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Soviet Government of Russia. They are right in holding that the offense did denies with vigor the inference that he such conditions as any self-respecting come under the statute, and the defense, and his colleagues drew any profit from government or organization engaged in therefore, was again founded on the defi- the handling of State funds. He decharitable relief must insist upon.
nition of the individual's right to speak clares that the Attorney-General has That the Soviet cannot be trusted freely of his own convictions. The fathered these charges because of politiwithout restrictions such as Mr. Hoover lower court held that the offense was cal enmity; and, moreover, intimates demands even to look after the children not at all mitigated by the Constitu- that moneyed interests have combined of its own people is amply shown in an tional rights of Mockus to express opin- to defeat the will of the people in makarticle elsewhere in this issue called ions or to controvert the opinions of ing him Governor, and that they are “Russia's Next Generation." The moral others. The Supreme Court in an elab- backed by certain politicians and cerbreakdown under Bolshevik rule has orate and admirable decision not only tain newspapers. These influences and resulted in physical suffering, character upheld the lower court as to this, but interests he describes as acting through deterioration, and criminal abuse of asserted that the statute "in no manner "a whole gang of character assassins Russia's children. Any aid the Relief conflicts with our State constitutional and character defamers." Administration can give must be partial guaranty of religious freedom and free Lawyers are interested particularly in and temporary. The question at once dom of speech." The presiding Justice, the contention that a State Governor by arises whether such relief might not be Judge Philbrook, most vigorously com- submitting to arrest after indictment more than counterbalanced by the con- mended the definition of liberty set would surrender his official rights and sequent bolstering up of the credit of forth by the justice of the lower court commit an act of political treason. The the Bolshevist minority which is re- and commended it as "a charge which Attorney-General, on the other hand, insponsible for what Sir Paul Dukes for clearness of thought, beauty of dic- sists that the sole question is whether rightly calls the appalling conditions tion, accuracy of law, and impartiality the Governor is or is not guilty of the among Russian children. of statement is seldom equaled.”
charges, and asks whether the defense
It is for the purpose of enforcing and for refusing to obey the courts would BLASPHEMY AND FREE SPEECH commending this excellent definition apply if a Governor should commit murCOME four years ago we reported the that we have thought it worth whi
that we have thought it worth while der while in office. O conviction of a Lithuanian lecturer again to refer to the attacks of Michael named Michael Mockus under a Con
a Con. Mockus on religion and the religious SOLDIERS AND MOTHERS
feeling. The definition referred to by M necticut statute originally passed in feeling. The definition referred to by he United States Senate has passed 1642 and then aimed against witchcraft Judge Philbrook is as follows:
1 two measures of much human ap
The great degrees of liberty which as well as against blasphemy, but later
peal, the Soldiers' Relief Bill and the
we enjoy in this country, the degree amended and moderated. The interest
of personal liberty which every man
Maternity Bill. The first is also known in the case was in the plea that insult to
and woman enjoys, is limited by a
as the Sweet Bill, from the name of its the Christian religion and its followers like degree of liberty in every other introducer in the House, Representative was defensible as free speech.
person, and it is the duty of men,
Sweet, of Iowa. The passage of this bill and the duty of women, in their conNow some friend sends us pages from
duct, in the exercise of the liberty
should be followed by quick and thora law journal which report another
which they enjoy, to consider that ough aid to the needy soldier, for it conblasphemy case against this same every other man and woman has the solidates into one bureau the Bureau of Michael Mockus which came before the
right to exercise the same degree of
War Risk Insurance, the Board for Voca
liberty; that when one person enters Maine Supreme Court recently. Here,
into society-and society is the state
tional Education, and so much of the again, is the question how far the prin in which personal liberty exists Public Health Service as relates to disciple of free speech allows contumely to each gives up something of that lib abled ex-service men. Such consolidation
erty in order that the other may the religious convictions of others.
