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T the extreme northeast corner of the map are the republics of
another is Vladivostok. The island of Saghalien, formerly half Russian. is now in fact wholly under Japanese control. Shantung is under control of Japan by virtue of her occupation of Kiaochau. French interests in the Pacific are chiefly in Indo-China. British interests in China center along the Yangtse River, at Weihaiwei, and at Hongkong. Shanghai is a treaty port. The territorial interests of Holland are in the islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, the western half of New Guinea, and intervening smaller islands--all known as the Dutch East Indies. Belgium has applied for inclusion in the Conference on the strength of her railway and financial Interests in China. All the other Powers have similar, though unequal, interests. American interests in the Pacific center in the Philippines, Guam, and Wake Island, besides Midway and the Hn wnilan and Samoan Tslands, which are not on the map.
The islands formerly German are the islands in the middle of the map, east of the Philippines, inclosed in a dot-and-dash line. of these islands, those north and south of the equator were given by the Treaty of Versailles to Japan and Australia, respectively. under a mandate; the United States, not being party to the Treaty. has not yet officially consented to this arrangement. Besides these, the German part of Samoa was given to New Zealand. That part of New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago which was formerly German are indicated by a dotted line. At present Yap, one of the smaller of the Caroline group, is a bone of contention. As it is the center of international cables, the United States is unwilling that Japan should have complete control of it under a mandate from the League of Nations. This island, though small in territory, is now big in importance.
Steamer distances from important points, especially those not on the map. are indicated.
faced at the Conferences with the ques- with other nations foreign to China? Is duress. How, then, is China to be saved tion whether (in common parlance) he China to be given powers to prevent in the future from such compulsion? Is can "deliver the goods." Hence his Japanese and any other smuggling of the United States ready to help in the determination to have Congress at hisopium into her territories?
management of her finances, as they back from the outset. It has been sug. (5) The Government at Peking will were managed for so many years and gested that the Conferences might meet be represented at the Conference to with such conspicuous fidelity by Sir in the building where Senators have quote Mr. Balfour-"as an independent Robert Hart? How are you otherwise their offices, which includes a marble Power." But will President Sun Yat to lift mandarins above their habitual hall for caucuses. Provided the acous- sen, of the Southern Chinese Republic, bribery? Is it possible to make the extics are satisfactory, which I am told is be also recognized? And what is to isting Consortium of the United States, doubtful, there might be a tactical ad happen about the Siberian Republic, of Japan, Britain, France, and Belgium a vantage in having the Conferences at which the capital is Chita? And what real instrument for extending and unitthe Capitol, under the eye of Congress, about Manchuria? Is Japan to retain ing her railways, by which alone China instead of at the rival end of Pennsyl- the northern half of Saghalien?
can be saved from falling apart, and for vania Avenue.
(6) What is to be the interpretation developing equitably her other re
of "the open door"? on which question sources? If China falls a prey to some TAPAN is ready to agree to limit arma
other Power, how is she to be defended? Jments here and now, but she prefers plained:
And how are the incalculable mineral rethat Pacific problems be not discussed. In 1894 the war between Japan and sources of Siberia to be apportioned? In other words, her solution for the China destroyed the prestige of the lat. future is peace and the status quo. With ter Empire. Various European Powers TAPAN is herself deeply stirred. The the status quo in the Far East the Russia, Germany, and Britain, in par J militarists; led by Prince Yamagata United States is not entirely satisfied ticular—therefore declared what they and Admiral Kato, are fighting the and Japan is so informed. She answers called “spheres of influence" over large movement for a broader franchise and that she must know in advance what areas of the disintegrating country. for disarmament, which has attained Far Eastern or Asiatic problems are to While Japan acquired Formosa, she held through the eloquence of Ozaki a most be put upon the agenda. The reply of aloof otherwise from this game of grab formidable impetus. Prime Minister the United States to this is, at the mo- —perhaps she had then no choice—and Hara wants peace and a measure of ment, that the agenda will depend on even supported Secretary Hay when in progress. The masses are tired of taxathe Conference itself. Hence there arise 1900 he compelled Europe to acknowl. tion and conscription and are scandal. the following questions:
edge the doctrine of "the open door," ized by exposures of graft and bribery (1) Will the Anglo-Japanese Alliance which means, broadly, the principle of in high places. And the Emperor is come before the Conference or will it be equal commercial opportunity in the relaxing the etiquette which symbolizes denounced in advance? Has it been regions under development. At this divine right. already, in effect, killed by the opposi- period, therefore, Japan and the United The question is whether Japan will iion of the British Dominions to the States were standing together against raise the problem of race equality and British Foreign Office? And what im- the exclusive enterprises of the old immigration. Her population is increasportance should be attached to the World, which threatened to shut out ing. Where and on what terms may the opinion of Lord Birkenhead, Lord Chan- both of them from the Chinese mar surplus emigrate? If California, British cellor of England, that the Alliance ket.
