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HIS query is made of a rural cause he was a great preacher and said ual to-day. My neighbor comes over

church because the question has things I understood, and helped me in into the orchard this afternoon, and we been asked by its pastor. I sus

my life. I go now when I can hear men both marvel about a bursting applepect that it might be made with equal like that."

blossom, and talk in a little while of the propriety concerning an urban church, Another tells me he goes to church resurrection. My friend the station for the anxieties of thoughtful pastors but seldom because it doesn't take hold agent tells me he would like to hear a and parishioners in city and country of him as it used to.

preacher who would use words like those alike find “Smith not coming to church,” One says he would like to go, but has Christ used. "He talked of hungering, and are querying why.

no way of getting there, some three thirsting, the salt losing its savor, of Recently I was in a community of miles, unless he walks. My mother tells candles, moth, and rust, of fowls, reaptwo thousand people in Maryland. of her mother, in the early days of the ing, lilies and grass, fruit, mustard There were six churches there-Episco- nineteenth century, walking nine miles seeds, vineyards, fishermen, of carpenpal, Methodist Episcopal, Protestant to attend church.

try, foxes, birds, swine, and went to eat Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Catho- The ex-soldier who the pastor says with the customs officer, Matthew, and lic. Not one of these churches had a is a spiritual disappointment because in the folks outside of the fold. He got self-supporting-sized congregation, I was the matter of church-going he does not into the life of the common folks. Why told. I asked one church officer how show the high spiritual development he can't the ministers do that to-day? Then they paid their minister. “Oh," said he, was said to have reached in the war by we would understand." “the bank pays him, and then, when the the complacency into which he has sunk Does the Sunday paper take the place notes come due, the bank gets after us in the midst of the humdrum of affairs, of the Sunday service? Why don't they and we have a fair or entertainment to tells a story something like this:

come to church? I ask it not that I can raise the money.

“Spiritual development I wonder- answer it, but because I believe some I live in a rural community that is well, the war was broadening. We got thing is wrong, and because I believe somewhat better off than this rural vil. used to hearing a Catholic service at one there is in most people a real latent lage, for the church, or rather its pastor, end of the field and a Protestant at the spiritual sense that is hungering for has a constituency for burial rites and other. Catholic and Protestant service satisfaction. Does my friend the sta. marriage ceremonies of about 1,000, was read alike over he dead, sometimes tion agent state a reason, and do my though the roster of membership is in ignorance of the belief of the dead. comrades say something most soldiers around 300. One night recently But war had a brutalizing aspect. We feel? rather cheap musical play was given in were in a profession, and in a crisis Meredith Nicholson, in the "Atlantic" this church to an audience that taxed where only the strongest could hope to in 1912, wrote, "Should Smith go to its capacity. Some were turned away. survive. We thought much, overmuch Church?” These years and the war have In the sermon on Sunday, to a large perhaps, of our stomachs in the army, done little to change the situation con. number of vacant pews, the pastor right of mess, of sleep as we had once known cerning which he wrote. All I wish to fully asked why people will crowd to it in terms of beds and bed-covers. We say here is that most people have a entertainments and avoid Sunday ser- were so constantly overworked and over- spiritual nature; more people would go vice. The pointed remarks of this pas- drilled that our chief desire was to to church if they found satisfaction for tor have gone the rounds in this com- escape. In a way, I guess we got to that nature in the service. For myself, munity, and in casual contact with the fearing death less because it didn't I have found that satisfaction in the thought stirred up I find the frank ex- make much difference whether we met Church, and out of the Church in places pression of why people do not come to it or not. It couldn't be much worse. I least expected. church.

We felt that way. And being amongst One such experience came to me at The station agent tells me the story of fellows whom you would roll up under two o'clock one morning in France. We his spiritual life from a boy; of how he the blankets with one night and plant were breaking camp in the open on a was once punished for being tardy for like trees in the ground the next sort beautiful hillside sloping to a river. service, and dates his apathy from that of made it human for things to happen The mist was hanging in a perceptible incident. The rest of his story is as that way; sort of walking the valley cloud just over us, and above was the follows:

without fear, I guess. So, you see, the clear starlit sky. I stood sentry where "On Christmas morning following my thing the Church taught us to fear we I could the picture.

