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IS DEMOCRACY A FAILURE ?
sion, to his chapter (LXXIII) on "Re
sults Democratic Government Has -T is not often the lot of a statesman so-called radical experimentation of Aus. Given."
to produce two monumental books tralia and New Zealand. He does not With all its defects, with all its fail.
on the art and science of statesman- think that democracy is a panacea. He ures, with all its inefficiency, and—what ship. Viscount Bryce, better known to is not even positive that it is an immor- is perhaps most discouraging of allAmericans as James Bryce, formerly tal form of government. He evidently with all its mediocrity, democracy is British Ambassador to the United regards government not as an end in still the hope of the world. For "if we States, has probably performed this
look back to the world of the sixteenth unique feat. I say probably because no
century comfort can be found in seeing man living to-day can be absolutely sure
how many sources of misery have been what posterity a century or two hence
reduced under the rule of the people and will regard as permanent and monu.
the recognition of the rights of all. In mental contributions to the history of
it has not brought all the blessings that government. But for nearly a hundred
were expected, it has in some countries years de Tocqueville's study of Ameri
destroyed, in others materially dimincan democracy has been regarded as a
ished many of the cruelties and terrors, classic and Lord Bryce's "American
injustices and oppressions, that hau Commonwealth," published more than
darkened the souls of men for many thirty years ago, has taken a place be
generations." side it. Now at eighty years of age,
The plan of the book, although comLord Bryce, out of his ripe knowledge
prehensive, is simple. Lord Bryce conand experience, gives the world the
siders in the opening chapters some of facts and conclusions of his lifelong
the features, qualities, and relationships study of democratic governments. These
of democratic government in general. conclusions may well give the ardent
He then takes six modern democraciesbeliever in popular sovereignty pause,
France, Switzerland, Canada, the United although they do not necessarily bring
States, Australia, and New Zealanddisillusionment or even disheartenment.
and goes into their structure and accomThe first thing that strikes the reader
plishments in detail. Finally, he conof these two scholarly volumes is their
cludes with a series of chapters examinfreedom from cant and prejudice. They
ing and criticising democratic instituare written by a man who believes in
tions in the light of the facts he has party government and in democratic in
related, stating his observations on cerstitutions, and who has put his beliefs
tain general democratic phenomena, and into practice in a long and honorable
giving his estimates of the social, intelcareer. Yet he writes not as an advo
lectual, and moral influences of democcate arguing a case. His purpose-to
racy. quote his own words—is that of "de
More pages-one hundred and sixty. scribing the phenomena as they appear
five, to be exact-are given to the study in their daily working to an observer
of the United States than any other sinwho is living in the midst of them and
gle subject in the book. Lord Bryce watching them, as one standing in a
does not regard our government as ingreat factory sees the play and hears
comparably the best in the world nor the clang of the machinery all around
does he fail to record some serious danhim. ... The book is not meant to pro
gers, or rather diseases, that threaten pound theories. Novelties are not pos
its body politic. Its history, he thinks, sible in a subject the literature of which
“furnishes an instructive example of the began with Plato and Aristotle and has
perpetual conflict between the forces of been enriched by thousands of pens
Idealism and Selfishness.” Among the since their day. What I desire is, not
diseases from which the American deto impress upon my readers views of
mocracy is suffering he names the low my own but to supply them with facts
tone of many State legislatures; the and (so far as I can) with explanations
inefficiency of governmental administraof facts on which they can reflect and
tion due to the spoils system; the me. from which they can draw their own
diocrity of elected judges; the delays conclusions."
and uncertainties of the administration Lord Bryce has remarkably succeeded
of criminal justice; the scandals of city in attaining his object. It may perhaps
government; the power of wealth; the be permitted to an American democrat,
oligarchic and undemocratic character who knows the reactionary tendencies
of party organizations; and the neglect
(C) Underwood of intellectual tradition and vested in.
by the best trained and most gifted citi.
VISCOUNT BRYCE terests in his own country, to say that
zens of their political duties, who leave Lord Bryce's catholicity, human sym
As he appeared on his arrival in the L'nited
the arduous and sometimes obnoxious pathy, tolerance of novelty, and absolute of International Relations at Williams College, work of political management and adfrankness are especially refreshing
ministration to professional politicians when it is remembered that he comes by itself but as a machine with which to of the second rank. These dangers are training and experience from the intel- obtain a certain end, and he judges a easily recognizable by any American lectual and governmental aristocracy of machine, as all sensible men in their familiar with the political tendencies of Great Britain. But the words "initia- calmer moments must, by its product. the times in the United States. Fortutive" and "referendum” do not terrify As an example of his fairness in stating nately, an increasing number of Amerihim, and he sees much to admire in the facts the reader might well turn at once can citizens are beginning to realize
to his five chapters on New Zealand, and that democratic government does not 1 Vorlorni Democracies. By the Night HonorVixcontre
as an example of the fine spirituality of mean that the citizen must vote for
Thi Macmillan Company. New York, $10.10.
