately, tactically, in battle. On the other hand, the air is contiguous throughout to both of the other theaters; therefore operations in it are intimately connected at all times with the operations of the land or naval forces. Where there is a naval battle with airplanes and seaplanes they are an entity of the general engagement. Where there is a land battle of the same type the same conditions exist. As this is so, the naval airships should train with the Navy in order to master naval warfare; and equally with the Army to master land warfare. The general maxim holds good that for the most effective work it is necessary to have units trained together and thoroughly familiar with each other. For this reason, I have even heard divisional commanders make the point that the divisional airplanes should be a permanent detail.

Again, for effective application of power, there must be unity of command. History has proved that a fair plan promptly conceived and actively prosecuted will triumph over a better plan

SECRETARY ROOSEVELT AT HIS DESK AT THE NAVY DEPARTMENT tardily decided upon and half-heartedly pushed. For this reason, if for no other, Professor of Engineering, Columbia Uni. nautics for the furnishing of informathere must be no division of authority. versity; Dr. Charles F. Marvin, Chief of tion of assistance in regard to scientific

Though there must be a separation of the Weather Bureau; Dr. John F. Hay. and technical matters relating to aerothe military and naval air services, ford, Director of the College of Engi. nautics, and in particular for the investhere must be a co-ordination between neering, Northwestern University; Dr. tigation and study of problems in this them and other Governmental activities. William F. Durand, in charge of the field with a view to their practical soluThis at the moment is practiced by the Mechanical Department, Leland Stan- tion. They have been, and can be in Army and Navy, who have a joint board, ford University; Dr. Joseph S. Ames, the future, of the highest value, and the called the Aeronautical Board, which head of the Department of Physics, Board should be extended to embrace discusses all plans made by either de. Johns Hopkins University; and Dr. L. representatives of the postal and compartment.

W. Stratton, Director of the Bureau of mercial departments. We have at present the National Standards.

President Harding has indicated to Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, of This Committee, under an appropria- the country his full appreciation of the which the chairman is Charles D. Wal- tion from Congress, carries on research importance of our air policy in his cott, President of the Smithsonian Insti- and experimental engineering for the Message. He has said, in part, as foltution and a scientist of the first order. aid of commercial aviation and for all lows: On it, in addition to representatives of of the Governmental organizations. Un- “Aviation is inseparable from either the Army and Navy, are Orville Wright, der the law, they hold themselves at the the Army or the Navy, and the Governone of the brothers first to fly a heavier- service of any department or agency of ment must, in the interests of National than-air machine; Dr. Michael I. Pupin, the Government interested in aero- defense, encourage its development for

military and civil purposes. The encouragement of the civil development of aeronautics is especially desirable as relieving the Government largely of the expense of the development and maintenance of aircraft now almost entirely borne by the Government through appropriations for military, naval, and postal services. The air mail service is an important initial step in the direction of commercial aviation.

“I recommend the enactment of legislation establishing a bureau of aeronautics in the Navy Department to centralize the control of naval activities in aeronautics, and removing the restrictions on the personnel detailed to aviation in the Navy.

"The Army air service should be continued as a co-ordinate combatant of the Army, and its existing organization utilized in co-operation with other agen

cies of the Government in the establishU. S. Navy Department photograph

ment of National transcontinental airSECRETARY ROOSEVELT BOARDS THE U. S. S. PENNSYLVANIA AT GUANTANAMO ways and in co-operation with the States



in the establishment of local airdromes of aviation in specified and detailed working on that assumption, abandoned and landing fields."

activities to which aeronautics are the building of large ships and turned This clearly states, in unmistakable adapted.

to the construction of many small ones. terms, the President's grasp of the prob- Great as the importance of this poten- She, however, soon saw the error of her lem. In compliance with his announced tial development is, we must steer a judgment and returned to her original policies, there are at this time before careful course and refuse to let the wild- programme. In the same way, the maCongress a number of bills, some of eyed dreamers carry us to unfortunate chine gun was to eliminate the infantry, which will probably become law before extremes. We are dealing with prob- but with the machine gun developed as this article is printed. Congressman lems and possibilities, and we must ac- never before it was still the infantry Frederick C. Hicks, of New York, has cept them as just that and no more. which won the last great land battles. submitted a bill which provides for the There

well-meaning visionaries The submarine has its defects as the formation of a bureau of civil aero- among us who would treat figments of universal naval "panacea," but the nautics in the Department of Commerce. their imagination as facts and abandon greatest exponent of its use, Admiral The terms of the bill were made to con- the capital ship and the Navy as obso- von Tirpitz, in his "Memoirs," published form with the President's recommen- lete. Do not be deceiyed by them. The lately, says that his only regret is that dations.

