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474 figures, I will give the comparison in Island, which were among the last to alcoholism arising among inebriates, gallons per head between consumption remain wet. In England the home coun- but the total of drunkenness has dropped of liquor in the United States for the ties adjacent to London and much of to a fraction of what it was. The reyear 1917, when this country was wet, Lancashire, Yorkshire, South Scotland, turns of the luxury taxes show that proand British consumption in 1920:

and the Midlands are continuously ur- hibition has been accompanied by a Spirits Beer Wine

ban in character-the most difficult of great increase in funds available for United States 1.16 14.9 .31

battlefields against "the trade." Also, it life's minor comforts and adornments; United Kingdom.......... .47 20.61


is unfortunately the fact that among and the returns of Ellis Island dispose It will thus be seen that before adopt

women in England there is not as yet of the notion that immigration is ing prohibition the United States con

the strong etiquette which kept Ameri- thereby retarded. No one can now assumed per head as much wine as the

women out of the saloon. The sert that the wage-earners of Britain United Kingdom, twice as much spirits,

woman's vote has not been mobilized as are more content with alcohol than the and two-thirds as much beer.

yet against the brewers; the excitement wage-earners of the United States are For the year 1919 the British expendi

of victory over “the Hun," the memory without it, and the bugbear of industrial ture on drink and food compared thus:

of the slain, has prevented a clear vision unrest arising out of "the drought" has Drink on the matter.

been laid forever. Beef and mutton. Bread and flour.


Also, the full effect of prohibition in It seems to me also, as a detached Bacon

the United States has still to be realized spectator, that politics in the United Butter and margarine. 1 17

in Britain. With all his sportsmanship, States is now far from being the some Sugar Tea


7 Pussyfoot Johnson is still in the in- what dubious game which twenty years It is surely a startling fact that on vidious position of the good boy who ago it was supposed to be by people alcoholic beverages there was spent wants the rest of the family to be as living in England. The saloon has gone, more money than upon meat and bread. good as himself. Europeans visiting the and in its place we have the woman Indeed, you could nearly throw the item United States usually spend most of voter, eager, ready to learn, and intolof butter into the scale. And yet the their time in areas once scheduled as erant of duplicity or graft. In so far drink bill for 1919 was only £8 88.,

wet and in homes and hotels where as liquor assisted the electoral ambi. whereas in 1920 it had risen further to money and hospitable intent do produce tions of certain hyphenates it tended to £10.

the pleasant cocktail for a 'thirsty guest. split up and depreciate American citi. As to social effects, we have the plain These visitors go away saying that any- zenship, and from this angle also its tale of convictions for drunkenness. body can get liquor at any time in the suppression is a good thing, tending, as The following table is, once more, for United States, which, in a

sense, is it does, to a deeper unity in the Nation. the three years 1914, 1918, and 1919. It true-at a price.

On the other hand, so marked a differapplies to England and Wales. We Newspapers, anxious for the unusual,

of social custom between the have:

tell of rum-running along the Canadian United States and other nations of Convictions for Consumption of border, moonshining, bootlegging, and European origin must result in a cerDrunkenness Absolute Alcohol

carpets spoiled by home-brewed froth. tain isolation of sentiment. If the Men

Women (Gallons) 1914. 146,517 37,311 89,000,000

On every radiator cider is secretly fer- United States is right, then it follows 1:18. 21,8.73

37,000,000 menting. At Christmas, the mincemeat that many others are wrong. And with 1919..... 46,767 11,180 60,000,000

kicks. Watermelons are converted by science internationalized and tables of It will thus be seen that as the drink plugs of yeast into ten per cent alcohol. mortality and industrial output availconsumption fell, so did drunkenness One realizes why the apple in Eden was able for the whole world, it is obvious among both men and women. As the forbidden and warehouses full of spirits that the enforcement of prohibition in consumption rose again, so again did leak badly.

any one country must in the end comthe evils multiply which follow drink. Assume that all this is as true as it is pel its serious consideration everywhere It is a case of cause and effect, and picturesque.

The broad fact emerges else. when the criminal statistics for 1920 are that drink in the United States is Prohibition is, however, a law only, available they will show, I am afraid, a doomed. On no public occasion can it not a gospel. It is Mosaic rather than further large increase in proved intem- be seen. The banquets are dry. Young Christian-Mosaic and of Islam. It is perance.

people, even when given to dancing, derived from Mount Sinai, and not from The truth about Britain is that she is grow up unconscious of alcohol. Fol. the Mount of Olives.