Reveille punishment my father awakened my don't now, and it isn't very near to us.” sounded, and in fifteen minutes, as by brother, who had come from a distance, So it is among a few types of non- one touch of an electric button, but by and myself to attend church. I didn't church-goers in this community.

six hundred hands, as many candles go. My brother went. The next day he If plays were given instead of ser- were lit before as many dog-tents. The left to go back to his work and asked mons, would the pews be filled? The mist became rays of purple light, and my father for the price of the ticket to people attend this real and perhaps it was

as though some magic superreturn. Suspecting he had a return typical rural church, but not as many touch had created sacred atmosphere for ticket, I planned to discover the fraud, as should. Men talk under the sheds one's thought.

Breaking camp for and when I did my brother said, 'Don't of crops, automobile tires, shingling whither we knew not, one's thoughts tell father.' But afterward, when I got barns, taxes, politics; women speak in were of the unknown. I scribbled on a into some disagreement with my father, the vestibules of forthcoming suppers piece of paper and tucked it into the I told him, and asked him if it were not and the latest gossip; but not of the ser- rear of a leather photograph case I true that he did not like me as well as vice. These people go to entertainments always carried. It reads: my brother because I didn't go to in the church, and when they leave "In the constant presence of death phurch and my brother did. He said everyone has some notion about the one reaches spiritual development that

Then I told him of my brother's play. They talk about it. Is the church he could never otherwise attain, for the

ty in the matter of the ticket. service less real than the plays, or do visualization of the dissolution of the
w years after this I used to go people react differently toward it? flesh throws dependence on the indis.
a Baptist minister preach be- I do not believe people are less spirit. soluble spirit.

Perhaps this is the


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spiritual glory of war. It is too bad has seemed as though there weren't some spiritual stirrings as a soldier, and
that most of humanity passes away any; but I believe they have never been also to assure him there was not, in
without knowing it. I think I have as real and as near the surface. Per- my army life at least, very much of the
talked and walked with God in the last haps this experience will reveal in the high spirituality said of it. We seemed
few minutes. It was so very real, very way we react to it what kind of men we to live, from reveille to taps, pretty
human. I know I won't mind the hurt are fundamentally because of the way much for the belly's sake, unconscious
if it comes and I don't go back. I'll be we react to these ever-changing new of spiritual changes within.
with friends in a little while. There daily experiences. I guess that is the Perhaps the Church needs the testings
isn't much hero stuff connected with one satisfaction we will get out of of some great, rapid, soul-searching ex-
this over here. It is unattractive, brutal this."

perience. Perhaps it needs to lift us work, but I guess it is the biggest thing My scribblings ended there.

I am

out of the clay that is sticking to our in the world now. It does not mean so thankful I have carried them back my- feet and holding us to the humdrum much loss of individuality for the sake self. It was one of the experiences I affairs of life. I merely want to say of a common good, but actual realization had amongst mud, mess, and army that the common feelings most of us of self through sacrifice for an ideal. doldrums.

have contain the embryo of the spiritual Ideals are intangible, and for days it I speak of it to assure my pastor of that yearns for nurture, for growth.




(C) Bachrach


Photo by J. E. Purdy & Co.


-HY do people go to church?

But they don't. Haven't you W read Dr. Jeremiah Croaker's lamentations in a recent number of the "Transcontinental Magazine" over the empty pews in city sanctuaries and the unoccupied horse-sheds behind the village meeting-house that are no longer tenanted by vehicles drawn by horses or propelled by gasoline? Don't you realize that all the great preachers are dead and that the theological seminaries are no good and that an army of highsalaried overhead officials are simply trying to galvanize the churches into a semblance of life by instituting artificial drives and campaigns, and that nobody goes anywhere except to dances and the movies?

Yes, we've read that article, and others like it. They are due to appear about once in five years with almost clocklike regularity and for at least ten days to furnish material for sapient comment on the part of the secular and religious press and for animated discussions at the ecclesiastical gatherings. But while the articles are being written and compliments and maledictions are being showered upon the authors some. thing else is happening. And what is that? Oh, just a steady procession of men, women, and children Sunday after Sunday starting from hundreds of thousands of all kinds of homes in all parts of America and ending at the portals of churches of all sizes, shapes, and denominational affiliations.

