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most of those to Japan he didn't avail curred, it is practically certain that he need it and brotherly when they deserve himself of the customary time which would not bring that disagreement to an it. In his daily talks with the Washdiplomatic usage allowed him for the issue.
ington correspondents one feels that he proper answer. He just tossed the The change in the Hughes psychology appreciates their responsibilities, 1 answers off hastily, like any business is most readily observed in his contacts spects their intelligence, recognizes their man in the course of the day's work. with newspaper men. Some wag has function, and is willing patiently to be
This unwonted celerity has given a said that now when he sees a news- come their teacher. slight wedge to unkind critics, and it paper man in the White House with a Which is as it should be, but which has been asserted, even in print, that lawyer in his proper place as adviser is not what it always has been. Mr. Hughes has taken the bit of foreign he at last perceives the true merit of The result is that on every hand one affairs in his teeth and is running away the press. It is more likely that politi- hears: “Nobody like him in the State I with it. Nothing could be farther from cal defeat, combined with reflection and Department since John Hay." He does the truth. Aside from his personal es- financial independence, has broadened not delay, he does not evade, he does not teem for the President, Mr. Hughes has his view-point.
condescend, he does not orate, and, so most delicate appreciation of the In any event, his old manner toward far as one can see, he does not play poliexact limitations of his office, both in the press is gone. In those days he tics, certainly not in the old-fashioned, law and in custom. He has not stepped looked upon newspaper men as a cross petty sense. He found a terrific mess; a hair's breadth over the line of pro- between public nuisances and unappre- he is grappling with it like a strong man priety, and, even if he disagreed with hended criminals. Now his attitude unafraid, and he is in mighty good the President, which has not yet oc- toward them is patriarchal when they humor about it.
THE QUATRE-BRAS OF THE
THE WORLD'S WATERLOO BY LYMAN ABBOTT
CITY missionary found a lone the two Italys, the ecclesiastical and the have precedence on the highway. The woman in a little room in a nar- political. So, in this country, Boston, police, if I remember aright, were not
row, ill-smelling street, took pity despite its Irish population, reflects New uniformed; and the police protection on her condition, and with great diffi- England; New York, the Atlantic coast; was so inadequate that for a time the culty found a place for her in the out- Chicago, the Middle West; Los Angeles control of the police was transferred skirts of a village where was abundant and San Francisco, the two Californias. from the City Hall to the Capitol at employment for skillful washer- If we could imagine New York and Albany. The simplest sanitary regulawoman. Two weeks later, making his Chicago changing places, in a decade, tions which herding of a great miscelrounds, he found Bridget back in her certainly in a generation, each would be laneous population always makes neces. | solitary chamber. “How is this?" he a changed city.
sary had not yet been discovered. Dogs asked her, and received for reply, "Folks Therefore the city records the dom- roamed the streets as freely as they did is better than shtoomps." She was inating tendencies in the community till recently in Constantinople, though right. Folks is better than shtoomps. both for good and for evil. Decaying not, as there, in herds; cows were stable Ever since man and woman discovered cities mean a decaying state. Develop- in the city and fed on swill from the that simple truth they have gathered in ing cities mean a developing state. The houses or refuse from the distilleries; villages, towns, and cities. So long as city is a barometer and registers the cli- none of the streets were kept very clean they believe that truth they will con- mate. Catholic Rome bore witness to and some of them were hardly cleaned tinue to gather in villages, towns, and the emergence of Italy from the pagan- at all; cases of cholera occurred every cities. The boys will leave the farms ism of the Cæsars. The city is set upon summer and an epidemic of cholera was for the towns. The mothers and sis- a hill and cannot be hid. By its prom- expected every two or three years. The ters will want to follow them. For inence it proclaims to all mankind the cleaning out of the squatters from the every Thoreau who wishes to live in the virtues and the vices of the community. region now devoted to Central Park was woods there are, and always will be, For the community makes it what it is, accom shed with difficulty; the spendthousands who, like Charles Lamb, will and it in turn makes the community. ing of money in the construction of the wish to live in the city. The call is When I came to New York City nearly park was bitterly resented as a waste of 1 equally irresistible to the ignorant and three-quarters of a century ago, the the city's funds, since only the rich to the scholar, to the sinner and to the growing residential region was from would ever use it; and the organization saint.
