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worth anything. It isn't the superin- thousand, or two thousand, as the case tendent's personality that the men want may be, take off your coat, roll up your to know; they want to know what kind sleeves, talk like a genuine red-blooded of man you are. The radical agitator man, and they'll 'get you,' and they'll doesn't talk about the superintendent, know you mean it when you say it, and nor does the labor organizer talk about you're the only man that can tell them the superintendent; he always raves so they will know you do mean it. about the general manager and owner, Your personality then will count just as and that's you. You go out and talk to it did when you went to your banker. your men in groups of five hundred, a But don't pass the buck to George.
What I am driving at is that it is up to the two hundred and seventy-six thousand employers in this country to get off their high horse, get down to business, and by direct personal contact sell themselves, their honesty and integrity, to their men, which will automatically weld the fifth link in the chain of industry and pave the way to permanent prosperity and industrial peace.”
Photograph from Colt-Alber Chautauqua System
A TYPICAL CHAUTAUQUA "SET-UP" IN AN OHIO TOWN CHAUTAUQUA lecturer must talk The mixed nature of the Chautauqua whistling of passing railway trains. to his audience just as fast as he audience is the second reason for the Finally, no man or woman of sensitive
can move his mouth. Don't give difficulties of those who attempt to "put feelings should ever attempt to address them time to think. If you do, they'll the talk in Chautauqua.” A more hetero- a Chautauqua audience, which has less begin to think about those preserves on geneous audience you could not find regard for etiquette than any other in the back of the stove, or that girl wait than the crowd which sits under the the world. Rare, indeed, is the occasion ing on the corner, and you'll lose your average brown tent. The ninety-year when a few persons do not leave during audience. As for your message to them, olds are there and the nine-month-olds. the discourse, and the old saying that they'll have all the next day to think There is probably no Chautauqua circuit the test of the success of a lecture is about that!”
in this country which would succeed if "whether more of the audience remain This blunt advice, given to me by the you barred babies from the tents. For than go home" may almost be applied to circuit manager of a Western Chautau- Chautauqua is essentially a family insti- the Chautauqua in all seriousness. Chilqua, I can recommend to all other lec- tution, and the farmer's wife cannot dren circulate freely through the auditurers. A man may be a seasoned leave the house unless she takes herence while the "show" is going on, speaker with an unbroken record of baby with her.
whispering loudly to each other or to triumphs at after-dinner speaking or Since he is taking to a mixed audi- their parents, and often taking liberties lyceum platform oratory, and yet fail ence, the speaker must confine himself with the speaker. Once when I was flatly when it comes to talking under to a “popular lecture," of which the old standing very close to the footlights, a the big tent.
definition is still, perhaps, the best one, small boy, who had become fascinated The first and main reason for this is namely, "five parts of sense and five with my white shoes, reached over the the tent. Open at all sides, it offers parts of nonsense." The Chautauqua lights and untied a shoe lace. Babies the members of the audience views of is no place for a lecturer with an in- become hungry and vociferous, and must various distractions which compete with volved technical subject. Neither is it be taken out of the tent to be quieted the lecturer for their attention. The any place for a lecturer with a weak and fed. In fact, there is a general pranks of small boys at one side, at voice. The acoustics of a building of atmosphere of movement in the audianother side the appearance of the Hol- canvas are naturally inferior to those ence. On one occasion when I was speak. lister family rolling up the street in of a building of wood or stone. And ing one of two young girls returning to their new car which everyone knows with the building of canvas, open on all the tent was heard to say to the other, they cannot afford, and the sight of a sides, no speaker can succeed unless he "I wonder if it's any more interesting cool grassy nook beneath large elms in has a voice capable of competing with now than when we went out." No, the the rear of the tent, all invite the mem- the cries of the children who are always Chautauqua platform is not a place for hers of the audience to wander from the playing in the rear of Chautauqua tents a sensitive person.
invas hall either in mind or in body. and the honking of automobiles and the I trust that by this time all my
readers are aware that Chautauqua is
ported from the Tyrol). In the evening not the name of a patent medicine or of
the yodlers again entertain for half an a breakfast food, as one old lady I have
hour, being followed by the pièce de réheard of thought it was. "Chautauqua,"
sistance of the day, a lecture by Mrs. Z. originally the name of an Indian tribe,
B. Wuggins entitled "America First, was borrowed for a lake in western New
Last, and All the Time." York the banks of which became the
The second day Green Meadows enlocation of an annual summer gathering
joys outdoor games and sports for the for entertainment and instruction. This
children in the morning, and an Italian was the first Chautauqua, a permanent,
vocal and instrumental musical troupe fixed institution. Later, the traveling
in the afternoon, followed by a lecture Chautauqua, as we know it to-day, was
"Community Engineering" by developed. This is simply an arrange
young college professor whose ideas for ment for giving a series of towns in suc
improving the village school, the village cession a programme of combined enter
church, and the village business life are tainment and education. Chautauqua
distinctly worth hearing. In the evening is merely the lyceum in the light, pon
there is a grand concert by the Italians. gee costume of summer.