Let us come at once to particulars. Let me take a cross-section of one of our larger cities and put it under the mag. nifying-glass for the purpose of observation. From one city we can learn, or at least infer, what is happening in the matter of church-going from coast to coast. Boston is as good a city as any in the country for our ecclesiastical clinic. Perhaps it is better than some, for Boston, Puritan city though it be by tradition, is not conspicuously orthodox to-day or nearly so devoted to churchgoing as, say, Toronto or Los Angeles. Boston has always been a seed-bed for religious fads. The faithful-whatever their peculiar faith-tend toward flock

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as much at home on the platform as in
the pulpit. The looks of the place sug-
gests the concert hall. Indeed, all
through the week the people go there to
lectures, musical entertainments, and
even the movies. The atmosphere on
Sunday is not so very different from
that of Saturday or Monday. To be
sure, on Sunday twenty deacons in trim
frock coats file onto the platform morn-
ing and evening with the pastor, Dr.
Cortland Myers, but they are not so
solemn that they cannot smile with the
big audience when the preacher cracks
a joke or even applaud when he in-
dulges in sensational invectives against
the city government or any offending
official or private citizen who may be at
the moment in the public eye.

At Park Street Church, only a stone's
throw away from Tremont Temple, you
find a no less evangelistic emphasis than
at Tremont Temple but more dignity
and no playing to the galleries. The
temper of the service is earnest, sincere,
straightforward. Old "Brimstone Cor-
ner,” as it has been called for half a
century, still stands for the old Gospel, Paul Thompson
but, as Dr. A. Z. Conrad meditates, ex-

PARK STREET CHURCH pounds, and embodies it the persuasive ing by themselves in the glory of their note is louder than the dogmatic. Park fulfilling even in a structure not built perfect independence. This drift multi- Street, like Tremont Temple, draws its with that in view the functions of a plies the small groups and makes great audiences to a notable extent from central ecclesiastical establishment in against unity and large unified demon- the neighboring hotels and boarding, which the corporate life of the diocese strations of the church-going habit. houses, though in the case of both the finds ample and beneficent expression.

Nevertheless .it is in Boston that we regular attendants include many who But it is not chiefly because St. Paul's find to-day certain phenomena that swarm from cities and towns all over has a ranking superior to that of other rather disturb us when we jauntily de- Greater Boston.

churches that people flock thither Sunclare that nobody goes to church; at Just few steps farther down days and week-days, but because Dean least they should lead us to postpone Tremont Street on any Sunday morning E. S. Rousmaniere has made it a rethe final obsequies, in honor of a good or evening you will find another con- ligious power house where influence is old custom received from the fathers, gregation in size well on toward the not measured by its contribution to the until we have candidly sought, not to thousand mark and often passing it. strengthening of the Episcopal Church pass a snap judgment based on a few St. Paul's—the St. Paul's of an earlier in Massachusetts, but by its constant scattered and misleading data, but to day, when rectors like Vinton and impact upon the life of the city and of get an all-round view of the situation. Courtney were in their prime—has be- the region. Dean Rousmaniere is a

I have this current season attended come during the last ten years the Low Churchman and cuts ecclesiastical service in five different Boston churches Cathedral church of the diocese, nobly corners whenever he pleases. He is not any one of which is a sufficient proof

afraid to offer extemporaneous prayers, of the fact that people do go to church,

or to give out a Gospel song, or to connotwithstanding the assertions of maga.

dense the Scripture lessons of the zine writers and arm-chair critics.