capital ship is still the body of the he did not build more battleships. Congressman Hicks also has intro- Navy, the infantry is still the body of We must face the future with foreduced a bill for the creation of a bureau the Army, and both will remain so. sight. We must, however, deal with of aeronautics in the Department of the The air service is an important auxil- facts, not fancies. We must therefore Navy, embracing to the letter the rec- iary arm. This type of prophet is not follow the President's programme and ommendations of the President, and strange or new. We have had him with adopt a sound, comprehensive, constructhere have been included in the appro- us before at the time of the invention tive air policy which will place our priation of the army air service, aerial of the Whitehead torpedo, when he country in a position to take full admail, Weather Bureau, and the various prophesied in the same way that the vantage of the development the future departments funds for the employment capital ship had gone. Indeed, France, holds.



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Breflects his writings in his conversa

tion. He is a tall, lean man with a sandy beard turning gray, gentle quizzical eyes, and the softest voice that ever dropped bitter sayings. Audaciously aggressive in mind, he is shrinkingly apologetic in manner. He has, as all the world knows, a contempt for Shakespeare. I heard him once pour scorn on "As You Like It" and say that he him. self had written a far better play. "Shakespeare," he added, “was a gentleman of my own profession, and I have nothing much to say against him. Besides, he was not entirely without ability. He occasionally wrote very decent prose."

I talked with Shaw years ago about his choice of James Corbett, the heavyweight champion of the world, as the principal actor in one of his plays which had a bearing on pugilism. “Incongruous," I said, "for you, a highbrow, to put a prize-fighter to play a leading part in one of your dramas."

"Why?" replied Shaw. “I don't see anything incongruous in it. Mr. Corbett is at the head of his profession, even as I am at the head of mine. What better combination could there be ?"

Shaw's religious opinions are a matter of doubt, but he is generally acpted as an agnostic. It was in these

nstances, while I was editor of a

the Salvation Army has enough genuine religion in it to specialise in jolly hymn tunes), is a highly enjoyable, healthy and recreative exercise. Now the art of leading a choir, or an orchestra, or anything else, consists, not in being "carried away," but in carrying other people away: and this I did with such success that a young lady in the Army bonnet took my hands as we left the box at the end of the meeting, and said, with moist eyes, "We know, don't we?" And really I think we did; so I re. frained from explaining to the lady that the daily papers habitually paralyse their readers with horror by describing me as an atheist, and that I would have sung just as lustily to Allah in a mosque or to Brahma in a temple if the music had been equally inspired.

Mr. Blathwayt did not appreciate the story, or else he forgot it. I suspect him of considering religion as a sort of drunkenness of the soul (many

Englishmen do), and therefore of Paul Thompson

misunderstanding my conviction that "BERNARD SHAW IS A TALL, LEAN MAN

it is the intensest sanity and sobriety

of the soul. The religion that carWITH A SANDY BEARD TURNING GRAY,


My religion brings them to their SAYINGS"

Hence, perhaps, its unpopularity.

G. BERNARD SHAW. Ast summer I was in Czechoslovakia

as the guest of the Government, and which he stated he had seen Mr. Shaw

saw some interesting things, including joining in the singing at a Salvation

the formal inauguration of the new ReArmy meeting. Here is Shaw's letter public. A deep impression was left on me to me following the publication of the by President Masaryk, the simple-manparagraph:

nered, white-haired old professor who as

the head of state occupies some rooms Sir—My friend Mr. Blathwayt, an inveterate romanticist, has spoiled

in the great palace which used to be the story of my singing at the Salva

long to the Hapsburgs.

As I listened tion meeting. I took on myself the

to his modest words and looked into duty of leading the singing in my

those calm and gentle eyes it was hard box, being of opinion that hymn-sing

to realize that this apparently unforce ing, when the tune is a jolly one (and ful man had remolded a nation. I did



London daily paper, that Mr. Raymond L




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was being done to safeguard the food one of the speakers, I wondered what he and housing of the population under the could possibly find in common with repexisting pressure. Never was there in resentatives of modern democratic one person a more complete embodiment methods. He was a little squat-faced of the characteristics of his nation- man. His cold eyes and straight mouth directness, modesty, and courage.