It says, Thou a country where the liquor trade enjoys lowing David Belasco, the theaters and shalt not; it does not say, Thou shalt. exceptional advantages. In the long movies find that prohibition helps the In itself, the advantage of prohibition battle between the Established Church box office. Entertainment is now is physical only-better health, more and the Nonconformists liquor sup- vested interest against "booze." Great money, fewer temptations. There is ported the Church, and so divided on hotels and restaurants which depended much to be said for the British theory this issue the religious forces of the na- on drink are disappearing, and this that true temperance means the control tion. Similarly, liquor financed the again weakens the wets. The cabarets of self by self and not the control of Conservative party, on which Mr. Lloyd and follies cannot alone fight the battle self by others. In accepting prohibition George-personally a prohibitionist-de- for the wets, and they are surrendering. a nation returns to a former dispensapends for power. Not only has he found And the Nation, while still drinking a tion, a childhood in which orders are it impossible to proceed with temper- good deal, is for this very reason drink. obeyed and the will is relieved of exerance legislation, but he has been com- ing itself dry. There is none save home cise. The only reason why, in Britain, pelled to release the trade from limita- brewed beer. There is little import of prohibition is to-day the one fighting tions imposed during the war. Six wine and spirits. And spirits in bond policy must be sought in the folly of years ago Britain was at least one hun. are disappearing.

he trade" itself.

Not only do the dred thousand working-class dwellings The fears entertained in respect of brewers and publicans resist all real in arrears, and she now needs double prohibition unrealized. Despite amendment of their business, but they that number. From the old homes the General Bramwell Booth's statement have this year promoted legislation people, with war money in their that the drug habit is growing, I can which is an insult to the moral sense pockets but their war morale almost er. find no authoritative proof that this is of moderate men

everywhere. hausted, have flocked to theaters, picture

the case.
And if it had been the case,

speech by Lady Astor killed this measpalaces, and the public-house or saloon. assuredly the evidence would have been ure. By refusing all compromise and

If there had been no war, the grip of there. Salutary sentences appear to pushing their triumphs to the utmost the traffic would still have been severe. have quashed any general danger of lengths of indifference to the national Possibly, the United States themselves wood alcohol. Apparently, the cessation well-being the brewers will force on would never have secured prohibition if of beer and substitution of spirits, in- Britain ultimately the choice between the decision had been confined to East- evitable to the initial period of prohibi. all or none, which the United States has pirn States like New York and Rhode tion, have led to a more acute type of recently decided in favor of none.




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THERE are bright and dark sides to a load

on your back. If it is an outing-hurrah !

If it is for daily bread-ah, that is different. Our soldier boys in the war learned to carry sixty pounds or so, under “full marching orders," but the Americans are strangers to the back load as a business. Its development comes with density of population. So China easily takes the lead in volume and variety of back burdens.

A Chinaman stopped to sell some vegetables, and I placed the slim stick on my shoulder and

started to lift the two full baskets attached by a rope to either end. I could not raise them; yet he, no stronger than I, knew how and started off on a little trot.

Europe has always carried on-on the back; but the war has destroyed a portion of the animal supply, and more loads loom on the shoulders than ever before. This is especially true in the devastated regions of France, and the city of Vienna, where the Socialistic Government has destroyed the value of their currency, and many people



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On January 15 (1919) Mr. Lloyd However, the Peace Conference had again protested against publicity, and a George complains of insinuations pub

not been at work for a week, and the real censorship is being exercised over lished in certain French newspapers.

Russian problem was being discussed, the French press. It should interest the President Wilson goes even further, and

when Mr. Wilson and Mr. Lloyd George American public to know that the although representing a country in which censorship had been abolished imme

took exception to the amount of pub- French Censorship Bureau enjoys the diately following the armistice, asks that

licity the debates were given in the assistance of two American officials, the French censorship should be exercised French press. They wished the exchange whose duty it is to advise as to modify. not only over the French newspapers but of opinion preceding the decisions to be ing or admitting any expression of also over despatches sent to foreign kept secret, and the results only to be opinion which French publicists might papers. M. Clemenceau opposes a friendly published. Mr. Lloyd George said: make on American policies as expressed refusal.-From Tardieu's "The Truth

“ 'I have come here with the idea that by Mr. Wilson. Here is a case in point: About the Treaty."