Houston to Fourteenth Street. When of a paid fire department, the uniformResponding to this call we always about that time my uncle Gorham ing of the police, the banishing of loose have found and always will find the Abbott left his brother's school in Hous- dogs from the streets, the removal of best and the worst of men flocking to ton Street and established the Spingler the cows and their sheds from the city the cities; the bigger and more bustling Institute in Union Square, he was criti. limits, and the sanitary regulations rethe city, the more it attracts. Here are cised for going so far uptown by con- quired for the city's health were all the great criminals and the men of servatives, who were quite sure that his accomplished by resolute reformers only wealth on whom they prey; the self- pupils would never follow him to these after a fierce battle in each case with indulgent idlers and the great captains northern limits of good society. Even the defenders of so-called vested rights. of industry; seductive invitations to some years later what is now Central Leave a great public wrong undisturbed vice and open doors of opportunity for Park was a rocky wild given over to the long enough and it becomes a vested service; the great libraries, the great huts of squatters, whose hordes of dogs right. concert halls, the great schools and uni. made crossing that region after dark a The climax of this corruption of the versities, the great lecture halls, the disagreeable and even a somewhat per- city government was reached under the great churches, the great preachers, and ilous enterprise.
Tweed Ring some years later. The city here the dance halls, the saloons, the At that time the fire companies government and the courts were corgambling hells, the houses of vice; and were volunteer organizations which bit- rupted by it, and the foul and fatal conhere is the drama at its best and its terly resented and vigorously resisted trol was extending to Albany. Happily, worst.
the organization of a paid fire depart- there were brave men who dared hazard The city is always a type of the com- ment to be always ready for a call. Oc- their peace and their good name, if not munity in which it is situated. London casionally these rival companies stopped their lives, in furnishing an answer to reflets England, Paris reflects France, on their way to a fire and fought a Tweed's question, What are you going
Thou finally mut
behind prison bars and made impossi- prey. Whether there was more gam- outside of Germany and perhaps one or ble the repetition of so gross and auda bling then than now I do not know, as two of the Scandinavian states. In the cious a robbery by any future ring. I have no means of knowing how much United States it existed in only half of
There is a great deal of not unjust there was then or is now. But saloons the country. Slavery and public educacomplaint of our city governments, and of every description, from the highest tion do not go well together. I do not the municipal experience of our great class of bar to the lowest-class dive, think there were either normal schools cities justifies the statement that the were run without any regulation that or high schools in the city. There was city government is the most difficult was apparent to the inexpert observer. no industrial education. My impression problem which to-day confronts democ- Drunken women were practically never is that the school for girls established racy. But if the test of government is seen upon the streets, as they still are by my father and his brothers in 1844 or a contented and prosperous population in parts of London, Glasgow, and Edin. '45 was the first school in the city for under its control, it cannot be said with burgh, but gentlemen the worse for the higher and broader education of justice that New York City is the worst- liquor, though unusual, were not un- girls, though there were perhaps one or governed city in the world. At least known in our public vehicles or on the more Roman Catholic convent schools. there is no present indication that Ger- sidewalks in our best streets. On New There were in the city the three colman critics have any great desire to Year's Day, which in accordance with leges—the New York University, Colum. return to Berlin, or Irish critics to Cork an ancient Dutch custom was devoted bia College, and the City