ought to save the soldier from the waste
enjoy the same degree of liberty. It The report shows that Mockus, in com
is a conception that perhaps some
of time and money due to separated menting on various pictures which he people find difficult to understand, but and overlapping bureaus. As it passed threw on the screen, used almost incon. it is the conception of liberty which the House the bill provided for the new
we enjoy. ceivably indecent, insulting, and filthy
bureau to be under the Treasury Departexpressions about God, Christ, and the
ment, but as it passed the Senate the Virgin Mary. It is perfectly clear that A GOVERNOR UNDER
bureau was to be independent and under as a mere matter of public decency no INDICTMENT
the President. While the Senate's acman should be allowed to utter such he State of Illinois is undergoing tion is assumed to be prefatory to the language in any public place. And this 1 the singular experience of having establishment of the bureau in the new would be true, no matter whether the its Governor under indictment on a Department of Public Welfare, as recominsults were directed to Christianity, or charge of embezzlement, yet refusing to mended by the President, Mr. Sweet, in Moslemism, or Judaism. Conviction submit to arrest on the ground that he recently writing to The Outlook, said was obtained in this case under a Maine would thereby violate his obligation to that "it would be a very easy matter to statute which makes it an offense to use the State to carry on his functions as transfer the new bureau from the Treas. "profanely, insultingly, and reproach- Governor.
ury Department to the Welfare Depart. fully language against God" or against It would be improper, and indeed im ment" in case the pending bill establishthe other members of the Trinity or the possible, to form at a distance an opin- ing that Department became law. Christian Scriptures. Whether or not ion as to the charges and counter. The Maternity Bill, also known as the this is theoretically the best method of charges in this unfortunate affair. The Sheppard-Towner Bill, from the names legally forbidding the kind of thing allegations upon which the county Grand of its sponsors in the Senate and House. above described is an open question. A Jury acted charged Governor Small was first suggested by Miss Julia non-Christian (say, for instance, a Jew) with conspiracy together with the Lieu. Lathrop, Chief of the Children's Bureau might reasonably ask that his sacred tenant-Governor, Mr. Sterling, and Mr. in the Department of Labor. That convictions and feelings also should be Vernon Curtis, a banker, to misappro. Bureau, assisted by an Advisory Com. protected against such an offense. priate or misuse the daily balances of mittee consisting of the Secretary of
The lower court was undoubtedly the State in the banks. The Governor Agriculture, the Surgeon-General of the
however, 2,000-pound bombs were dropped, not upon, but alongside of the battleship the effect was crushing, for they opened the seams of the vessel be low the water-line. Because of the great resistance of water, the explosion expends its energy against the vessel.
It is to be remembered in connection with these experiments that the advantage was with the bombers. The battleship was motionless, proving a much easier target than a moving vessel. The weather, moreover, was favorable. A squadron of naval vessels steaming along in a mist or fog might possibly be put out of commission if bombs could be dropped alongside of them as they were alongside this helpless German battleship; but the problem, which was not presented off Norfolk during these experiments is to find the squadron in a fog, to be able to fly over it, and to
be able to drop the bombs on a moving PIUS VII AND target with sufficient accuracy. NAPOLEON AT
The experiments seem to the layman FONTAINEBLEAU
hardly an argument against building Fontainebleau, battleships, but they are certainly an the scene of many
argument for developing aircraft and historic events,
Pius VII and
M ANY American tourists in France
I go to Fontainebleau. More should
France. Its palace was for centuries the Public Health Service, and the Commis- causes most of which are preventable.) residence of the French sovereigns. sioner of Education, is to carry out the President Harding has given his hearty The beautiful Louis XV wing is now provisions of the Act. The bill provides support to the measure; he says: "I an American conservatory of music for for co-operation between the Federal assume that the Maternity Bill, already graduate students from this country, Government and the States in respect to strongly approved, will be enacted and a hundred students recently began the public protection of maternity and promptly, thus adding to our manifesta- their first term there. infancy. It appropriates annually ten tion of human interest."
