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Official Photograph, U. S. Navy


T ROM time immemorial there have of co-operation, for when war breaks, as of weather reports, fog signals, landing

K been but two theaters of opera- it will in the future as surely as it has signals, and lighthouses and beacons I tion for commerce and war—the in the past, all activities will be turned along the National air highways. Governwater and the land. But within the last to the common end of National defense. ment and State owned landing-fields and decade a heretofore undiscovered sphere our country does not believe, in gen- terminal facilities should be provided. has been opened up—that of the air. eral, in direct subsidies. We have not To handle these activities a bureau No nation that expects to hold its own held it sound for the Government to should be established by the Department can afford to neglect its air service contribute in cash to mercantile ven- of Commerce which should have under Land and water have been the means of tures. We have, however, held in its special supervision the activities communication up to the present time. numerous instances that what might be named above, and such others in addiTo them in the future will be added the termed an indirect subsidy is permis tion as the licensing of pilots, manuhighways of the air. Not alone because sible. In our income tax we allow cer- facturers, and equipment. By placing of its military and naval value, but also tain small exemptions for children and these grouped activities in the Departbecause of its potential commercial dependents, which amounts to nothing ment of Commerce, which has cogvalue, aeronautics must be carefully more nor less than a subsidy. Merchant nizance of inter-State traffic, the organistudied and thoroughly developed by shipping is indirectly subsidized byzation already available, with few addiour country.

dredging harbors, building docks, main- tions, can take up readily the added In all new departures, such as aero- taining a lighthouse service, storm warn- work involved. This may be done at a nautics, activities tend to be ill consid- ings, channel buoys, radio compass sta moderate cost and far-reaching results ered. In order to avoid this we must, tions, and safeguards and aids of a like can be obtained. as a first step, establish a consistent nature. Moreover, the tariff is in its Another most important step that Governmental air policy. If we do not nature an indirect subsidy; for by it should be taken immediately is the do this, we are certain to run into home industries are permitted to sell codification and formulation of a comtrouble; development will be haphazard their commodities at higher prices than prehensive code of air laws. At the and wasteful. We consider but one would be possible with the general mar. present time there is little, if anything, aspect of a given question, and as a re- ket of the world opened unrestricted to along this line. This is essentially a sult the ultimate action will often serve the purchaser.

Federal duty, for aircraft moves so fast but one purpose where it might have Our policy as to mercantile air de that most of its work will be inter-State. served two or more.

velopment should therefore follow the The need for these laws has been felt In our big cities, especially in the line of indirect aid. We should at once already. At the present moment many East, the older streets crisscross con- map out and adopt a comprehensive sys- States have under consideration, and tinually and curve like fish-hooks. I can tem of National air highways. If we do some have already passed, regulatory recall when I first went to Boston com- this, we can establish them in such statutes. Should this continue, an aling upon Beacon Street a few blocks fashion as to be of use equally for com- most unraveled tangle will occur which after I had left it directly behind me, mercial purposes in time of peace and will seriously impede development. and as a result almost giving up myself for military purpose in time of war. We The next broad feature of our air as lost. The reason for this "mix-up" will also give to all those who desire to policy is the military. There should be is that there was no city plan when provide capital to establish units for air no united, independent air force; but, these streets were laid out. They were traffic the assurance that they are ex- on the contrary, bureaus of aeronautics made as the need arose; sometimes, as pending their money in places where the within the departments. In general, one poem says, merely because a cow development is permanent, being Na military and naval authorities are wandered that way. Our air develop- tionally sanctioned. Moreover, there are agreed on this. Generals Pershing and ment will be the same unless we adopt at this time certain Governmental de Wood, Admirals Coontz, Sims, and now at its inception a comprehensive partments, namely the Navy, War, and others, the General Staff of the Army, Governmental policy.

Postal, which are expending moneys on the General Board of the Navy, have all The air policy should consist of two their air activities. When National made declarations to this effect. In branches—our mercantile policy and our highways are determined upon, these addition, the equivalent of this idea has military policy. Under these two broad moneys will be spent along a compre- been advanced by the most prominent heads the majority of the existing neces- hensive scheme and will not be wasted British naval and military authoritiessary activities will divide themselves. upon places later abandoned.