College. or Dublin; and when our Government to social calls by the gentlemen, tipsy But these institutions, which had hunprovides free passage across the ocean men were so frequently to be met with, dreds of pupils then, have thousands for Russian assailants of the Govern- not only on the streets but in the now. The public school was still in ment of this their adopted land to re- hospitable parlors of the best society, the experimental stage. The question turn to the land of their nativity, there that the festival use of the day was whether education should be furnished to are not heard from them those expres. finally abandoned by common consent. all free by the State, or by the churches sions of gratitude which might reason- Whether National prohibition is the and by private enterprise to such as were ably be expected from them. Our city best method of meeting the evils of the able to pay for it, was still a hotly degovernment is in our own hands. It is drink traffic I am myself not clear. But bated question, and Archbishop Hughes as good as we deserve, for it is as good that it has been adopted by so large a. earned a deserved unpopularity in most as we care to make it. It is an old vote and accepted with so little opposi- Protestant circles by his vigorous attack saying that eternal vigilano is the price tion at least indicates that a very large upon the Public School System. of liberty, and if we do not care to pay number of persons who think it quite Then the schools largely and colleges the price we have no reason to complain harmless to drink a glass of beer or almost exclusively existed to prepare if we do not get the coveted article. wine with their meals have without re- men for the three learned professions-
Law may measurably protect the luctance given up that pleasure in order law, medicine, and the ministry. I do prudent from criminals, but it is never to give the experiment of National total not think there was in either of the an adequate protection of the ignorant, abstinence a fair trial. It is quite cer- colleges a gymnasium or a laboratory the innocent, and the weak from the tain that drunkenness is no longer the for the students, either physical or enticements of vice. Whether there is common American vice it was a hun- chemical. I know there was none in less or more vice in New York City than dred, or even fifty, years ago.
my college, the New York University. there was three-quarters of a century hundred years ago it was not as bad in Now every vocation is a learned proago I cannot say, but it is certainly less New York as it was in the eighteenth fession; men are as well educated for ostentatiously offensive. Then it was century in London, where, the historian banking or commerce as for the bar or not safe for any woman to go out un- tells us, signs might be seen on some of the pulpit. Barnard College furnishes attended in the streets of the city after the liquor shops: "Drunk for a penny: to women an equipment and a faculty nightfall. Women were generally not with straw to lie on, twopence."
not inferior to that furnished by Columadmitted to the theaters without a male New York in the last seventy years bia to men. The training schools for escort, except that in many, I believe has shared in the general enlargement teachers of the city are supplemented most, of the theaters the upper gallery of popular education which has charac. by the Teachers College of Columbia and was reserved as a hunting-ground where terized the Republic. In 1850 there was the School of Pedagogy of the New York women of the town might look for their in all Europe no public school system University. The high schools give ap
Courtesy of Valentine's Manual
LOWER NEW YORK IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
Bowling Green in 1848. The Iron railing. still in use, came from England in 1771
proximately as thorough an education waning? Are the institutions of re. precepts, and the orthodox ministers de as was given in the first two years of ligion losing their usefulness?
nied his precepts but preached his my college course. And the public one who regards, as I do, religion as divinity, was too epigrammatic to be school system is so firmly rooted in the the life-blood of the community will re- quite true. But it is true that charity public esteem that nothing but the gard the loss as incalculable.
