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Copyright, 1921, by The Outlook Company


Vol. 128

July 6, 1921

No. 10



is formulated in
The Manhood

of Humanity By ALFRED KORZYBSKI who calls his work “the Science and

Art of Human Engineering” His new concept is received by engineers, mathematicians and other men accustomed to rigorous thinking as of such fundamental importance to educa. tion, ethics and civilization as a whole that they declare it even more epochmaking than Newton's discovery of the law of gravitation. WALTER N. POLAKOV, eminent engi

neer, discussed it before the annual meeting of the Am. Soc. of Mech. Engineers, as appealing" at once to common sense and the most searching scrutiny of mathemati

cal analysis." CASSIUS J. KEYSER, Professor of Mathe

matics, Columbia University, made it the subject of his address to the Phi Beta Kappa Society, calling it “momentous in what it contains, even more so in what it suggests, and most of all, I dare say, in the excellent things it will eventually help men

and women to think and say and do.' A. F. SHELDON, Chairman of the Com

mittee on Ethics and Philosophy of the International Association of Rotary Clubs, went to the recent annual meeting in Edinburgh especially to speak about this book, seeing in the truths revealed in it "the possibility of making a long stride toward putting the problems of human relationships, including those of commerce and industry, on the plane where they belong." READ IT AND REALIZE FOR YOURSELF ITS FAR REACHING IMPLICATIONS

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Is There Hope for Peace in Ireland ? 401 The Author of the Drago Doctrine.. 401 The Public Helps Settle a Strike.... 401 A Triumph for Samuel Gompers.

402 A New Form of Government Security 402 'The Grade Crossing Menace...

402 Know You of This Taxation?........ 403

Cartoons of the Week Amherst's Centennial Commencement 404 President Angell of Yale.....

404 John Bull Casts Bread Upon the Waters 405 Another British Trophy and Certain

of the Domestic Variety.... 405 The Increasingly Interesting Japanese 405 " The Blue Bird” in Peking .

406 “ Highly Improper !".

407 The House that Smiled..

407 The Anglo-Japanese Alliance.........

408 Did the Consortium Kill the AngloJapanese Alliance ?....

409 Special Correspondence by Sydney Greenbie In Memory of Brave-Hearted Ameri.

410 In Distant India..

411 Pictures from Outlook Readers Mr. Hughes Humanized : A Study of the Secretary of State .

412 By Richard Barry The Quatre-Bras of the World's Waterloo 413

By Lyman Abbott The Fifth Link......

416 By Sherman Rogers Putting the Talk in Chautauqua...... 418

By Gregory Mason A Grave (Poem)...

420 By Edward Davison Island (Poem)...

420 By Amelia Josephine Burr The Book Table : Andrew Carnegie....

421 The New Books...

422 Books Received.

RALPH BARTON PERRY formerly Secretary of the War Dept. Committee on Education and Special Training, tells the story of


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66 The Next War"

By WILL IRWIN Pictures as it has never been put before you

yet, the way in which the burden of the late war and of the fear of another, is stifling your future and the development of your country. As the Public Ledger puts it : "Should not common sense step in and stop the folly of war ?" Whether you agree with Mr. Irwin as to method or not, his undisputed facts you should know-and they will amaze you.

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JULY 6, 1921


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made on both sides. It is said that IN IRELAND?

De Valera will consent to the meeting

only if certain conditions are first NLY few weeks ago Lloyd

granted. This at once suggests that, if George declared that the differ.

conditions are to be granted in advance, ences between the two conflicting

Mr. Lloyd George might very properly sides in Ireland seemed irreconcilable,

demand from the Sinn Fein leaders in and he used the same word in contrast.

advance an open disavowal of complicity ing the declared policy of the Sinn Fein

in the policy of ambush and assassinaand the policy of England, adding, to

tion which preceded reprisals. If the clinch the matter, that the policy of

Sinn Fein leaders claim to control the establishing an Irish Republic is im

so-called Sinn Fein national army, and possible. Now, however, there is a serious and

if the scores of assassinations which

preceded any reprisal were in any way evidently carefully thought out attempt

the work of men connected with that to bring representatives of these "irrec

army, oncilable" elements into conference in

a terrible responsibility rests order that some just and reasonable way

upon the Sinn Fein organization-one

which it ought either to justify or refor peace and compromise may be found.

