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foreign investors as practically amounts conveniently receive the attention they the village in order to reach their obto confiscation. should have.

jective, but the village should be rebuilt This seems to be what happened This is a bare and incomplete list of as a monument to the two thousand lately in Mexico when large oil wells things that Congress has before it. It American heroes who sleep there. shut down because, as the owners claim, certainly would be surprising if it found The rebuilding of this little village exorbitant taxes could not be paid with- time before the regular session begins would also be a reminder to all visitors out destroying the business. The visit in December to study thoroughly and of the fact that the living and the dead of American warships to Tampico was act wisely on such a programme.

of the American forces made possible not a threat-nothing is more estab

the rebuilding of France. lished in international law than that

YORKTOWN, NEW ORLEANS, warships may be sent to foreign ports

THE NEW PROHIBITION AND BELLEAU without a threatening purpose. But the


wo historic events may be properly visit of the ships seems for the present at least to have relieved the stress.

commemorated if two bills now be

THOUGH the enforcement of the Prohi

bition Law ought to be impartial The whole question resolves itself,

fore Congress pass that body.
The first measure creates a military

and non-partisan, it is inevitable that then, not into how Mexican courts will

the officer who is in charge of such an interpret the Constitution or what the.

park at Yorktown, Virginia; the second Mexican courts may be willing to do in creates a military park on the Plains of important function should be sympa

thetic with the National Administration. the way of legislation, or what Presi

The man who has been selected by the dent Obregon or any future President

Harding Administration as Prohibition may say, but in the moral question, How

Commissioner is Major Roy Haynes. can Mexico so gain the confidence of her

At present the Prohibition Commisgreat neighboring Republic as to make

sioner is in the Internal Revenue office, it willing to accept her promises as

which is a bureau in the Treasury Devalid and deal with her as one strong

partment. So long as tbe chief interest and stable republic should deal with

of the National Government in the enanother?

forcement of the liquor law consisted in

the proper collection of the Federal tax THE WORK OF CONGRESS

on the sale of liquor it was natural that The number of matters that urgently

the enforcement of the liquor law should

be under the Treasury Department. Now, that prospects of an early end to the

however, it is announced that the Propresent extra session are slight. The

hibition Commissioner, who is not a right of way just now, as far as practi

revenue collector but an agent of the cal, is with tariff and taxation. The first

National police power, is to be transwill demand thorough study and discus

ferred from the Treasury Department to sion, and the bill now under debate will

the Department of Justice. certainly be greatly modified; the second

Major Haynes is an Ohio Republican subject has not even been taken up, but

of the progressive type. His purpose in it is of prime importance and cannot be

carrying out the duties of his office is a settled in a hurry. Meanwhile, it is

broader one than merely the enforceunderstood that the so-called Bonus Bill

ment of the Eighteenth Amendment. (really a bill for "adjusted compensa

He regards his duties as involving the tion" for veterans of the World War)

larger test of the place which the obMAJOR ROY C. HAYNES, THE NEW PROmust wait; the enormous sums of money

servance of the law holds in the minds

HIBITION COMMISSIONER involved have a direct bearing on all

of the American people. “I wish that financial legislation. We treat of this Chalmette, below the city of New Or we might have in America,” he said the matter elsewhere in an editorial article. leans, Louisiana.

other day, "a revival of the regard for Among other important measures un- The battles of Yorktown and of New the sanctity and majesty of the law. I der consideration are those for agricul. Orleans were decisive battles. The first wish that it might be preached by the tural relief by enlarging the loan privi- was a culminating event in our Revo parents in the homes as well as by the leges of Farm Loan banks, creating a lution; the second was the great event teachers in the school; by the preacher farm exports corporation, and regulating of the War of 1812, to be set down to in the pulpit, the writer and the car. grain exchanges; the Maternity Bill, our credit.

toonist through the press; by the actor through which Federal aid would be At Yorktown the fortifications of Corn- on the stage; by every good citizen and given to States in furnishing education wallis are being plowed over, shoveled agency." In certain parts of the counin maternal and infant hygiene; a bill down, and destroyed, and on the Plains try, notably in New York City, men who to regulate or control the work of the of Chalmette there is little left to com- would be frightened at the growth of packing-houses; the held-over Army and memorate the victory of General Jack- studied disregard for law protecting Navy appropriation bills; a bill dealing son. But the areas themselves should property rights seem to be ready to enwith the coal industry in the interest of be preserved as military parks.