and missionary sermons were reserved grossest mismanagement or some rad. It is said that people do not go to for special occasions, that temperance ical revolution can ever overthrow it. church as much as they did seventy
were rare, and that in most The difference between the incidental years ago. That is probably true. But churches any reference to American institutions of culture, such the the churches are going to the people slavery was prohibited by an unex. libraries, art galleries, concert halls, much more. Then the churches were pressed but very effective law. If to and museums, is illustrated by the dif- worshiping assemblies which met on feed the hungry, clothe the naked, minference between Barnum's American one day in each week to unite in prayer ister to the suffering and the handiMuseum, with its “woolly horse" and its and praise and to listen to sermons. capped, is to do Christ's work, then we "Japanese mermaid," and the Metropoli. There were few or no mission chapels may say that the churches are talking tan Museum and the Natural History or mission Sunday schools, no parish about him less and working for him Museum in Central Park, each of which houses, no men's clubs, no church more than they did seventy years ago. is worthy to be described as one of the forums, no social settlements, no gym. There is less preaching of Paul's Epistle great museums of the world. The re- nasiums for boys, no sewing or cooking to the Romans; there is more practicing cently created "Town Hall" is itself a schools for girls. There were weekly of Christ's Sermon on the Mount. testimony to the determination of the meetings for prayer, but few or none Great cities are the strategic points in American people to maintain the right for work. The Young Men's Christian the world's great battlefield. There the of free assembly and an open public dis- Association was just born and was forces of good and evil meet each other cussion of all questions which concern hardly out of its cradle, and the face to face for a hand-to-hand battle to the community's welfare. When churches quite generally looked on it the death. The good soldier. who be. group of would-be advocates of Ireland's with disfavor as a rival. There was no lieves in his cause and in his Leader independence gather in a meeting to Young Women's Christian Association, asks nothing better. A backward glance howl down a speaker who does not agree no Woman's Christian Temperance over seventy-five years in the history with them, they are quite unwittingly Union. The churches were largely of America's greatest city confirms my furnishing to the American people a theological schools. The sermons were lifelong faith that the forces of selfish stronger argument against Irish inde. largely theological discussions. The indulgence and selfish ambition are no pendence than any which its most in. statement of a gentle critic in the fifties match for the forces of sobriety and tense opponent could possibly offer. that Theodore Parker denied the divin- righteousness, of purity, reverence, and
Is the religious life of the community ity of Jesus Christ but emphasized his loyal love.
THE FIFTH LINK
BY SHERMAN ROGERS
INDUSTRIAL CORRESPONDENT OF THE OUTLOOK
WAS finishing a speech before a call on him at his New York office the teen full of cool water. My workmen men's club in Boston when one following day. I did so. This great don't know anything about the com
of the industrial captains of New captain, whom for present purposes I pany apparently; and that isn't allYork City walked into the hall. Speak will call Mr. Jones, looked me over they don't seem to want to know the ing on the labor problem, I had as- patronizingly, and then paralyzed me truth. They certainly don't take any sured my audience that the solution of with astonishment, not to say indigna. trouble to get at the facts. We are in that problem rested in the hands of tion, by bluntly stating:
a terrible depression. Hundreds of facthe employer. I had declared: “You "Rogers, I couldn't help thinking last tories are operating at an actual loss, employers will have labor troubles as night what a great work you could do thousands of others without a cent of long as you are indifferent to a settle- if you would put as much energy and profit. Millions of dollars of proposed ment on a basis that will be mutually sincerity into a sane proposition as you contracts are awaiting an honest dec. desirable to all elements of American do into your chimerical, fatuous theory. laration from labor that they will do a society. You have the power in your Now keep cool," he blurted out as he dollar's worth of work for a dollar's hands to command the respect and noticed my face flush. “I didn't mean worth of pay, and the building boom earnest co-operation of ninety-nine per to hurt you; but I do think it is a pity alone will give work to a million men cent of the workingmen in America if that you should hypnotize yourself and at once if the public can be convinced you really desire it. Without even rais- then others with an idea so wholly de- that they are going to get a run for ing your hand you can also gain the void of merit. You made a statement their money. In the face of all this, suspicion and distrust of a majority of that the heart of labor was absolutely labor has absolutely refused, even the workmen. But just remember one square. Do you realize how big the though millions of their fellow-men are thing—and I am talking to employers: word 'absolutely' is? Whether you do suffering, to give the slightest If you have trouble with your workmen, or not, I want to ask you one question operation to bring conditions back to the fundamental cause lies underneath which I think will explode your SO- normal. If that's square, then I'd like your own hat." I closed my address called 'solution. If the heart of labor to know how you figure it out. I would with the demand for personal-contact is square, why do they follow the leader. also like you to enlighten me where the relationship based on a whole-hearted de. ship blindly and whole-heartedly of men employer is all to blame for a condition sire on the part of the employer to give like Bill Haywood on one side, and paid of affairs that is caused mainly at the every workingman in America all that disturbers of industrial peace on the present time by labor itself refusing to he was entitled to, and at the same time other who win their leadership by such accept the slightest responsibility in to let him know what the employer is malicious falsehoods and gross misr bringing prosperity to the millions who fairly entitled to by placing the indus- resentation as to actually make a nor- are now out of work. You say the trial cards on the table face up.