namely, Admirals Jellicoe and Beatty Though grouped under two heads, there The Government should furthermore and Marshal Haig. should be nevertheless the closest kind establish navigational aids in the shape Though the air is a new theater of operations, it is not an exact parallel to the land and the sea. The land and sea touch only on their extreme limits; therefore land and naval forces do not, as a rule, function intimately, tactically, in battle. On the other hand, the air is contiguous throughout to both of the other theaters; therefore operations in it are intimately connected at all times with the operations of the land or naval forces. Where there is a naval battle with airplanes and seaplanes they are an entity of the general engagement. Where there is a land battle of the same type the same conditions exist. As this is so, the naval airships should train with the Navy in order to master naval warfare; and equally with the Army to master land warfare. The general maxim holds good that for the most effective work it is necessary to have units trained together and thoroughly familiar with each other. For this reason, I have even heard divisional commanders make the point that the divisional airplanes should be a permanent detail.

Again, for effective application of power, there must be unity of command. History has proved that a fair plan promptly conceived and actively prosecuted will triumph over a better plan

SECRETARY ROOSEVELT AT HIS DESK AT THE NAVY DEPARTMENT tardily decided upon and half-heartedly pushed. For this reason, if for no other, Professor of Engineering, Columbia Uni. nautics for the furnishing of informathere must be no division of authority. versity; Dr. Charles F. Marvin, Chief of tion of assistance in regard to scientific

Though there must be a separation of the Weather Bureau; Dr. John F. Hay. and technical matters relating to aerothe military and naval air services, ford, Director of the College of Engi- nautics, and in particular for the investhere must be a co-ordination between neering, Northwestern University; Dr. tigation and study of problems in this them and other Governmental activities. William F. Durand, in charge of the field with a view to their practical soluThis at the moment is practiced by the Mechanical Department, Leland Stan- tion. They have been, and can be in Army and Navy, who have a joint board, ford University; Dr. Joseph S. Ames, the future, of the highest value, and the called the Aeronautical Board, which head of the Department of Physics, Board should be extended to embrace discusses all plans made by either de. Johns Hopkins University; and Dr. L. representatives of the postal and compartment.

W. Stratton, Director of the Bureau of mercial departments. We have at present the National Standards.

President Harding has indicated to Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, of This Committee, under an appropria- the country his full appreciation of the which the chairman is Charles D. Wal- tion from Congress, carries on research importance of our air policy in his cott, President of the Smithsonian Insti- and experimental engineering for the Message. He has said, in part, as foltution and a scientist of the first order. aid of commercial aviation and for all lows: On it, in addition to representatives of of the Governmental organizations. Un- “Aviation is inseparable from either the Army and Navy, are Orville Wright, der the law, they hold themselves at the the Army or the Navy, and the Governone of the brothers first to fly a heavier- service of any department or agency of ment must, in the interests of National than-air machine; Dr. Michael I. Pupin, the Government interested in aero defense, encourage its development for

military and civil purposes. The encouragement of the civil development of aeronautics is especially desirable as relieving the Government largely of the expense of the development and maintenance of aircraft now almost entirely borne by the Government through appropriations for military, naval, and postal services. The air mail service is an important initial step in the direction of commercial aviation.

"I recommend the enactment of legislation establishing a bureau of aeronautics in the Navy Department to centralize the control of naval activities in aeronautics, and removing the restrictions on the personnel detailed to aviation in the Navy.

“The Army air service should be continued as a co-ordinate combatant of the Army, and its existing organization utilized in co-operation with other agen

cies of the Government in the establishU. S. Navy Department photograph

ment of National transcontinental airSECRETARY ROOSEVELT BOARDS THE U. S. S. PENNSYLVANIA AT GUANTANAMO ways and in co-operation with the States in the establishment of local airdromes of aviation in specified and detailed working on that assumption, abandoned and landing fields."


activities to which aeronautics are the building of large ships and turned This clearly states, in unmistakable adapted.

to the construction of many small ones. terms, the President's grasp of the prob- Great as the importance of this poten- She, however, soon saw the error of her lem. In compliance with his announced tial development is, we must steer a judgment and returned to her original policies, there are at this time before careful course and refuse to let the wild- programme. In the same way, the maCongress a number of bills, some of eyed dreamers carry us to unfortunate chine gun was to eliminate the infantry, which will probably become law before extremes. We are dealing with prob- but with the machine gun developed as this article is printed. Congressman lems and possibilities, and we must ac- never before it was still the infantry Frederick C. Hicks, of New York, has cept them as just that and no more. which won the last great land battles. submitted a bill which provides for the There are well-meaning visionaries The submarine has its defects as the formation of a bureau of civil aero among us who would treat figments of universal naval "panacea," but the nautics in the Department of Commerce. their imagination as facts and abandon greatest exponent of its use, Admiral The terms of the bill were made to con- the capital ship and the Navy as obso- von Tirpitz, in his “Memoirs," published form with the President's recommen- lete. Do not be deceiyed by them. The lately, says that his only regret is that dations.