courage the support of disregard for the the consumer and of public knowledge In this connection we may mention a Eighteenth Amendment and its enforcof trade methods; a good roads bill with proposal to rebuild the little village of ing legislation. They do not seem to see emphasis on maintenance as well as Belleau, close to Belleau Wood, near that they cannot weaken the respect for construction; and the bill that proposes Château Thierry, France. The proposal laws which they do not happen to like to consolidate into one Veterans' Bureau comes from patriotic women of the without weakening respect for the laws the existing War Risk Insurance and United States who have formed them in which they profoundly believe. If Rehabilitation Bureaus, with provision selves into an association for this pur. Major Haynes can cultivate even among for local offices where veterans could pose. Our troops were forced to destroy the "wets" the spirit of law observance,



Central News


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he will be performing his duties quite as effectively as he will when he hales violators of the law to court. And so far as he succeeds in his declared purpose he will fortify all law, which in a self-governing country is but the will of the whole people.

lately been editor of the “Educational Review." A noteworthy incident in his career was his resignation of one college presidency (Wyoming University) in order to study for a doctorate in education. He comes to New York from the University of Pennsylvania, where he has been dean of its School of Education. If ever a man was a specialist in the science of education, surely Dr. Graves is.

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Fall books published in America

about the war few, if any, had greater influence in convincing the people of this country of the justness of the Allies' cause and the criminality of Germany than that entitled “The Evidence in the Case." It presented the evidence against Germany with the skill of an attorney learned in the law and experienced in facing jurors, and with the persuasiveness of one who believes profoundly in the truth of what he advocates. It is a book which stands un. refuted and remains valuable as an expression of what the most intelligent and ultimately most influential Americans believed months before America took her place at the front. The author of this book, James M. Beck, has now been appointed Solicitor-General of the United States. By virtue of his office he will appear as the attorney of the Federal Government before the Supreme Court. He is sixty years old, a Philadelphian by birth, and a graduate of the Moravian College at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar, he became some years later United States attorney for the Eastern District of that State, and in 1900 Assistant Attorney-General of the United States. In recent years he has been practicing law in New York City.

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Vix years ago, when the then Captain

Eberle was appointed Superintendent of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, The Outlook remarked: "He is a naval officer of high professional attainment, especially distinguished as an ordnance

expert, and, like so many others in the (C) Clinedinst

service, possesses a very valid claim to JAMES M. BECK, SOLICITOR-GENERAL OF

the title of statesman. Naval officers THE UNITED STATES

not only must perfect themselves in the PERSONALITY COUNTS

technical duties of an exacting profesORNELL's choice of Dr. Livingston sion, but they must possess the ability

Farrand for President, like Yale's to embody in their own person the law, choice of Dr. Angell, is an indication the tradition, and the dignity of the that personal forcefulness, executive ex- country which they represent." perience, and modern educative ideals Now Rear-Admiral Eberle has been are more and more indispensable to assigned by the President as Comeducational leadership. Like Yale, Cor- mander-in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet, nell chose a graduate of another col

with the title of Admiral. In view of lege–in this case, Princeton. Dr. Far- existing circumstances, Admiral Eberle's rand has had teaching experience at

assignment is one which will bring out Columbia University and the University his essential qualities. As when Adof Colorado, and has specialized in miral Sperry was in command of the psychology and in research and explora- fleet which went round the world during tion in the field of anthropology. At one time he was at the head of the University of Colorado. But his most valuable training in managing men, applying system, and co-ordinating energy has been in non-academic service. Thus in 1917 he took charge in France of the International Health Board's campaign against tuberculosis, and later became Chairman of the Central Committee of the American Red Cross, a position entailing large responsibility and the constant exercise of judgment in dealing with men and things. Cornell is a vast and complex institution. It will find its spirit and energy well directed under its new President.