his conclusions, if I may use the expres- every office holder from hog-reevea
post once held, it is said, by Ralph cherish individual liberty. It is, like apt to become a very bad habit, making Waldo Emerson-to President. We ap- oxygen in the air, a life-giving spirit. people extremely disagreeable in com. preciate more and more that the Federal Political liberty will have seen one of
pany by the contradiction that is necesGovernment is more honest and efficient
its fairest fruits wither on the bough
sary to bring it into practice; and than the State and municipal govern.
if that spirit should decline.
thence, besides souring and spoiling the ments because in the Federal Govern- Lord Bryce's book is not only a great conversation, is productive of disgusts ment the voter exercises his choice on treatise on modern government, but it is, and, perhaps, enmities where you may practically only three or four men-his a moral tonic. One of the penalties that have occasion for friendship. I had Congressman, his Senator, his President, men have to pay for living in a democ- caught it by reading my father's books and possibly his Vice-President-hold- racy is that they are surrounded by a of dispute about religion. Persons of ing them responsible for the wisdom of constant and exhausting din of political good sense, I have since observed, sellegislation and the efficiency of adminis- controversy. Here is a great democrat dom fall into it, except lawyers, unitration. Whereas in the State and the who can write frankly and definitely versity men, and men of all sorts that city the voter has such an enormous list about political matters involving strong have been bred at Edinborough.” of candidates that he cannot exercise feelings and prejudices without being Lord Bryce is a lawyer, a university any kind of intelligent choice and controversial or disputatious. In this man, and was a student at one time at finally, in despair, practically turns his respect Lord Bryce is like another great Glasgow University, which is tolerably ballot over to the party boss.
Anglo-Saxon administrator, ambassador, near Edinburgh; but he is certainly not To those who are sometimes disheart and student of government-Benjamin disputatious. He is a shining example ened by the magnitude of the social, Franklin. In his autobiography Benja- of the persuasive influence of a man economic, and political problems of the min Franklin says: "There was another who combines expert knowledge, intel. United States the conclusion of Lord bookish lad in town, John Collins by lectual honesty, and definite opinions Bryce's survey of those problems will be name, with whom I was intimately ac- with fair dealing, courtesy, and a willcheering: “No Englishman who remem- quainted. We sometimes disputed, and ingness to see and understand his oppobers American politics as they were half very fond we were of argument, and nent's point of view even when he feels a century ago, and who, having lived in very desirous of confuting one another, bound to disagree with and, if necessary, the United States, has formed an affec- which disputatious turn, by the way, is to oppose it. LAWRENCE F. ABBOTT. tion as well as an admiration for its people--what Englishman who lives there can do otherwise?-will fail to re
THE NEW BOOKS joice at the many signs that the sense
TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION of public duty has grown stronger, that
its vivid picture of the Macedonian peothe standards of public life are steadily
By Louise ple, still living, as they do, under conClosser
Ilarper rising, that democracy is more and more
ditions primitive to a degree unknown
Brothers, New York City. $2. showing itself a force making for or- The author of this volume, who last
elsewhere in Europe. Their household dered progress true to the principles of winter played in "Miss Lulu Bett" in
utensils and their agricultural impleLiberty and Equality from which it New York City, combines in her book
ments are practically the same as they sprang." the vivid style one might expect from
were thousands of years ago. The imI think it not inappropriate, because
an actress, together with the acuteness pression made by Mr. Goff's text is emof the hysterical attitude which the
which we have observed in her previ- phasized by Dr. Fawcett’s illustrations. Great War has developed in some of our ously published works. The present Government officials and State legisla- volume will be appreciated by any one
MISCELLANEOUS tures towards free thought and free who has ever tried to "housekeep" in
HISTORY OF THE ART OF WRITING (A).
By William Mason. The Macmillan speech, to quote here what Lord Bryce London. Its description of English Company, New York. $6.50. has to say about liberty in a democracy: domestic life and of English social con- An interesting and well-illustrated
Liberty may not have achieved all ventions is certainly intimate and to the study of the art of writing from primi. that was expected, yet it remains true point. It is, however, tiresome at times tive picture-writing, the Egyptian and that nothing is more vital to national in its excess of detail.
Hittite hieroglyphic systems, and Babyprogress than the spontaneous de
BELGIUM: OLD AND NEW. By George Whar- lonian and Assyrian cuneiforms down velopment of individual character,
ton Edwards. Illustrated. The Penn Pub- to the invention of the printing-press and that free play of intellect which
lishing Company, Philadelphia. $10. is independent of current prejudice,
and the subsequent development of type
Mr. Edwards has done for Belgium faces and penmanship. examines everything by the light of
what he did for Holland a year ago. reason and history, and fearlessly de
STATES OF SOUTH AMERICA (THE). By fends unpopular opinions. IndependLike the illustrations in Mr. Edwards's
Domville-Fife. Illustrated. ence of thought was formerly threat- "Holland of To-Day," those in the pres- Macmillan Company, New York. $5. ened by monarchs who feared the ent volume are often exquisite; they are
STRAIGHT BUSINESS IN SOUTH AMERICA. disaffection of their subjects. May it always apt and attractive. His text is
By James H. Collins. D. Appleton & Co.,
New York, $2.50. not again be threatened by other as excellent as his illustrations.