Columbia, New Zealand, and Australiacontinues automatically for a year from In 1905 Japan had beaten Russia and even tropical Australia, where white June? Can Mr. Lloyd George obtain a acquired Korea. It was no longer a men cannot live-are closed, will Japcontrary opinion from his law officers in question of Europe shutting out Japan, anese already domiciled in these countime for the Conference?
but of Japan shutting out everybody tries at least · receive full citizenship (2) How will the mandate over Yap else; and in 1908, therefore, there was side by side with the white man? be treated, and with it the whole ques- the Root-Takahira interchange of notes, Will immigration into the Philippines, tion of ocean cables, on which the inter- by which Japan, now becoming pre. Hawaii, the Dutch Indies, and Latin national Cable Conference at Washing dominant in the Far East, reiterated to America continue? And with what opton failed to agree? Will the discussion the United States her assurance of “the portunities for holding land? If the be broadened so as to include the Jap- open door.”
white man has his Monroe Doctrine for anese mandate over other German In 1914 Europe was paralyzed by war, North and South America, is the yellow islands north of the equator, and espe- and Japan dispossessed Germany of man to have no Monroe Doctrine for cially the fortifications of those islands, Shantung. Profiting by the confusion, eastern Asia? May Japanese penetrate lying as they do on the routes between she forced on European belligerents in China, carrying their flag, or when they the United States and the Philippines? the dark days preceding 1917 a series of enter must they leave their flag behind Will Japan, on her side, then raise the secret agreements disposing of Far them? And is China to come, like Inquestion of mandates given to Australia Eastern interests to her own advantage, dia and Mesopotamia and Egypt, under for islands south of the equator? And and on China she pressed the famous “Anglo-Saxon" suzerainty? These are how will all this affect the League of Twenty-one Demands, which amounted tremendous and searching questions, Nations at Geneva, which authorized the to annexation. Even the United States probing to the very roots of man's mandates?
had to concede the Lansing-Ishii notes, rights as man. Provision must be made. (3) Is Japanese sovereignty over which added to the doctrine of "the open not indeed for Japan's imperalism, but Korea to be challenged and her adminis- door" the concession that Japan has for the commercial progress and reasontration of that Kingdom, with alleged "special interests" in China, due to able emigration of the Japanese. Otherabuses, reviewed? At Washington there geographical propinquity. The phrase, wise the militarists will say—most foolis an independent Korean Commission. “special interests," was magnified by ishly, but none the less plausibly-that How far will Japan ease this aspect of Japan into "paramount interests" and the only way is war. the position by pushing home her re was so translated into Chinese and forms in Korea and allowing freedom of promulgated four days before the date ASSUMING a settlement in the Pacific, the press, by which alone the sincerity of publication agreed with the United A proposals for disarmament would of the reforms can be guaranteed to the States. There arise, therefore, the ques- then be in order. For the United States, civilized world? tions:
Great Britain, and Japan a reduction of (4) Is it the intention of Japan to (1) Are any European Powers still navies would be immediately possible. evacuate Shantung, absolutely and with bound by secret agreements made with Presumably, the United States would out equivocation, leaving to China the Japan during the war? The answer is, modify her battleship programme of guardianship of railways and other Presumably not.
1916, while Japan would respond with a property and confining Japanese enter- (2) Is China thus bound? Her reply change in her so-called Eight-Eight prise to the commerce which she shares is that she signed nothing, save under schedule of battleships and battle-cruis. ers. Fortifications rapidly proceeding Canada, for instance, is reducing her binding? Will it be necessary to control in the Pacific on both sides would cease. forces this year from 4,400 to 4,000 war material, the making of poisons, With regard to the British fleet, the po men—this for about seven millions of and so on, and, if so, will independent sition is that the very Navy League, people. Disarmament on land is thus a nations submit to such supervision of organized to promote expansion, is now problem, not for those who speak Eng- industry by an international commisadvocating reduction, and for an excel- lish, but for the rest of Europe, includ- sion? The war has shown that metals, lent reason-Britain has no quarreling Russia, and for Japan. Under what etc., can be thus watched, if society either with her twenty years' ally, guaranties will France and Italy join thinks it worth while. Japan, or with the United States, and Japan in abolishing conscription? Are And, finally, will there grow out of she does not want the size of her navy the United States and Britain prepared the Washington Conferences a permato become a cause of quarrel.
to give those guaranties? Must there nent Association of Nations which shall On land, the United States and the be formal treaties or will gentlemen's include the United States and all other British Empire are already disarmed. agreements be sufficiently explicit and civilized Powers?