mal average intelligent man weep? Yet trouble is under our own hat,' and I The industrial captain referred to was they drink in the idiotic promises of want to have the pleasure of telling you izled. He frankly said
these crack-brained radicals the way a to your face that you don't know what find me his card and asked me to Sahara desert wanderer drinks a can- you are talking about. I want to fur.
ther add that if you are sincere you are could not of course reach the retailer, good will of the dealer and the public, pathetically blind."
and yet we knew it was necessary to and yet not one single dollar have you "All right, Mr. Jones," I coolly an- have the retailer's confidence in our spent to get the good will of your workswered, although every nerve in my goods. We knew that if the retailer
And then you wonder why those body was tingling with suppressed an- demanded the Jones line, Jones & Co. who have established personal contact, ger; "in the next ten minutes I am going would always get his order. So I who have sold their personality and to prove to you that I am neither blind welded link No. 3 by getting together their sincerity, the agitator and organ. nor foolish. I do not speak on theo. the highest-class sales force—men of izer, can beat you out with your own retical ideas. I have no 'theory. I have personality—that money could buy. We workmen. Let me tell you one thing, no illusion about the causes of unrest, didn't stop there. We spent a million Mr. Jones, and I'm telling you the bigneither do I have illusions about the dollars over a period of years in adver- gest truth you have ever heard in your present unreasonable attitude of mill- tising to gain the confidence and good life-if you had used one-half the enions of workingmen. But before I enter will of the consuming public. We have ergy in selling your personality, your into a lengthy explanation, I want you always taken great care to maintain sincerity, and your fairness to the men to give me the four principal reasons for that confidence, thereby welding the who make your goods that you have to the present success of your company." fourth link in the industrial chain of suc- the men who have financed you and
"Well," answered the industrial cap- cess. Does that answer your question?" bought your goods, there would be no tain, "every large successful manufac- "It does, sir, and proves my 'theory.' trouble in your plant to-day, because turing concern builds permanent suc- You have correctly analyzed four your workingmen would believe in you cess on what I usually term a 'four-link necessary rules to follow to gain success just as your banker does, just as the industrial chain.' When I first started in great industrial enterprise, or, as far
wholesaler does, just as the retailer and in business, I never fooled myself. I as that is concerned, in any kind of
the ultimate consumers do; and it placed this company on a strong foun- enterprise; but you have left out the wouldn't take half the effort to reach dation, a foundation of confidence. Con. fifth, and because you have left out
the workingmen that you used to reach fidence of the banker, the wholesaler, the fifth the industrial foundation of the business man. Mr. Jones, you the retailer, and the consuming public. this country is being badly shaken to. welded a fairly strong chain as far as The confidence of these four elements day, and get me correctly-the main
The trouble is, you didn't was gained by selling the personality, reason for that is because you totally go far enough; and just remember one the integrity, and the ability of the
ignored the fifth link. With all the thing all the time, that so soon as you executive officer of this company to force of your being, with all the power have sold Jones & Co. through direct them. I was a salesman at one time.