morning into one reading. NevertheWhat is more to the point, people have

less the service has a distinctively been going to these churches in great

ritualistic quality and conforms in the numbers year after year, decade after

main to the canons and rubrics of the decade, and will doubtless continue to

Church. But forms and ceremonies do go long after the weeping Jeremiahs

not smother the life of the spirit. That have made their last contributions to

is fed almost continuously at St. Paul's the “Transcontinental Magazine" and

through week-day classes in personal the "Monday Afternoon Gazette." These

religion, prayer circles, and noon-day five churches are Tremont Temple (Bap

preaching services. St. Paul's is a tist), Park Street Church (Congrega

pioneer in the use of certain cultural tional), St. Paul's Cathedral (Episco

methods; it has a friendly feeling palian), Old South Church (Congrega

toward those who believe that Christional), and the Christian Science

tianity can heal diseases, or at least Church. They represent four different

greatly reduce their area and intensity. communions, but their denominational

To put it tersely, St. Paul's specialty is differences are less noticeable even than

religion. the variations in type.

At the Old South Church, on Copley Tremont Temple is a good representa

Square, is to be seen every Sunday a tive of the modern religious organiza

congregation more fully representative tion which caters to the crowd. A gen

of the brains, wealth, and culture of the eration ago that observant evangelist

city than any other congregation, TrinDwight L. Moody called Tremont Tem

ity and Emmanuel excepted. Judges of ple, because of its location, the best

the Supreme Court, prominent lawyers, preaching station in America. Its min

physicians, merchants, a host of teachisters have usually been popular orators,


ers, and just now the Governor of the



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Mary Baker Eddy assemble just to hear
the Scripture and the week's readings
from the text-book “of our revered
leader.” To the uninitiated, the casual
dropper in at the Christian Science
Mother Church, the hour—for that time
limit is never exceeded is likely to be
a dull and even a dreary one. His
temptation after gazing into the great
vault and studying the adornment of
pillars and ceiling and the legends on
the walls will be to look around on those
present and wonder just what brings
them there Sunday after Sunday, Wed-
nesday evening after Wednesday eve-
ning. The more one looks at them, the
more they appear just like other people,
just like the people he has seen at the
four other crowded auditoriums. They ST. PAUL'S EPISCOPAL CATHEDRAL
really don't appear to be either cranks
or dupes.

all are trying to defend and propagate (C) Underwood

Thus much with regard to the mate is positive and relates itself to that

rial of our clinic. Now what are the which is deepest and best in every CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MOTHER CHURCH

conclusions? Only two at this time. worshiper.

One inference is that people go to And the moral of their particular Commonwealth, listen, week by week, to church in Boston and elsewhere where aspect of the whole matter is this: If Dr. George A. Gordon, still, as for many other people go in considerable numbers you are going to open the doors of a years, the leader of the New England and for a period of considerable length. church on a Sunday and invite pecple to pulpit. Ushering is no easy task at the A crowd draws a crowd. And the moral enter, you must have something very Old South, since the spaces directly be thereof is this: Locate your churches definite, positive, and satisfying to offer neath the pulpit and the gallery stairs where they will be easily accessible. Do them. And year in and year out have often to be requisitioned in the not multiply edifices beyond a certain nothing draws like religion. interests of late comers. The service of point. Locate a few at strategic points Not long ago a belated man made the worship, while by no means severe, and make them large enough to hold at rounds of at least three of the five shows little in the way of the elabora- least a thousand people. Then get your churches just characterized, only to ind tion wrought out by some other churches crowd moving toward them.

every seat taken. Not caring to stand of the Congregational persuasion. Ap- But how? There is the rub. One for an hour, he started for his home. parently people go to Old South because thing is true of all the five churches On the way he noticed several people they want to hear Dr. Gordon, to be whose types of service have been briefly ascending a stairway. He followed them invigorated by his broad, rugged faith, described. They all provide something into a small upper room, where he found to be buoyed up by his optimism, to be real and deep-going for those who fre- a score of persons setting forth the rearefreshed by his unfailing good humor, quent them. The individual accent is sons why people do not go to church. to be enlightened concerning the great different. The theology or the philos. Had he ventured to tell them of his mysteries of life and death.

ophy which reigns in this or that one evening's experience they would have No such motive operates in the case of the five might be tabooed or at least still clung to their misconceptions. For of the thousands who attend the mag. severely criticised by others in the some people are never convinced and nificent temple where the followers of group. Nevertheless the religion which some discussions go on forever.