The third day begins with a costume Millbury, Massachusetts, has the honor
party for the children, prizes being of being the site of the first American
given for the best costumes. After din. lyceum, which was founded there in
ner—which of course is a noonday meal 1826, by Josiah Holbrook, of Derby, Con
in Green Meadows-every one who can necticut. The movement grew so rapidly
get away from farm or store goes to the that by 1834 there were nearly three
big tent to hear the singing and the thousand lyceums in the United States.
jokes of the Lightfoot Male Quartette. Mr. Holbrook borrowed the word lyceum SCENE FROM BENJAMIN CHAPIN'S DRAMA Green Meadows goes home to face three from the spot where Aristotle used to "LINCOLN AT THE WHITE HOUSE". hundred and sixty-two days of normal lecture to the young men of Greece. Chapin, who died two years
humdrum existence, after an evening Ralph Waldo Emerson is generally
familiar figure at Chautauqua
divided between these Lightfoot boys credited with being the first profesbenches of unfinished boards for the
and the Hon. J. I. B. Mower, of the sional American lyceum lecturer, and audience. On the morning of the first
Louisiana State Legislature, whose lecnearly all of Emerson's famous essays of the three days the children of Green
ture on “Post-War Duties of the United were first written as lectures. Fees were Meadows come to the tent for a “hike"
States to Europe" is heard with a sursmall in those days. It is on record
and picnic under the supervision of a prising amount of attention and real that when the town of Waltham offered
young woman termed the “Junior Super. understanding. Emerson five dollars for a lecture the visor.” (Nearly every good Chautauqua
All performers on a Chautauqua platgreat philosopher accepted only after
circuit now has attractions planned for form, whether they be yodlers, cartoonstipulating that there must be thrown the entertainment and instruction of ists, or lecturers, are described by the ir "four quarts of oats for my horse."
children alone.) In the afternoon the generic term “talent.” Well, in the case Emerson later attained twenty dollars attraction consists of a band of Tyro
of our three-day circuit the talent which as a regular fee, which was five dollars lean yodler's (some of the yodlers may
was in Green Meadows on Monday will more than most other lecturers were
have been born in Milwaukee or Terre be opening the three-day programme at content with. Fees grew like every. Haute or Harper's Landing, but gen.
Alfalfa Center on Wednesday, while the thing else in the movement, however, erally a fair percentage are really im.
talent which closes in Green Meadows and it was not long before Starr King
on Wednesday does not reach Alfalfa was able to answer an inquiry with the
Center until Saturday. As the three-day statement that he lectured for "F.A.M.E.
programme is finished in each village -Fifty and my expenses." To-day
the tent is taken down by the "crew the highest-priced speakers in lyceum
boys" and shipped to the next town work get for a single lecture fifteen
allotted to them. times that fee of Starr King's and more
During the past season nearly nine than thirty-five times the price generally
thousand towns and nearly ten million paid Emerson. Henry D. Thoreau,
persons were reached by Chautauqua in James Russell Lowell, Daniel Webster,
this country and Canada alone. It was Oliver Wendell Holmes, and Wendell
with good reason that Theodore RoosePhillips are a few of the intellectual
velt called Chautauqua "the most Amergiants whose work lent distinction to
ican thing in America.” It is as fundathe programmes of the early lyceums.
mentally American as Indian corn or The Chautauqua, then, is a summer
jazz. American promoters have already lyceum, held under a canvas tent in.
carried it to several other parts of the stead of in a hall of wood or stone.
Anglo-Saxon world, however. England, Some of the features of the organization
Canada, New Zealand, and Australia are of Chautauqua are peculiar to it alone,
all now reached by one large American however. There are three, four, five,
Chautauqua Association, which sends six, and seven day Chautauqua circuits.