JUST AS MUCH FUN IN YOUR OWN LITTLE TOWN
BY ROLLIN LYNDE HARTT
Courtesy of Community Service
BY GATHERING TO LISTEN TO A BAND CONCERT OF GOOD MUSIC TOWNSPEOPLE BECOME BETTER NEIGHBORS
INING with Biaggi the other don't pull together. They don't really Spain, France, Italy, Bohemia, and night—at Migliore's, as usual—I know one another. They're stiff, like Serbia.”
said: “Bimbo, I've often won uptown people here' in New York. “There you are!” said he, and, obdered why you Sicilians will consent to That's why we can't endure living in the viously, there I was. I said, “Bimbo, a live packed together on this hideous country. We miss the village jollity of celebrated American humorist named East Side of New York when you grew this good old East Side.”
Josh Billings advises, 'When you argy, up in charming villages. How can you Only that morning I had been reading allus git beat.'”. tolerate the city?".
Dr. Warren H. Wilson's remarks upon D ropping the subject-or, at all “Because of its beautiful country life,” our so-called country life: "No play for events, attempting to—I spoke of having he replied.
the children; no recreation for the lately visited a new church uptown to A great wag is Bimbo, a great lover young people; no adequate opportuni. examine its exquisitely carved pulpit of paradox; Chesterton would adore ties for acquaintance and marriage," and choir stalls. I was interested behim. Yet reflect. Outside the res- and none for "that satisfaction of the cause I had met the craftsman, who retaurant a village festa was raging. social instinct" which would make the marked, "Perhaps you have seen me Arches of colored lights spanned Eliza, village “a good place to live in."
before, when I lived in Oberammergau, beth Street. American and Italian flags However, I had also been reading and I used to act in the Passion Play waved everywhere. Confetti rained about Salida, Colorado, "a mining town there.'”. down from roofs, balconies, and fire- of four thousand people, which to-day is “Aha!” said Bimbo. "Still getting escapes. Children frolicked on a port- putting on grand opera and the finest beat!" able merry-go-round. Paper balloons plays in the English language. The I was. Imagine a Passion Play in soared aloft. A procession with gay people are painting their own scenery Spoon River or Gopher Prairie! Why, banners wormed its way through the and making their own costumes. Prac- bless you, one might as well suggest crowds. Blaring alternately, two Italian tically every citizen of Salida takes part grand opera for Mechanicsville Junction bands competed for a prize.
in some production, the actors ranging or imagine any typically American vil"You see why we like it," said Bimbo. from little children to women in their lage or "tank town" going in spon"Big times; play; sociability; friendli- seventies."
taneously for “the finest plays in the ness; everybody a good mixer, just as But when I spoke of Salida, Bimbo English language" with home-grown in a Sicilian village. And when we go asked, "Who are those people? Ameri performers. Our country folks seem out into the country, what do we find cans?"
devoid, not only of the impulse, but of but city life? Basta! Your country I had to tell him: "Well, of a sort. the capacity. As Dr. Wilson puts it: folks don't know how to play. They Imported, though. People from Mexico, "Allowing for some exceptions, not too meant irreparable loss. A burned building was never replaced. But the auetions-I laugh. Dolefully, it is true; yet I laugh. Among my most vivid memories is the spectacle of Moe Sykes and Sadie Green driving up Bumblebee Hill five miles in a pouring rain to look on at an auction-and as excited as if on their way to a Harvard-Yale Game Poor things, they were recreationally starved!
Well, as Bimbo might ask (and prob ably will when we next meet at Migliore's), what are you going to do about it? The problem is not new. President Hyde, of Bowdoin, and President Tucker, of Dartmouth, exploited it years ago. President Roosevelt's Country Life Commission plowed the same field. And it is years now since we be
gan to hear that some astonishing indoCourtesy of Community Service
vation or other would obligingly SicilianNEIGTIBORS OF FOREIGN ORIGIN, AMONG THEM CROATIANS, POLES, BUL
ize our "socially poverty-stricken" vilGARIANS, AND RUSSIANS, GATHER FOR A "COMMUNITY SING" IN A NEW YORK
lages and small towns. For a time it TOWN, AND LISTEN TO AN ADDRESS ON AMERICANIZATION
was the telephone. Then it was the
trolley car. Next it was the motor car numerous, it may be said that through- main, and run the place; or, more prop. A bit later it was the graphophone. out the prosperous and productive farm- erly, walk it; or, still more properly, Later still it was the social settlement. ing regions of the United States which "leave it lay." The church declines. But, while all these innovations tended have been settled for fifty years com- Schools decline. The very look of things to relieve what a peppery person quoted munity life has disappeared."