HERE is a yarn about the Pennsyl- tions of the day, or even hour, dictate. last year were operating with 25 per vania State Police-probably true Loyalty, esprit de corps, pride in the cent less men this year, or, to give the

-to the effect that a single organization to which they belong, is a exact figures, plants which employed trooper was despatched to a turbulent quality most desirable of cultivation 1,737,717 workers on April 1, 1920, were mining town to quell a riot.

among the workers. And it goes with using but 1,303,792 workers a year later. "Did they send only one trooper?" ex- out saying that the man who holds his Total pay-rolls had dropped in the same claimed the town's mayor, aghast and job precariously from day to day can period from $52,286,463 to $36,726,380. panic-stricken.

have but little interest in his steward. Of the industries suffering most heavily "You only got one riot, haven't you?" ship.

were rubber manufactories with a drop was the bland answer.

During all the period of depression of of 64 per cent, building with a falling And, after all, who wouldn't rather the last eight months no more sugges- off of 60 per cent, the automobile indushave one trooper of that magnificent tive feature has been brought to light try 55.2 per cent, and iron and steel proconstabulary than a squad of ill-drilled than the increase, in many instances, of ducers 41.5 per cent. irregulars.

average pay per man, despite the wide- Yet, notwithstanding this heavy fallVery much the same thing applies in spread condition of unemployment and ing away in industrial activities, certain business. Slowly, painfully slowly in the universal general reduction of pay sections, notably the Federal Reserve some cases, it seems, large employers of per employee averaging 6.4 per cent districts of Dallas and San Francisco, labor are beginning to appreciate the over the whole country.

showed an actual increase in wages per folly and extravagance of hiring reck- On May 14 the Associated Press re- man; while in the New York distro lessly and firing wantonly as the condi- ported that plants employing 1,700,000 despite a decrease in employme

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per cent, there was an increase-in- surveyed the pickets of a water-front indeed, that when the president of the finitesimal, true, but an increase never- strike: "Them—they don't know when plant sent out letters to the home adtheless-of one-half of one per cent in they're well off. Most of 'em ain't good dresses of the individual strikers, offer. the pay of the men who were actually enough to hold a real job, anyway. I'll ing them their jobs back again at the working.

tell the world it's a elluvva time to old rate, every one of those letters, Which means, to plagiarize from the strike now!"

neatly tied in a bundle, was returned demand attributed to Dr. Walter H. There is, thank Heaven, a great deal without comment to the executive desk. Page for "fewer, and better, books," of sound horse sense among the "plain Naturally enough, the strike was ulti“fewer, and better, men."

people." We may be sincerely thankful mately won by the operatives. But, that we are a democracy of "plain peo

instead of taking revenge later on, the ple" rather than an oligarchy of “college CATCHING BREATH

new management held those men; and theorists." What Bolshevism we find in still holds them. The past year's record \HAT the period of industrial depres- America comes rather from our alien of business is the answer.

sion just past has not been a time guests and our adolescent intellectuals of unleavened tribulation to some manu- than from the environs of lathe and

THE COST OF CARELESSNESS facturers may be accepted without much roller and riveting hammer. question. High-speed production had

\EN years ago the average industrial worn out executives as well as workers,

executive would not have known

HIRING AND FIRING and the first let-down was not entirely

what you meant had you begun to discuss unwelcome. As the depression contin- s an indication of the importance "labor turnover.” To-day exact figures ued, and we were actually confronted industrial executives attach nowa- on the cost of hiring and firing are comwith hard times, things began to look days to securing the right sort of labor it piled in the majority of large plants, grave; but for many of the important is interesting to note the care exercised and cognizance is taken of this once industries in this country the hiberna- in hiring applicants for work. Of sev- ignored item of expense. To secure a tion of the winter of '21 has been rather eral hundred large plants visited in the new man in normal times, reckoning in salutary. Everything had got into a East not more than ten or twelve were the cost of employing, training, dedeplorable muddle, extravagance was without carefully administered employ. creased production, wastage, liability to the order of the day, waste the custom, ment offices, where from one to four accident, etc., runs anywhere from a slovenliness the habit. Labor was over- men devoted their entire time to ascer. figure of $50 per individual to a sum of bearing and disorganized; capital was taining the character and ability of the over $300, depending upon the technical defiant and a little fearful. The near would-be operative. In one of the character of the work demanded and the panic gave every one time to catch

largest foundries in New York State the perfection of the particular plant's embreath.