capital ship is still the body of the he did not build more battleships. Congressman Hicks also has intro- Navy, the infantry is still the body of We must face the future with fore duced a bill for the creation of a bureau the Army, and both will remain so. sight. We must, however, deal with of aeronautics in the Department of the The air service is an important auxil. facts, not fancies. We must therefore Navy, embracing to the letter the rec- iary arm. This type of prophet is not follow the President's programme and ommendations of the President, and strange or new. We have had him with adopt a sound, comprehensive, constructhere have been included in the appro- us before at the time of the invention tive air policy which will place our priation of the army air service, aerial of the Whitehead torpedo, when he country in a position to take full admail, Weather Bureau, and the various prophesied in the same way that the vantage of the development the future departments funds for the employment capital ship had gone. Indeed, France, holds.



TT ODAK pictures of our friends are

sometimes not so flattering as

formal portraits, but, on the other hand, they are frequently attractive by their naturalness and unexpectedness. Snap-shots of leading personalities are pretty much the same. Occasionally they are disillusioning, but often enough they present a celebrity at a new and unexpected angle.

DERNARD SHAW, unlike some writers, D reflects his writings in his conversation. He is a tall, lean man with a sandy beard turning gray, gentle quizzical eyes, and the softest voice that ever dropped bitter sayings. Audaciously aggressive in mind, he is shrinkingly apologetic in manner. He has, as all the world knows, a contempt for Shakespeare. I heard him once pour scorn on "As You Like It" and say that he himself had written a far better play. "Shakespeare," he added, "was a gentleman of my own profession, and I have nothing much to say against him. Be. sides, he was not entirely without ability. He occasionally wrote very decent prose."

I talked with Shaw years ago about his choice of James Corbett, the heavy. weight champion of the world, as the principal actor in one of his plays which had a bearing on pugilism. “Incongruous," I said, "for you, a highbrow, to put a prize-fighter to play a leading part in one of your dramas."

"Why?” replied Shaw. “I don't see anything incongruous in it. Mr. Corbett is at the head of his profession, even as I am at the head of mine. What better combination could there be ?"

Shaw's religious opinions are a mat. ter of doubt, but he is generally acrepted as an agnostic. It was in these

"imstances, while I was editor of a

the Salvation Army has enough genuine religion in it to specialise in jolly hymn tunes), is a highly enjoyable, healthy and recreative exercise. Now the art of leading a choir, or an orchestra, or anything else, consists, not in being "carried away," but in carrying other people away: and this I did with such success that a young lady in the Army bonnet took my hands as we left the box at the end of the meeting, and said, with moist eyes, “We know, don't we?" And really I think we did; so I refrained from explaining to the lady that the daily papers habitually paralyse their readers with horror by describing me as an atheist, and that I would have sung just as lustily to Allah in a mosque or to Brahma in a temple if the music had been equally inspired.

Mr. Blathwayt did not appreciate the story, or else he forgot it. I suspect him of considering religion as a sort of drunkenness of the soul (many Englishmen do), and therefore of misunderstanding my conviction that it is the intensest sanity and sobriety of the soul. The religion that carries people away is not my religion. My religion brings them to their senses. Hence, perhaps, its unpopularity.

G. BERNARD SHAW. Ast summer I was in Czechoslovakia L as the guest of the Government, and saw some interesting things, including the formal inauguration of the new Re public. A deep impression was left on me by President Masaryk, the simple-mannered, white-haired old professor who as the head of state occupies some rooms in the great palace which used to be long to the Hapsburgs. As I listened to his modest words and looked into those calm and gentle eyes it was hard to realize that this apparently unforce ful man had remolded a nation. I did

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London daily paper, that Mr. Raymond
Blathwayt sent me a paragraph in
which he stated he had seen Mr. Shaw
joining in the singing at a Salvation
Army meeting. Here is Shaw's letter
to me following the publication of the

Sir—My friend Mr. Blathwayt, an
inveterate romanticist, has spoiled
the story of my singing at the Salva-
tion meeting. I took on myself the
duty of leading the singing in my
box, being of opinion that hymn-sing-
ing, when the tune is a jolly one (and

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