of your personality, you put the cards personal contact to the men who make It made no difference how good an on the table to your banker, you sold your goods, just as you have sold Jones article I had, I couldn't sell it to a re- him Mr. Jones's sincerity, you sold him
& Co. to the other four elements of sotailer until I had first sold the person- Mr. Jones's honesty; you then went to ciety, you will find you will have ality and the integrity of 'Jones.' After work and used that same power of per
reached a solution to the one thing that I had established confidence in my in- sonality and sincerity in gaining the is putting gray hairs in your head right tegrity through my personality, I had good will and confidence of the whole. now-trying to find efficiency, confi. little trouble in consummating a sale. saler. Good work. You didn't stop dence, and good will in the men in the I have applied the same principle to all
there; you welded the next link in your workshop." my business dealings since starting chain and sold your personality, your
"But suppose I got in touch with my this company. I firmly established, or integrity, to the retailer, and you still men," Jones suggested. "Do you sup rather welded, link No. 1 by selling the preserved and sold Jones & Co. and pose they would have believed me when personality of ‘Jones' to the banker. I their integrity to the consumer, thereby
I did put my cards on the table?" never made a statement to my banker gaining the good will and confidence of "It has been proved in hundreds of in all my business experience that was the fourth great link in your chain. But plants," I answered, "that men untrue. I realized that to be successful the thing that puzzles me, Mr. Jones, is eager to follow the leadership of the I had at all times to maintain the con- what could possibly have prevented you
employer wherever personal-contact refidence of the banker. I maintained from going ahead and completing your
lations have been established on a sin. that confidence by meeting my banker industrial chain by welding the fifth cere, whole-hearted basis. There are face to face as often as was necessary, link, a link that would have completed several hundred plants operating to-day and when we started this company there an unbreakable circle. But, somehow or where the employer and employee are were times that I was in the bank presi- other, you failed entirely even to try to basking in the sunlight of perfect underdent's office a dozen times a week. sell your personality or your honesty to standing and confidence. The sunlight Whenever he wavered, I immediately the men who would eventually make or is so strong that no cloud of suspicion went right down, fully explained every break you—the fifth-link men—the men. blown from the fanatical mouths of minor detail of our business, and, as a who make your goods. The same Jones rattleheaded opportunists can obscure it. result, I can truthfully say that this sincerity that sold the banker, the "Mr. Jones, any man that can sell a firm always has had, and still has, the wholesaler, the retailer, and the con- banker should hang his head in shame absolute confidence and respect of the sumer would have had mighty little to believe that he couldn't sell himself man who helped finance the company. trouble in selling itself to your work- to a warm-hearted worker. My ten I then went out personally, remember,
if you had applied the
minutes are up. Do I win?" and sold the same personality, integrity, methods in the same vigorous, sincere "You certainly do," replied the manuand sincerity to the wholesaler. The manner you employed with the other facturer; "you have completely sold me wholesaler was a big man in our line. four link men; no trouble at all. If your idea, and I really believe that it is His good will and confidence meant suc- you hadn't tried to sell your personality a common-sense, workable way out of cess or failure, so I personally visited and integrity and sound judgment to the present industrial muddle. I am so most of the big wholesalers east of the
your banker, he never would have much impressed that I want you to meet Mississippi River. When I got through backed you up. If you hadn't tried to our superintendent. I'll send for him in with these men, they knew beyond a sell the same three elements to the a few days and have you meet him." doubt that they were perfectly safe in wholesaler, he never would have bought "Never mind your superintendent," I dealing with Jones & Co. simply because your goods in the first place. If you answered. "You didn't send your suthey knew that Jones personally would had failed to follow up with the re- perintendent to sell your banker; you make good any defective material or tailer and the ultimate consumer, they went down there yourself. And that's any loss that could be laid to the doors never would have heard of Jones & Co. what you must do with your workingof our company. I therefore welded It is incomprehensible to me that you men, no matter whether it takes a link No. 2 by making every possible could spend the million dollars that you couple of weeks or a month; if teameffort at all times to keep in the closest have spent in advertising and in mak- work in your factory isn't worth two personal touch with the wholesaler. I ing good defective material to gain the weeks or a month of your time, it is