portrayed his physical courage, and to

those who knew his bistory he repreINKED up with Masaryk and Knudsen

sented not so much the sixteenth cen. there is another man of a different

tury as the twelfth century. His little race, namely, Milyukov, the intellectual

speech was a dramatic surprise. That leader of the first Russian revolution

man of blood and steel said that he that banished Czardom forever. It may derived much of his rest and recreation well be that out of the present chaos

from the reading of the placid domestic of Bolshevism there will presently English novel with its portrayal of emerge a constitutional democratic Rus

home life, peace, and happiness. It sian Government, and, if that should be

may have been an idle compliment. I so, it is inevitable that Milyukov will

fancy, however, that there was more play a leading part, perhaps the domi

than a grain of truth in his words, so nant part. I met him just before the

strangely compacted is the human soul. war in Petrograd in the uma, a studi

I have mentioned Dournovo because the ous, cultivated, modest man who had

day of him and his like are past, at traveled much, marked by a certain self

least for this generation. He provides effacement in manner and by a fervor

some kind of contrast to the men who for information, learned as he was. At

are now in control of affairs. (C) Paul Thompson

that moment there must have been work. "PRESIDENT MASARYK,

ing in him the germs which led to the MODERN unofficial leader in England MANNERED, WHITE-HAIRED OLD PROFESSOR overthrow of the last of the great desWHO AS THE HEAD OF STATE OCCUPIES potic monarchies. He radiated an in- man, the owner of a hundred publications

quiring sympathy as to constitutional from the famous London “Times" down WHICH USED TO BELONG TO THE HAPS

to a comic journal for boys. At once brillBURGS"

iant, erratic, and sincere, his mind and

his mood are as elusive as the seven not get his secret. I had some indica

winds of heaven. His personality is tion, however, of that hidden power two

infinitely more interesting than his days later when I was present at the

policy, whatever the latter may be for opening meeting of the Czechoslovakian

the moment. Picture a square-faced Parliament. A minority of German

man with mouth drooping at the cormembers raised a tumult because of the

ners, a lock of tawny hair falling over use of the Bohemian language in place

his square forehead, and with eyes that of the use of the German language, as

fluctuate between a sinister gloom and of old. Three-quarters of the gathering

a boyish exuberance. It is far easier were Czechoslovakian patriots, and

for him to bubble over with enthusiasm under great provocation they sat abso

than to be the harsh and dogmatic lutely silent even when the Germans

critic that he sometimes is. Only those flagrantly insulted the new President.

who have never met Lord Northcliffe Such good manners and wisdom were

voice hatred toward him. He has a phenomenal. I asked a Czech leader

quick, sympathetic, youthful unreserve about it afterward. "It was entirely due

which attracts both men and women. to Masaryk," he said. "He schooled us

Stories necessarily cluster around such to that for the occasion, and it was just Paul Thompson

a man, especially when he has made an example of the kind of man he is." "ANOTHER DEMOCRATIC RULER OF A COUN- himself into a multi-millionaire.

TRY WHOM I MET DURING THE WAR WAS He used frequently to be in the edi. NOTHER democratic ruler of a country PRIME MINISTER KNUDSEN, OF NORWAY, torial rooms of the “Daily Mail” when whom I met during the war was



the men were at work at night, and

SPECTACLES" Prime Minister Knudsen, of Norway, a simple-mannered old man with spec- methods in America and Britain and, tacles, who sat at a flat-topped desk in like many other strangers, had a treChristiania pretty much like a New York mendous regard for both their modes business man in his office in the Wool- and moods. Little wonder, in view of worth Building. Norway, heart and soul all that had happened in Russia, the with the Allies, was sending out ships home of tyranny and oppression. It was regardless of the fact that a large pro- within a few days of meeting Milyukov portion of them were sunk by the that I came in touch with a man who submarines, that great numbers of Nor- personified the mediævalism of his counwegian sailors were being drowned, try-Dournovo, Minister of the Interior, and that Scandinavia as a whole was practically the domestic ruler of Rusunder the menace of Germany, then at sia during the massacres and banishthe zenith of her power. Mr. Knudsen, ments which followed the uprisings with chiefs of departments at his dis- some few years previous. He was ironposal, troubled none of them, but he handed. Meetings of workers in the dived into drawers for facts and figures streets were corralled and were shot as he explained to me with simple busi- down with cold-blooded precision. Schoolnesslike illustrations that the sover- rooms in Warsaw and other places eignty of Norway must be preserved at where these tragedies had been enacted any cost, and that the people were all of had been previously pointed out to me.

(C) Underwood one mind. This unpretentious old Norse- I saw Dournovo at a dinner given to

"MILYUKOV, THE INTELLECTUAL LEADER man would have come out into the distinguished English guests in Petro

OF THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTION TH! streets of Christiania to show me what grad, and, knowing that he was to be







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