The opening day was declared a holithousand dollars to each State, and,
day at Fontainebleau. The town had furthermore, annually an additional sum
already given a hundred thousand francs of a million dollars is to be given to the THE THE BATTLESHIP AND
toward the support of the school. States, proportionately to their popula. THE BOMB
The principal courses are in compositions, in return for an equal sum from TT is a mistake for the inexpert to
TT is a mistake for the inexpert tion, fugue, counterpoint, and harmony: them for the maintenance of the services 1 jump to conclusions upon the an organ, piano, violin, violoncello, the and facilities of the Act. Any State de nouncement of the results of scientific harp; the history of music, acoustics; siring to avail itself of the benefits of experiments. To say, as some have said, and lectures by leading composers and the Act must submit to the Children's that the battleship has been rendered conductors. The French Advisory ComBureau, for its approval, detailed plans obsolete because the German battleship mittee includes such names as Saintincluding provision for instruction in Ostfriesland was sunk by 2,000-pound Saëns, d'Indy, Rabaud, Ravel, Messager, maternal and infant hygiene through bombs dropped from airplanes is to Charpentier, Pierné, and Fauré. M. public health nurses, consultation cen- jump at conclusions with the bland op- Saint-Saëns made the address on the ters, extension courses by qualified lec- timism shown by a frog in the presence opening day and, as was appropriate, turers, and other methods—the type of of a bit of red flannel. It is obvious, Mr. Walter Damrosch presided. For the maternal care and instruction in infant however, that the sinking of the Ost. school is largely due to Mr. Damrosch's welfare used in a New York City district friesland will modify many judgments initiative. during recent years, where the death concerning the value of aerial attacks Charles Marie Widor, the French comrate of babies has been reduced from 144 on naval vessels.
poser, will be the general director of to 85 per thousand births. (The most Some naval experts have said that studies, which will be the more interestrecent available statistics show that bombs dropped upon modern armored ing because, unlike those at the Paris every year in the United States some battleships would not sink them. This Conservatory of Music, they may be con23,000 mothers and nearly 250,000 chil- seemed to be proved true of bombs tinued no matter whether the student Iron under one year of age die from weighing 1,000 pounds or less. When, has reached a certain age or not. More
over, students may compete more than of Pelham, New York; for the 72 holes throughout the world by any real prog. once for prizes.
his score of 289 strokes has been sur ress which those conferences may make.
passed only by Mr. Evans's record of 286 The cynically minded, pointing to the TRACK, FIELD, AND LINKS
five years ago. To play seventy-two Hague Conferences, which were followed TN no athletic contests are the prin
holes in succession, averaging four by the World War, and the Peace ConI ciples of good sportsmanship more strokes to the hole, with but one stroke ference at Paris, which was followed by carefully observed than those which over ("one over four," as the golfers the troubled times in which we now live, have taken place between universities of say), is proof, as President Harding said, may inquire what is the use of another America and England. In track and of confidence, poise, and courage. C. conference? The fact, however, that one field events there have been five meets Evans, Jr., former open champion, led such conference does follow another, between combined teams from Oxford the amateurs and was in third place, despite apparent failure, is an indication and Cambridge. on the one side, and two professionals, Walter Hagen and of the incurable faith of men in the ultiHarvard and Yale, on the other. The
Fred McLeod, tying for second place, mate goal of international peace and fifth, which took place on July 23 at the nine strokes behind "Long Jim” Barnes. justice. Harvard Stadium, resulted in victories George Duncan, the famous English pro To expect the failure of these conferin eight out of the ten events for the fessional, was in a tie for fifth place, ences to be followed immediately liv American universities. How complete three Americans, one of them the ama- Armageddon, or their success, even the American victory was is indicated teur R. T. Jones, Jr., of Atlanta, being though exceeding anticipation, by Milby the fact that if any chance had dis- tied for fourth place. The far-driving lennium, would be folly; but their failqualified the Harvard contestants Yale British professional Mitchell fell out by ure is on the road to Armageddon and alone would have won against the com- the way.
their success on the road to something bined British universities four events out
more like Millennium than anything the of the ten, and if the Yale men had been
world has yet known. disqualified six out of the ten events MILLENNIUM OR
On another page Mr. P. W. Wilson, an would have been won by Harvard alone.