American talent to these British coun. For example, take the simplest case, a
tries and imports British talent in re. three-day circuit. Suppose the first
turn. The interchange of ideas thus three towns are Green Meadows, Carp
brought about is making Chautauqua River, and Alfalfa Center. Very likely
one of the strongest forces now working the population of no one of them ex
for the unity of the Anglo-Saxon world. ceeds five hundred souls. It is now June,
Mr. Louis J. Alber, President of the and these towns have been "booked”
Affiliated Lyceum and Chautauqua Asfor the circuit the preceding fall or
sociation, to whom I am indebted for winter. The "advance man" has visited
not a little of the information in this them and thoroughly advertised the
article, well says that, "not only is attractions which are to come. Now
WILLIAM J. BRYAN
Chautauqua 'the most American thing arrive two "crew boys." Their job is
Probably the best-known lecturer of Chau
in America,' but it is the most demoto erect the tent, the stage, and the
cratic thing in democracy." Chauta
qua is the poor man's university. Its old recipe—that is, you may say that in- like these making such an effort as this value is enhanced by the fact that its stead of being five parts sense and five to hear him expound his plan for reparticular field is largely among the parts nonsense, they are seven parts habilitating Mexico, or for achieving a more remote and smaller communities stimulation of the mind and three parts real League of Nations, or for improving of the country. In many cases it is the stimulation of the diaphragm.
American public school education, that only link between them and culture. It was as one of the large number of lecturer is put on his mettle as he h.23 Of course a large portion of any Chau- men and women who every summer probably never been put on his mettle tauqua programme is pure entertain- "put the talk in Chautauqua" that I had before. The sight of this tremendous ment. But entertainment in this case my first experience with “the most thirst for information ought to make the is more than it is in a big city; in a American thing in America" several most egregious expounder of claptrap little struggling farm village or a hard- years ago. Like every other lecturer at and buncombe expurgate such features driven mining town entertainment his first Chautauqua experience, I was from his talk. means in the best sense recreation and surprised by the thirst for information Chautauqua is doing a great work of mental rejuvenation.
on serious subjects and the great ca- education and inspiration. It reaches "We look forward to Chautauqua the pacity for absorbing it which I found minds that no other school reaches, and whole year as the bright spot in our among people who had never had more it reaches hearts that no other church lives," said a little old farmer's wife to than a common school education, who reaches. Religion without creed is one me last summer in South Dakota. "Our had never had opportunities to use any of the fundamental principles of Chauyear is made up of fifty-one weeks of of the usual means of higher cultiva- tauqua. When you hear this or that humdrum slavery and week of tion. My first town was a little dusty clergyman of this or that narrow sect Chautauqua."
farm village of 371 inhabitants, or about complaining that because people do not However, if you look at any Chautau- a third the size of the audience that fill his church religion is dying in the qua programme, you will be surprised the big tent would hold. “Why on hearts of Americans, tell him that, while at the large percentage of features in earth do they have a Chautauqua in this his premises may be right, he had which instruction or pure information town?" I asked myself. The answer better revise his deductions. The truth is more emphasized than entertainment. was soon visible-a press of more than is that millions of the sort of people Lectures, for instance, form a very large a. hundred automobiles, mostly Fords, who used to attend churches where part of any Chautauqua programme. which poured into town from all direc- religion with creed was extolled are now Now a great many of these lectures are tions, each bringing a farmer and his getting their religion without creed from still built after a modified form of the family, When a lecturer sees people Chautauqua.
men. He tells us of this trait in connection with his keeping pigeons and
rabbits as a boy. He says: O you know what that little took extra precaution, and had everywhite-haired Scotch devil of thing running smoothly when Mr.
I am grateful every time I think mine did?" Scott at last reached the office.
of the trouble my father took to build "No." That was the kind of Scotch fiber
a suitable house for these pets. "I'm blamed if he didn't run every Andrew Carnegie showed. He was will.
Our home became headquarters for
my young companions. . . . My first train on the division without the slight- ing to take responsibility and "to take
business venture was securing my est authority.” a chance," just as the Bruce did, whose
companions' services for a season as "And did he do it all right?"
tomb is in Carnegie's native town of an employer, the compensation being "Oh, yes, all right."
Dunfermline, and where Dunfermline that the young rabbits, when such The speakers were Thomas A. Scott, boys grew up with true Scotch imagina- came, should be named after them. in charge of one of the divisions of the tion and pride. When, one day, a wicked The Saturday holiday was generally Pennsylvania Railroad System, and the
spent by my flock in gathering food
for the rabbits. My conscience rehead of the freighting department of
proves me to-day, looking back, when Pittsburgh. The time was before the
I think of the hard bargain I drove Civil War period. The "little white
with my young playmates, many of haired Scotch devil" was Andrew Car
whom were content to gather dandenegie.
lions and clover for a whole season He was working for Scott at a salary
with me, conditioned upon this unique
reward—the poorest return ever made of thirty-five dollars a month as clerk
for labor. Alas! what else had I to and telegraph operator. One morning
offer them? Not a penny. young Carnegie learned that a serious
I treasure the remembrance of this accident had delayed the express pas
plan as the earliest evidence of orsenger train westward and that the pas
ganizing power upon the development senger train eastward was proceeding
of which my material success in life with a flagman in advance at every
has hung-a success not to be atcurve. The freight trains were all
tributed to what I have known or
done myself, but to the faculty of standing still upon the sidings. Mr.