betrays a retrograde movement. Houses by Dr. Wilson terms "the intolerable Not very long ago, Mr. John R. Colter lack paint. Grounds go ill-kept. On condition of country life,” material kept found a little town in North Carolina every hand there develops a suggestion piling up for Mr. Sinclair Lewis's "Main "socially poverty-stricken." It was a cen- of incompetency and unsuccess. Mean Street." tury and a half old, so he tells us, and while the individual life grows narrow Nevertheless there have been excep "sixty per cent of its white citizens and a little hard, and more and more tions to the general rule of monotony were members of five or six families the villagers shrink from one another, and aching dullness. Dr. Wilson him. who had lived there for generations; dislike one another. Of such a town it self admits it. And this morning I hare yet there were persons who did not was said, without much exaggeration, been devouring a booklet on "Rural and know their own cousins living a few “This isn't a community, it is a disease.” Small Community Recreation," which rods off. There was no neighborliness, I lived a year in that town. Its diver- tells of the exceptions. Some friends of no spirit of get-together. The people sions were prayer-meetings, funerals, mine up in the Metropolitan Tower themselves said so." In the South! It and fires, with now and then an auction. (Community Service, Incorporated, they sounds almost incredible, especially as I respected the prayer-meeting. In a style themselves) prepared this inspir"the town was isolated by nature and doleful, tragical way, I respected the ing little encyclopædia of good times, had remained so for lack of good roads. funerals. They were especially doleful, with a view to showing dead-and-alive You might think that a community especially tragical. Death, in that town, towns how easily they can jollify their which is visited by a single train and meant loss of population. Nothing was existence. Moral: Go to it! single little river boat a day would have growing but the graveyard. And fire There will be great argument at learned to become socially self-nourishing. But it had not. Never at any time did the people all get together to talk, to sing, walk, play, listen to entertainment, or laugh together. Their children did not know how to play games and get fun out of them—which boded ill for the next generation. And thus things had been going on in this North Carolina town for a long while."
It is not from mere belief in jollity for its own sake that one would wish to elevate such towns to the Elizabeth Street standard. It is from a profound, albeit unwilling, belief in the dire and woeful result of not elevating them to that standard. When a town loses the play spirit it loses good fellowship, and when it loses good fellowship it loses efficiency, and when it loses efficiency it loses people. The last Census revealed the alarming fact that more than half of us now live in cities. What wonder? From "dead" towns the younger set move away-or the pluckiest of them do.
Courtesy of Community Service And you have then a case of "natural
THIS IS A FREQUENT SCENE IN WASHINGTON PARK PLAYGROUND, ('INCIS: selection the other end to, a survival of
NATI. TUE (HILDREN, SOME OF THEM FRESH FROM A SWIM IN THE PARK 7 infittest." Stick-in-the-muds re
POOL, ARE LISTENING TO THE COMMUNITY SERVICE MAN TELL STORIES
Migliore's next time. I am loaded, if not for bear, at least for Bimbo. I shall speak of the Saco Valley, where people from all the tiny villages assemble at a hilarious musical festival, which Kate Douglas Wiggin describes as "just a collection of small country choirs rehearsed separately," adding: “I have never seen enthusiasm equal to it. What splendid neighborliness and comradeship, all born of singing together!" Can Elizabeth Street beat that?
Also I shall tell him how “the families of farmers, fishermen, ship-builders, and seamen along the Maine coast drive for miles in bad weather so as not to miss local rehearsals for the great fes. tival in Portland.” Then I think I shall speak of Peterboro, New Hampshire, where MacDowell lived and wrote, and where "a Community Festival appro
Courtesy or Community Service priately sings much of his music," and
"SCHOOL DAYS" WAS THE TITLE OF THIS SCENE IN A DRAMATIC EVENING of Lindborg, Kansas, where the towns
UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITY SERVICE AT OYSTER BAY, folk perform Handel's “Messiah" three
LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK tinies each Easter week, with a chorus of five hundred and an orchestra of share costing $25. The main feature of thoroughly and, with a little money forty. The booklet says: "Each day of the building is the community theater, made selling articles at a bazaar, we put the week is given over to musical enter but by a clever arrangement of floor in all the paraphernalia found in any tainment by visiting artists, and many space there is provided room for danc first-class gymnasium. Our funds were hundreds of people flock to the little ing, basket-ball, games, gymnasium, so small the problem of heating it town." A regular festa, non e vero? roller-skating rink, a banquet room, seemed almost beyond us, but there is Here and there I have marked a pas parlor, and reception-rooms."