Equal approval has been given by educators to the choice of Dr. Frank P. Graves as Commissioner of Education for the State of New York by the Regents of the University of the State, which, as most of our readers know, is a governing and not a teaching institution. Dr. Graves was selected from among a large number of men who have been under consideration since Dr. Finley's resignation. He has taught or International acted as dean or president in several DR. FRANK P. GRAVES, RECENTLY CHOSEN colleges, has written books and many


DENT OF THE L'NIVERSITY OF THE STATE articles on educational topics, and has

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the Roosevelt Administration, the coun- the history of the relations between the try is fortunate now that the Pacific British colonies and the mother country. Fleet has at its head a man equally The essential elasticity and yet unity eminent as a naval administrator and of the British Empire with regard to its as a statesman.

Dominions has just been strikingly The Atlantic and Pacific Fleets, if shown in the case of the proposal to united, would make an especially im- give to Ireland a Dominion form of pressive exhibition of American force in Government. One of the most eminent the Pacific Ocean. This union, it has of the Dominion Prime Ministers, Genbeen said, should not take place, because eral Smuts, of South Africa (who some Japan might interpret it as a challenge two decades ago was fighting on the Boer to her. It may be questioned if such a side against Britain), has visited Ireland quiet exhibition of America might not on behalf of Imperial union, and his in the end be productive of peaceful efforts have brought about good results. rather than warlike relations, as the case of the visit of our fleet to Japan THE ITALIAN IVANHOE on its way round the world some years VE of Scott's novels may have a reago.

vival if the new Italian Prime

Minister becomes an important figure. A DECLARATION OF

It happens that his first name was taken DOMINION RIGHTS

from Sir Walter Scott's hero, Ivanhoe. Nhis opening address at the Imperial It would be interesting to make a list of

Conference Mr. Lloyd George pro- literary revivals that have had no more claimed the full national status of the literary causes. British Dominions. He recognized them The new Ivanhoe spells his name of as taking their places in the councils of course in Italian fashion. Ivanoë Bothe Empire on a footing of absolute nomi is well known in Italy as a public equality with the mother country.

man, for he has held two important As this implies for the Dominions an offices in the Cabinet. He has been Minadequate voice in the foreign affairs of ister of the Treasury under Giolitti, and the Empire, Arthur Meighen, Premier of before that Minister of War. It is GioCanada, later laid down four cardinal litti himself that he succeeds. principles. These, he asserted, were To most Americans who have been essential to the Dominions' heightened stirred by Germany's aggression in the status. The four points, as reported, are war Giolitti's name will always have an as follows:

evil sound, for during those early critical (1) On all questions of foreign pol- months Giolitti was pro-German. It was icy the Dominions should be kept not until the war was well over that thoroughly and constantly informed. Giolitti came back into power. He has

(2) On all questions of foreign policy affecting the Empire as a whole

always been a shrewd politician, and, it the Dominion Governments must be must be acknowledged, has during his consulted.

term as Prime Minister again proved (3) The British Government should enter into no treaties or alliances

his shrewdness. He has had to steer a without taking the advice of the

difficult course between the radicals, Dominions; indeed, all such treaties who are some of them Bolshevists, and should be subject to the approval of

the Fascisti, who have been advocates of the Dominion Parliaments. (4) On all questions arising be

restoring law and order through viotween the United States and Canada


He has been subject to attack the Canadian Government's advice also his foreign policy, for his opmust be accepted as final.

ponents have held it up against him This declaration of Dominion rights' that the easternmost harbor of Fiume

was awarded to the Jugoslavs. Giolitti

did not wait for an adverse majority in Parliament before resigning; he resigned while the majority was still with him, It was, however, a majority of only thirty-four, and the old politician chose to assume that with so small a majority his Cabinet could hardly be sure of the country's confidence.

His successor, Bonomi, may not be in office long. Most observers of Italian politics are likely to think that Giolitti has gone out only to come back. It may be, however, that Bonomi will not be content to be Giolitti's stepping-stone. He has gathered about him a good Cabinet. For the time being he has won the support of the Socialists in spite of the fact that he is a reformed Socialist himself. He has also the support of many Fascisti. In addition he has the support of the Catholic party. He gets his main strength, however, from the Liberals. He will be opposed by extremists from various parties. By profession he is a journalist and has written on Socialism. In aspect he is austere and in manner taciturn, but in action he knows how to gain his ends by gentleness.