nounce. Again, there seems to be conKing George lately opened formally and with great ceremony the new Par

siderable opposition to the proposed

meeting from the Ulster counties. One lament of North Ireland, and his very

Ulster member of Parliament has depresence (considering the disorder and

clared: “We are willing to work with dangerous condition of Belfast during

all Irishmen for our country's good, but the election) was a sign not only of his

only as free, self-respecting citizens of personal courage but of the importance

the British Empire. We decline to assothat his Government attached to this

ciate with murderers, at least until they event in Irish history. In his address

have repented of their evil deeds." the King made an eloquent appeal that

Certainly the world at large will hope the acceptance by the so-called Ulster Provinces of reasonable Home Rule

that, despite all difficulties and conflict. might be followed by willingness in the

ing passions, there may come out of this south of Ireland to accept representative

new effort a plan that will establish government without absolute indepen. something like Dominion rule in the dence. Without arguing the case or go

two irreconcilable sections of Ireland,

and that will make brute force, murder, ing into details, he expressed the hope that, just as in South Africa, where ra

and revenge for murder things imposcial and religious prejudices had been

sible for the future. laid aside for unity, SO in Ireland men of differing creed and political

THE AUTHOR OF THE aspirations might be induced “to pause,

DRAGO DOCTRINE to stretch out the hand of forbearance UIS MARIA DRAGO is dead, at the age and conciliation, to forgive and to for- of sixty-three. He was the proget, and to join in making for the land pounder of the famous Drago Doctrine. which they love a new era of peace, con- Dr. Drago was early impressed by the tentment, and good will."

fact that the attempt of Napoleon III This appeal was

soon followed by to impose Maximilian upon Mexico was Lloyd George's invitation to the head of based largely upon the purchase of the Sinn Fein faction, Mr. De Valera, Mexican bonds by France which were to meet with Sir James Craig, the

repudiated by Mexico. Premier of the new Government in

When Señor Drago became ArgenNorth Ireland, and with the English tine Foreign Minister, England, GerPrime Minister.

A safeguard for this many, and Italy were resorting to purpose was offered to Mr. De Valera bombardment in order to compel the and associates of his political faction Venezuelan Government to pay the whom he wished to appear with him.

debts contracted by it with citizens of There is a special value in having the

those European countries. This aroused new Ulster Premier represent Ulster

Drago to action. He wrote a letter to rather than Sir Edward Carson, whose

John Hay, then our Secretary of State, past activity, it is thought, makes him

declaring that no collection of Governless desirable for compromise purposes.

ment bonds ought to provoke armed interBut hardly had the invitation been vention, still less territorial occupancy. announced than difficulties began to be Dr. Drago's letter to Mr. Hay made a

profound impression upon that statesman, who officially acknowledged it and made it public throughout the world. Mr. Hay's opinion was shared by his successor, Mr. Root, who, when the Second Hague Conference was called, instructed the American delegates to ask for consideration of the subject, re. minding them that it had long been our established policy not to use our Army and Navy for the collection of ordinary contract debts due to our citizens from other governments and declaring that he did not consider such use of force consistent with respect for the inde. pendent sovereignty of other nations.

The Hague Conference heeded Mr. Root's request and made it the subject of the Second Convention, enacted in 1907, as follows:

The contracting Powers agree not to have recourse to armed force for the recovery of contract debts claimed from the government of one country by the government of another country, as being due to its nationals.

This undertaking is, however, not applicable when the debtor state refuses or neglects to reply to an offer of arbitration, or, after accepting the offer, prevents any compromis from being agreed on, or, after the arbitration, fails to submit to the award.

Drago's work was thus monumental. His name has been justly carried into every civilized country of the world.

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N Cleveland a strike in the building

trades has involved some twenty-five thousand workingmen and their families, and also about forty million dollars' worth of construction contracts under way. Fruitless negotiations have been going on for several months. Finally, the establishment of a wage scale was submitted to the arbitration of a Conciliation Board, the members of which represented equally the organized employers and the organized employees in the building trades of Cleveland, aug. mented by the addition of seven representatives of the public at large. The particular problems before the Board were how to revive the building trade industry so as to relieve both the prevailing unemployment and the shortage of buildings and how to reconcile the rate of pay with the falling cost of liv. ing without reducing the pay below the living wage.

The seven representatives of the ruky



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lic at large carefully considered the ex- follow the established methods of form of Government security and marks tent to which the cost of living has de- union organization and detests labor a new departure in Government financ. creased between the peak price of July, Bolshevism. He expressed his feeling ing. No Government issue comes nearer 1920, and the present price level, and as to the result of the contest by saying to competing with private financing than traced the course of prices and wages that “the whole work of the Conven- does this. It should, however, we think, from the pre-war level to those which tion, the resolutions and declarations not really conflict with the investment now obtain. It was found that the per. adopted, the policies indicated, mean for market, as the issue will attract a differcentage of alteration of pay in the dif- the future a united, progressive, mili- ent class of investors from that attracted ferent building crafts was not precisely tant movement, following upon a pro- by corporate offerings or even foreign uniform. In adjusting differentials, gressive, fruitful, and militant past." Government bonds. many factors had to be taken into The Federation's most radical move at account, such the relative skill, Denver was a reaffirmation in stronger 'THE GRADE-CROSSING MENACE difficulty, danger, agreeableness, and terms than before of its belief in Gov