I shall have to change my point of view “Last October I said in a leading arWHOLLY disapprove of what you many times, and I do not want it to be ticle that President Wilson had refused say—and will defend your right

said that I had to give away on such to help the Czechoslovaks struggling on to say it to the death," wrote Vol- and such points.' When the armistice the river Volga. The French censor taire to Helvetius on the publication of terms were being renewed, Mr. Wilson asked for the suppression of the pasthe latter's famous book "On the Mind." said:

sage, and since we refused, he called to It is amazing to those few Americans “'Why do you allow your press to his rescue his two American colleagues, who were present in Paris during the . speak so frankly about my policies and detailed for the purpose, who then came Peace Conference that so little of what

make it impossible for me to make any to me with an air which plainly showed was common knowledge there was not concessions to you?'

they did not relish their extraordinary only not known in America, but has not "Following this, M. Clemenceau, yield- task. been made known here even to this day. ing to pressure, made the famous decis- “As to cablegrams from our Washing

Have the people of America realized, ion not to allow anything to be pub- ton correspondent suppressed here by for instance, to what a great extent

lished in the French press besides the our own censors, but to meet the wishes the censorship in practice in Paris, exer- official communiqué. However, he asked of Mr. Wilson, after Mr. Wilson's arrival cised mainly at the specific request of Mr. Wilson and Mr. Lloyd George to in France several French papers printed Mr. Wilson, was responsible for the fail

guarantee that the American and British communications from their Washington ure of the Conference to agree upon a press would be treated on the same correspondents, American citizens who Treaty and a League of Nations plan terms. Both of them stated that they reported the trend in Congress on Mr. compatible with both American and

were unable to give such assurances, as Wilson's policies, such as speeches by European Allied.public opinion?

the question was too serious to be de- Senator Lodge and other leaders. Very Yet the fact is that America was pre- cided offhand.

soon it was known that these cablevented from knowing the true light in “On the following morning, however, grams had a very disturbing effect on which Europe regarded Mr. Wilson and the French papers, as a consequence of the distinguished visitor at the Hôtel his methods, and the French press was the warning, were very reticent. At the Murat and his entourage, and shortly not permitted to inform the French peo- next sitting Clemenceau and Pichon after the censor cut out more and ple how America looked upon Mr. said they would be unable to apply such more of our American cablegrams. Wilson's foreign adventuring and pro- a strict censorship if the American and Here you see dozens of them which have gramme.

British press continued to enjoy more been blue-penciled. These messages, Their “right to say it" was not only favored treatment.

moreover, did not contain any criticism denied, but active repression was "In the meantime, it had been pub- originating from our own correspontually put in force by the one man who lished in the French press that hence- dents; they were in most instances was most obligated to protect their right forth nothing would be said of what merely reports of speeches in Congress, to hear and to say.

would take place in the secret meetings, and no instructions whatever had been I sat at the desk of the distinguished and the impression it made in France given our correspondents to take any French publicist "Pertinax," of the and abroad was most unfavorable. In line contrary to Mr. Wilson. "Echo de Paris," when he showed me order to counteract it, and knowing well “The result of this form of 'open scores of cablegrams from his Washing. that they were responsible, Wilson and diplomacy' has been that France has ton correspondent, Mr. Judson Welliver, Lloyd George proposed that the whole been led to believe that America inblue-penciled by the French censor, question of publicity should be referred dorses Mr. Wilson's policies to the last whole sentences often struck out, some. to the press itself-hence the very con- man, and, moreover, French opinion as times half or all of the message sup- fusing debate which took place at a con- expressed in the French press has been pressed, including a speech of Senator ference of the Allied journalists.

represented throughout America as beLodge in the Senate on the League of "The outcome was the decision that ing unanimously in favor of Mr. WilNations, and a paragraph of one of Mr. the press should be admitted at the son's policies. In that way public Wickersham's Paris messages to the plenary sittings of the Conference. But opinion on both sides of the Atlantic New York “Tribune," cabled back for a reservation on this point was made by has been prevented from free interreproduction in Paris.

Mr. Wilson himself, and he wrote with change from day to day, thereby to Pertinax said:

his own hand on a slip of paper and bring about that close approximation "About a month before the Peace Con- handed it to the other leaders the sug. of view.point which is of such great ference opened a strongly worded note gestion that when necessary even the value, and which alone makes mutual was received by the French Government plenary sittings should be held in agreement and understanding possible. from the State Department at Washing- camera.

“We have been mutually duped as to ton, requesting them to give instruc- “The whole policy, then, was quite each other's views and feelings, and it tions that cablegrams sent over to plain. A great show of publicity was to is plain, therefore, that the consequences America by American correspondents in be made in a few instances when solemn must be regrettable.” Paris should not be submitted to any and empty debates took place, but the kind of censorship. This request was real sittings of the leading men of the This fateful prophecy of “Pertinax" was gladly granted, and for a time the Conference, when the real work of the uttered on February 15, 1918. Warnings American correspondents in Paris, as Conference was done, was to be kept of this state of things were sent to well as their British colleagues, enjoyed hidden from the world.

America by myself and other correcomplete freedom in communicating "A few days before Mr. Wilson sailed spondents at the time. They were never with their papers.

back to America (the first time) he published, granting they arrived.


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