knowing and choosing others who did Scott was not to be found. Mr. Carnegie
know better than myself. says, in his delightful autobiography:
Andrew Carnegie began work as a “I could not resist the temptation to
bobbin boy at $1.20 a week. He then plunge in, take the responsibility, give
served the Pennsylvania Railroad Systrain orders, and set matters going."
tem from telegraph boy and operator to He continues:
the management of the Pittsburgh divis"Death or Westminster Abbey,"
ion. He became assistant to Mr. Scott flashed across my mind. I knew it
when Scott was Assistant Secretary of was dismissal, disgrace, perhaps Courtesy of Houghton Mifflin Company
War in charge of transportation. He criminal punishment for me if I erred. On the other hand, I could
organized rail-making, bridge-making, bring in the wearied freight-train
and locomotive concerns. He introduced men who had lain out all night. I
big boy at school told Andrew that Eng. the Bessemer process in the manufaccould set everything in motion. I
land was far larger than Scotland, ture of steel. He draws this picture of knew I could. I had often done it in Andrew went to his uncle, who had the
himself: wiring Mr. Scott's orders. I knew just what to do, and so I began. I
remedy. “Not at all, Naig [his diminu- Up to this time (1873] I had the gave the orders in his name, started
tive for Carnegie). If Scotland were reputation in business of being a bold, every train, sat at the instrument rolled out flat as England, Scotland
fearless, and perhaps a somewhat watching every tick, carried the would be the larger. But would you
reckless young man. ... I know of trains along from station to station, have the Highlands rolled down ?"
one who declared that if "Andrew Carnegie's brains did not
carry Another reason why Andrew Carnegie 1 Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie. Illus
through, his luck would." . .. But I trated. Houghton Mimin Company, Boston. $5. succeeded in life was because he knew am sure that any competent judge
Courtesy of Houghton Mifflin Company
France, and America.
These phenomena are relied upon by the author to establish his first contention-that the soul exists apart from the body. Two volumes to follow will deal with apparitions and with supposed manifestations of human survival after death, HUSBANDS AND WIVES. By Arthur Belle
ville McCoid. St. Hubert Publishing Com. pany, Chicago. From long experience as a lawyer the author believes that divorce and separation almost always have their origin in ill feeling caused by avoidable misunderstandings and irritating conduct. He doesn't lecture husbands and wives in this readable book, but illustrates his points by amusing incidents from real life.
would be surprised to find how little
The one occurrence in Mr. Carnegie's Pittsburgh career which wounded him deeply was the Homestead strike (1892). Workmen had been killed at the Carnegie Works. That was sufficient, says Mr. Carnegie, "to make my name a byword for years." While he was in Scotland the strike arose; "it was so unnecessary," says Mr. Carnegie. Finally, satisfaction cameand largely through the National Civic Federation, which, as Mr. Carnegie records, exerts "a benign influence over both employers and employees."
The iron and steel master, now rich, proceeded to spend his money on the principle that “private wealth is a public trust." His first benefaction took the form of public library buildings. The thought of devoting his money to this purpose was suggested by his early acquaintance with Colonel Anderson, of Pittsburgh, who, on Saturday afternoons, had the praiseworthy habit of lending any of his several hundred books. Young Andrew eagerly looked forward to these afternoons, and resolved that if he ever became rich he would found libraries. He did. And then came Pittsburgh Carnegie institute; the Carnegie Institution, with its seat at Washington; the Hero Fund; the Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; the Endowment for International Peace; and, finally, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, which was to act as a trustee for all future gifts.
Whether a poor boy or a millionaire, Andrew Carnegie remained throughout the shrewd, keen, wide-awake Scotch character. He retained 'his childlike and youthfully buoyant enthusiasms to the last. No matter how much people niay criticise his personal idiosyncrasies and his political and social theories, he was a great captain of industry and he had a great conception of life. His autobiography is indeed a human document. Happily, its editor has set it betore us almost entirely in Mr. Carnegie's own words. The Scotch laddie who was to become one of the most notable Americans of his time tells his tale in his own way.
The book is thus first. hand, intimate, individual. It will be read and appreciated the world over.
novel is pleasant enough, and if one yields credence to the very improbable exchange of names and identities be. tween the two young girl workers in the Golden Shoe establishment, the compli. cations ensuing are easily accepted. LILIOM: By Franz Molnar. English Text and
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