\he dreadful disaster not long ago at seasonal conditions interrupting the ernment ownership of railways and

a Perth Amboy, New Jersey, grade work of the different crafts, and also their democratic operation—the last

crossing and the similarly fatal disaster the corresponding differentials obtain- phrase is one capable of widely differing

which preceded it at Shipley, Mary. ing elsewhere than in Cleveland. definitions. The Irish question caused

land, are evidences of the growing The conclusion reached by the public heated and violent talk, but the Conven

seriousness of the grade-crossing sysrepresentatives was so fair and accept- tion had the good sense to refuse to

tem, especially in view of the increase able that the Board adopted it and demand a boycott on British goods. Its

of highway travel. recommends the creation of a permanent request of Congress to recognize the

The accident at Perth Amboy was board of experts, to be presided over by Irish Republic was impertinent and

particularly poignant. A crew of volun. an impartial chairman, so that the pub- foolish but harmless. The attempt to

teer firemen were on their way to a fire. lic may have permanent representation favor an amendment to the United

The driver of the ruck did not see that in the settlement of wage disputes and States Constitution taking from Con

the gateman was waving a flag. The of all jurisdictional questions, and also gress the power to declare war and sub

truck collided with the Lakewood Exin the abatement of abuses and in the stituting a referendum to the people

press. Nine of the firemen were killed development of general well-being within died a deserved death.

and others injured. the building trades industry.

At Shipley the accident occurred at a So far as we know, in that industry

A NEW FORM OF GOVERNMENT crossing already famous, or rather inthroughout the country no such permaSECURITY

famous, by reason of similar disasters. nent board of experts under a neutral

ECRETARY OF THE TREASURY MELLON Since June 1, 1910, no less than seven chairman has been devised. Such a

recently announced an offering of have occurred at this crossing. board ought to deal not only with ques

$500,000,000 of short-term notes, the For the latest reported quarter of a tions of wage scales and jurisdictional

proceeds to be used to help retire the year the Inter-State Commerce Commisdisputes, but also with commodity prices,

Victory Bonds, of which the Government sion's Bulletin shows that 632 persons with the value of profits, with the price

has already bought up and canceled were killed and 1,500 injured by highof money and the attitude of money.

nearly half a billion dollars' worth. The way grade-crossing accidents. Of these, lenders, with transportation and haul

new issue is the first step in the Ad- twenty-five of the killed and twenty-two ing costs, with occupational standards

ministration's campaign to fund its of the injured were "trespassers." and general construction costs.

maturing obligations into new paper. Of course original conditions in railIf, acting on the Cleveland initiative,

The short-term notes are part for one way construction in this country were the public could be thoroughly informed

year and part for three years: the first, such that grade crossings had to be perand represented in regard to all these

dated June 15, 1921, due June 15, 1922, mitted. But they have now become an matters, the building trades in every and the second, dated June 15, 1921, increasing menace.

They are death. American city might expect early and due June 15, 1924.

traps. In the ultimate analysis, safety continuous revival.

The one-year notes bear 512 per cent is dependent upon the human factor.

interest, and the three-year notes 5% No automatic device has been successA TRIUMPH FOR per cent.

fully operated to eliminate that factor. SAMUEL GOMPERS

The notes are exempt from the nor- The only thing to do is to act as THE overwhelming vote in favor of mal Federal income tax, the corporation Great Britain has done-put the grade

Samuel Gompers as tax, and from all State and local taxa- crossings out of business. They should President of the American Federation of tion except estate and inheritance be abolished with all the rapidity conLabor indicates that organized unions taxes; but are not exempt from Federal sistent with fair dealing between the trust his leadership and distrust the income surtaxes or profits taxes.

railways, on the one hand, and State revolutionary methods that failed

The notes are issued in denomina- and local authorities, on the other. signally in Seattle. Both Gompers and tions from $100 to $100,000.

Some of the States, notably Massachuhis opponent, Mr. J. L. Lewis, have de- The three-year notes should prove es- setts, have taken steps in this direction. clared against “one big union” and the pecially attractive to investors, whether New Jersey is one of those States. But, attempts to starve and bully communi.

individuals or groups. Patriotic senti. as this is a matter of tremendous ex. ties into complying with demands of the ment may move some citizens to sub- pense, and as the expense must be di. few backed by the disorder of mobs. scribe to them, but investors will be vided between the railway and the town, But undoubtedly Mr. Lewis's following more strongly influenced, we may be county, or State, slow progress has been was largely made up of the more radical sure, by the facts that the notes are tax. made. element in the Denver Convention.

exempt, are acceptable in payment of Some years ago, in the New Jersey That Mr. Gompers should win by a vote income and profits taxes, and are not primary elections, opposite the names of of more than two to one (25,022 to subject to call for redemption before candidates for the Legislature there ap 324) is significant. Mr. Gompers is maturity.

peared on the ballot a brief statement of gressive fighter, but he wants to The announcement introduces a new

measures they advocated. One such in

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