examination includes, not only determi. ployment and training system. The So out of this riot of excess and the nation as to the man's capability to fill labor turnover, figured on a yearly lean days inevitably resuitant the busi- the job, but requires too a thorough basis, will run all the way from twentyness life of the United States seems to- medical examination and a search back five per cent on upwards to two hundred day to be developing into a more sane through the man's working record for or three hundred per cent; that is, in and satisfactory routine. The lowering several years to discover if the new. the course of a year a firm may have to of commercial rediscount rates gener- comer is likely to prove a disturbing or employ new hands to the extent of oneally and the inrush of gold, together incendiary influence.

quarter of its normal force, or it may with the steady rise of the exchange At the opposite end of the engage- have to employ men to a total of three rates of the more important European ment-as we may say—the power of times its normal force-and the latter nations, foretells a healthy future. And firing is no longer, in first-class plants, figure, while high, is not unknown in the attitude of many industrial leaders solely in the hands of the foremen. certain lines of industry. Figuring on prompts to optimism.

The foreman, instead, quietly and with- the very minimum basis of cost, one can And in industry particularly comes out the knowledge of the man consid- easily estimate what this sum would the conviction that the basis of opera- ered unworthy, lays his estimate before amount to yearly for a concern employ. tion for the future will be real work. the manager of employment, discusses ing the rather conservative total of one Not two days' pay for half a day's work, the case thoroughly, and leaves the rest thousand men. Moreover, the money so nor a double price for a half-quality to the employment man's decision. spent is a dead loss. product; but a day's good pay for a Such complete records of each indi. Is it any wonder, then, that careful good day's work, and a fair price for a vidual are now kept that often a man employers are coming to realize the first-class staple. This schedule of in- apparently deserving of immediate dis- truth that it is cheaper to get good men, dustry will doubtless prevail in mercan- charge is found to be potentially one of and fewer men, and then hold those tile activities as well.

the most valuable hands, and after an men? It is going to be hard on the drone. interview with the employment manager The most interesting example of this Yes; but we must remember where the is sent back to work—preferably under policy in a mature form is instanced by term itself originates, and recall the en- another foreman--and in the end turns another large Buffalo plant, employing tomological fact that the winged drone's out useful and dependable.

from eight hundred to a thousand operalife, while merry, is very, very short. For there is temperament in the shop tives. At this plant exact figures are All in all, most of us will be well satis- as well as in the studio, and the ex- kept week by week showing the number fied. For those who are not-well, Mr. citable, high-strung, pugnacious work- of operatives employed, their production Haywood, and doubtless many of his man is sometimes the most valuable. average, their pay average, and, of friends who are still with us, know the

Temperament and intelligence have, it course, the total weekly pay-rolls. way to Russia.

seems, an unfortunate yet persistent Last November the executive in charge From now on it appears that the race habit of existing side by side.

of this plant—which is, again, a plant is to be to the steady rather than to the There is the almost amusing instance that has not shown any material de swift. The worker is recognizing that of a plant in Buffalo, a plant, inciden- crease in business during the past deas well as the employer. I have an ac- tally, which has done just about as pression-decided that he was paying quaintance in a rolling-mill near Niag- much business during the past year as out good money to a lot of operatives ara Falls who has philosophically sold in any other year of its existence, in who were more or less flagrantly solhis limousine, wiped out vain memories defiance of the theory that business diering on their jobs. So he discharged of the one-time wage of fifty dollars a could not be done.

twenty per cent of his whole force. Did day, and gone back to the not-to-beSome years ago that concern found production drop?

Yes, it did. But, despised sum of a dollar an hour.

itself with a wholesale and remarkably while the total number laid off was A taxi driver remarked to me this well organized strike on its hands. So twenty per cent of the force, the total

ning, rather superciliously, as he close was the unity between the strikers, drop in production for the weeks imme


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