English observer of American life and One of the Englishmen, B. G. D. Rudd,
a student of international affairs, anaof Oxford, took part in three events and N TO one need be under any illusions lyzes the issues that are likely to come won one of them. E. O. Gourdin, the
as to the grave possibilities in the before those conferences. These are issues colored athlete of Harvard, won two
forthcoming international confer- on which men will not yield what they events—the 100-yard dash in 10 1/5 sec ences at Washington. If they fail, it believe to be their rights except under onds (not his best record) and the run will not be because of any influence ex- compulsion. The nations that will be ning broad jump, in which he broke the erted by special interests, such as arma- engaged in those conferences know this world's record. In all the history of the ment makers, but because nations with well, and no government worthy of the world no one has been known to jump conflicting interests will have not yet name is going to enter those conferences 25 feet 3 inches until this colored man found the way to readjusting those inter with any intention of allowing 'these covered that distance in his leap at ests so as not to conflict, or compromis- questions ultimately to be settled by Cambridge on that Saturday afternoon. ing those that they cannot adjust. If they compulsion adversely to its own people. The British participants had some ill succeed, it will not be by some mechani- The nations, therefore, are not going luck through illness and injury, which cal method of arranging programmes for there with the purpose of scrapping fortunately did not pursue them until building battleships, but by reaching a their battleships first and then trusting the end. They were fairly beaten. mutual understanding concerning those to some unknown settlement afterwards
In golf the open championship tourna- deep national interests which battle of the vital issues involved. They want ment (that is, the tournament open to ships are built to defend.
those issues settled, first. That is why professionals and amateurs alike) was And no one need be under any illusion the Prime Ministers of the British Dowon by James Barnes, the professional as to the hope that will be spread minions are really beginning the Wash
The nations... want those issues settled. That is why the Prime Ministers of the British Domin
ions are really beginning the Washington Conference in London among themselves"
tralia; Jan C. Smuts, South Africa; Earl Curzon; Maharao of Cutch
ington Conferences in London among because the need of security against out vote and partly on common sense and themselves. That is why Japan is at break in Upper Silesia is the immediate the safety of Europe, or its being made tempting to get questions like that of and first need. The past has shown that into a free zone, as has been suggested, Yap out of the way first. And that is this danger is not to be trifled with or is entirely within the scope of authority why Secretary Hughes is insisting that ignored. German insurrection or Polish and responsibility placed on the Supreme no reservation can be made in advance resistance while the Supreme Council Council by the Treaty. concerning the issues to be discussed, debates must not be allowed. Silesian but that all questions which the nations Germans or German Germans, Silesian wish discussed must be raised and dis- Poles or Poles in Poland, are not to set- RIGHT WASTE AND posed of. tle this matter by fighting. And the
WRONG WASTE If America is not only to have her in- first thing for the Allies to do is to terests well considered, but also to have secure peace and quiet.
TT is a truism that war means waste. her influence for peace and justice Very sensibly France and Great Brit It turns wealth-making capital and through mutual understanding commen- ain, according to cable reports as we I energy into channels of destruction. surate with her power, American public write, are compromising on an agree. What is more, war's destructive work opinion must be informed on these ques- ment whereby a short postponement of cannot, from war's nature, be carried on tions, must help to guide the Government the Supreme Council will allow the send economically. In peace times we try to in its course, and must be ready to sup- ing of Allied troops to reinforce those get the best results for the least money; port the Government in defending those now in Upper Silesia France has a in war we are trying to win quickly and interests and in extending that influence. division ready to move, and England can at the same time we must plan to be On this account we commend Mr. Wil- use its judgment as to whether she also ready to pour in men, munitions, and son's article to our readers. wishes to send reinforcements.
supplies for an unknown future period. The division of Upper Silesia on lines So what would ordinarily be extrava
based partly on the recent referendum gance must be disregarded. The profiWHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR UPPER SILESIA ?
TRANCE and England together must
til a decision is reached as to its final disposition. France and England must act together also in making that final disposition, although other Powers will be represented in the Supreme Coun. cil. There are differences of opinion between the two countries, but in this, as in other cases arising under the Treaty, the common interest is so strong that anything like a serious clash is extremely improbable. Just now France is anxious to have troops enough in Upper Silesia to preserve the peace while the knotty question of the future is dealt with; England is less impressed with that point and is more anxious to hurry on the Supreme Council sittings.
It seems to us that France is right,
THE NEW SHIPPING
Left to right-A. J.