always a way out. We rented the lower sage in the book-for example, one And in talking this over with Bimbo floor to a family in poor circumstances, about a harvest home festival got up by I shall find a lot to say about Professor giving the rent free in return for the the Pennsdale Rural Progress Associa. Arvold, who is booming the Little Coun- care of the furnace and the janitor tion. Great doings! "Arrival from out try Theater. At the North Dakota work. lying districts of men, women, and chil- Agricultural College he has been teach- "In the beginning our elders laughed dren by every means of conveyance." ing young folks to "produce plays which at us; but now they also come. I saw Morning of “tether, volley, and play they can later take back to their own three generations on one pole the other ground ball, potato races and mass play communities." He teaches them to re- night, all as happy as larks. We are for the boys and girls and adults, and make town halls; to use screen scenery; planning to buy chairs and make our circle games and story-telling for the to make use of the simplest materials main hall an auditorium for community little tots." Community luncheon. Then in the most effective way." As the book- gatherings. We girls who are home "a pageant depicting the history of let adds, "By such means Mr. Arvold from school and who are compelled to Pennsdale." Indians, lumberjacks, wood is giving farm people what they need remain in a small town, with its limited maidens in green with wreaths of more color and romance." Precisely. environment, are having such good mountain pine, haymakers, corn. Under our skins, we are Sicilians, all of times that we wouldn't live elsewhere huskers, milkmaids, all dressed as Jack us.
for the world! We have interested the o'-lanterns. Finally, "imposing four- Now, I am not for inducing Bimbo to town parents in a sewerage system; we horse wagons loaded with youngsters, desert Elizabeth Street. At Migliore's have talked paint until three-fourths of modern style." Then speeches and he is a little ray of sunshine-"il sole our houses boast new coats; we have prizes, and with "supper under the trees mio." Let him remain there. In prin- clean-up days once a week, and our and old-fashioned dances on the lawn" ter language, “Stet!” But he must prizes for the best-looking lawns are putthe close of a holiday gloriously en abandon his contention that our country ting our town on the map." joyed by "fully three thousand people." life is incurably dull and so must our Just so. And in all likelihood it will
I shall point out, moreover, how a country folks, especially in towns where stay on the map. Towns “die" or dwintown here and there secures a perma. dullness is leading to worse calamities. dle and sicken—not so much because it nent building for its gayeties. One If I understand those friends of mine is difficult to get a living there as besuch town, thirteen miles from the near up yonder in the Metropolitan Tower, at cause it is well-nigh impossible to have est railway station, “organized a Com- No. 1 Madison Avenue, New York, they any fun there. Yet right in those same munity Welfare Association and pur. feel that their work in promoting commu- towns all the ingredients of a roaring chased the country hotel. Provision nity recreation the country over means good time exist. Schoolhouses, churches, was made for headquarters in the build- to "dead" villages and small towns a new libraries, make excellent community ing for all the churches and local or lease of life, since playing together for centers. Talent abounds. The play ganizations and for reading and game the mere fun of the thing is a first step instinct, long dormant, pops awake once rooms. Adequate supervision of the toward working together for community you start something. Play, in its turn, house was secured by having the high betterment. Witness this letter from a awakens the social instinct, and sociaschool principal and his family occupy member of the girls' club started by the bility makes possible a concerted movethe second story. The old barn belong. Y. W. C. A. in the little town of M— ment for progress and uplift, and the ing to the hotel was rebuilt, and over “We found that there were great possi. movement goes on until, to borrow a its door may be read in large letters bilities for a swimming-pool in a pond phrase from Dr. Wilson, there develops 'Community Hall.'" Another instance, near town, had it drained, built bath. “a community to which people belong that of Brimfield, Illinois. There "a houses, and now the place is a scene of with some pleasure and pride,” and, re$30.000 community building has been great sport. We are planning when win- versing the usual formula, cry, "Wel. erected. The greater part of the stock ter comes to have a public skating rink come to our village!” adding, heartily, in this building has been taken by the there. We worked wonders with our "We wouldn't live elsewhere for the farmers in the outlying districts, each abandoned opera house. We cleaned it world!"