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may take its place as a turning point in

bration at Ravenna, where the poet died, will mark the culmination of all the Italian commemorations. The austerity of that ancient city will form a fit setting for acts of homage to one who was great in adversity. The Dante celebrations are not only impressive in themselves, honoring one of the greatest poets of all time, but are also incidental expressions in Italy of a national New Life.

That is the underlying fact marking these celebrations. A new sense of youth, freedom, expansion, is rejuvenating Italy. Fascismo, aggressive nationalism as opposed to communism, is only one aspect of it, and, strange as this may seem, may turn out to be the least significant aspect. Throughout Italy the people have been stirred to a finer love of country. With some Italians, indeed, it is becoming a consciousness of the inherent great powers of the Italic race and a will to use them towards a new Renaissance of a now United Italy.

(C) Keystone

HEAD OF DANTE, SCULPTURED BY OVORIO This New Life is comparable to that

RUOTOLO, THE ITALIAN-AMERICAN SCULPTOR new life of Dante's own Gothic age. In

session at London. Sweden, though not it man's mind and soul and will also

a member of the Council, automatically made a great leap, founded on a great

became a member for this particular emotion and determination. For it was

case. Similarly, Finland, though not the age of Marco Polo'as well as of Joan

then a member of the League, was also of Arc and St. Louis; the age of the greater reconciliation between Greek permitted under the provisions of the philosophy and Middle Age Christianity as well as the epoch when the cathedral builders did their unrivaled work; the age of beginnings of popular parliamentary rule as opposed to the despotism of kings; and it was the age of the craft guilds and of the urban civilization as well as the age of chivalry, of the Crusades, and of 'le rise of the universities.

In all Italian history there has been this ever-recurring new note of youth, freedom, and expansion.

Covenant to become a temporary member of the Council.

Both nations and also representatives of the islands themselves made a full presentation of their case, and Sweden and Finland pledged themselves to take no action which might jeopardize the preservation of peace.

Finland first claimed that the case was purely of domestic interest, but a commission appointed by the League denied this claim. Thereupon the Council appointed a commission to report on the status of the islands, consisting of one American, one Swiss, and one Belgian. The American representative was Mr. Abram Elkus, formerly our Ambassador at Constantinople.

The Commission recommended, after a careful study of the situation, that the islands should go to Finland, of which they were a geographical appendage. This decision was reached even though the islanders themselves, practically Swedish in culture and sympathy, have on several occasions expressed the desire to link themselves with the Kingdom

the strait. The Commission argued that the principle of self-determination should not apply in this case, because the Swedish population of the islands is but a small part of the Swedish population of Finland as a whole, and that the Swedes in Finland would be adversely influenced by the separation of the islands from that country. The Council, in confirming the finding of this report, also decided that certain guaranties for the protection of the interests of the islanders should be given by Finland. Premier Branting, of Sweden, has protested the decision of the Council, but has agreed to recognize it.



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THE Council of the League of Nations

has awarded the Aaland Islands, in the Baltic Sea, to Finland. This may mean a settlement which can be regarded by friends of the League as sig. nificant of the usefulness which the future may hold in store for that organization.

The case of the Aaland Islands was first presented to the League by Great Britain, a disinterested party to the controversy between Finland and Sweden. This action was taken under the general provision of the Covenant that any case involving world peace is a matter of concern to the members of the League.

All states in the League were notified as to the facts, and the Council was sum. moned to meet last July in special

The one great industry of Newfound-

land has been paralyzed. The calamity of having too much fish is very serious to a small country like Newfoundland. Fishing is its main industry. Mining and pulp and other industries are very secondary. The markets of Newfoundland abroad have been largely closed to the Newfoundlanders because, through poverty and adverse exchange, the foreigners have been unable to buy the usual quantity of pre-war supplies. Moreover, salt, twine, and canvas (all of which Newfoundland imports) are still so high as to make it impossible for the people to live and send fish across the sea at pre-war rates.

A further peril now menaces the Newfoundlanders. The old-time tariff, which kept cod, herring, and oil out of their natural market in the United States may be reimposed.

And yet America needs an increase of New




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