Here are two books of value to all forms of intolerance, possible even in
CHINA, JAPAN, AND KOREA. By J. 0. P. a popular government?
commercial people interested in South
Bland. Illustrated. Charles Scribner's Room should be found in every Sons, New York. $1.50.
America. Both describe the economic country for men who, like the proph
Mr. Bland is an authority on Far East- conditions, the foreign trade, the railets in ancient Israel, have along with
ern affairs. The special reason for pub- ways and industries, of the South Ameritheir wrath at the evils of their own time inspiring visions of a better fu
lishing this volume is to note the ex- can countries. In Mr. Domville-Fife's traordinary changes which have occurred
volume we have a special treatment of ture and the right to speak their
the laws relating to the granting of minds. That love of freedom which during the past decade. Mr. Bland is will bear with opposition because it well qualified to observe these changes Government concessions. In his more has faith in the victory of truth is in their proper perspective, for he spent readable and vivacious volume Mr. Colnone too common. Many of those over thirty years of his life in China as
lins does not discuss all of the South who have the word on their lips are Secretary to the late Sir Robert Hart,
American countries; he confines himself despots at heart. Those men in Inspector-General of the Chinese Cus
to Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, and whom that love seemed to glow with toms. The volume is a report on the
Uruguay, with a chapter on the Panama the hottest flame may have had an present, and not a prophecy as to the
Canal for good measure. In both volexcessive faith in its power for good,
future. but if this be an infirmity, it is an
umes practina men may gain valuable infirmity of noble minds, which de
hints concerning investments, advertisMACEDONIA. By A
and Hugh 1.
Fawcett, M.R.C.S., D.P.H. mocracies ought to honor.
ing, business possibilities, and, above John J.ane Company, Xi York.
all, the necessity of a knowledge of the Not less than any other form of government does democracy need to
The chief value of this volume lies in Spanish and Portuguese languages.
" IS THE CHURCH LOSING
which trained minds can fully and THE PEOPLE ?”
freely express themselves without obUITE unintentionally Dr. Andrew I
. taining permission of dogmas and the LIVE in a prosperous community of
Bridgman engaged in a debate in the
ologies. The end may be a Church pages of The Outlook. Under the
wholly modernized, or it may be a comtwo thousand. There is no doubt that the majority of the residents prefer; a
question “Is the Church Losing the
pletely new and modern institution re
People?" we placed their two articles placing the Church. It will be one or quiet day at home or a trip in the auto
in the issue of July 13. Neither of the other of these. mobile to spending an hour in caurch. the two writers knew of the exist
MORRISON I. Swin. The question of religious dut's, seems ence of the other's article until it
Boston, Massachusetts. to have departed. They go where they appeared. Dr. Ten Eyck described can find the most pleasu'.e. But I conditions in a small town which in
III should hesitate to say tha'ć these same
dicated that people-especially young s the Church losing people? I doubt people are not religious and, on the
people--are not for the most part gowhole, God-fearing.
ing to church. Dr. Bridgman de
bers that used to attend. We hear
scribed conditions in five churches in For the past year 1 have been an
the city of Boston, which indicated
much of the sacrifice of older people usher at the University of Chicago Sun- that in those cases, at least, people
about attending church-walking miles, day chapel in Mantel Hall. It has been are going to church in crowds.
etc.—but we must remember that few interesting to notice the quantity and It was by these articles that the of them did this, just as few of them are quality of the actendance. Students are
letters on this page were called forth. now as faithful as their pastors desire in the minority. The average age I
On another page there is editorial them to be. The writer believes that should estir uate at from forty to fifty.
reference to these letters.—THE EDI
the figures will show a very much Judging from appearances, there are
greater proportion of the people belong. people from many stations of life. I
ing to the Church now than one hun have r.shered people in frock coats into
dred years ago. He saw the statement seats adjacent to those occupied by peo- country church will always have to be somewhere a short while ago that one ple who could barely speak English satisfied with ministers who are not the person in seventy-five were Baptists in plainly enough to tell me where they best, whether their deficiency be in edu- the United States then, and that now preferred to sit.' There are professors cation, in personality, or both. And the one in about every fourteen. This is and university employees. The seating city will glean from the vast field of quite a gain for Baptists. It is likely capacity is slightly over one thousand, eligibles those men who possess ability, that the other churches would show a and there are rarely fewer than seven who have proved though years of service similar gain. hundred seats filled. Often we have ca. that they have the power to draw the Is the Church serving the people as pacity houses, and on several occasions people to them and maintain their in. it should? No. Is it the medium it have turned away from two to five hun. terest in religion.
STUDENT. should be of creating a spiritual atmosdred persons.
phere and building Christian patriotism? I have come to the conclusion that if
No. Why? Because most of the pas. the Church gives the people what they Ith five thousand Protestant pulpits tors think much more of a mem.
W want no lack of congregation will con- now vacant and the prospect of ber's loyalty to the organization than front the pastor. On the other hand, if double that number empty a year hence, of anything else. All of the great the sermon is beyond the grasp of the we have entered a veritable theological church leaders seem to the writer to be average church-goer, and especially if it crisis. What we are witnessing is an seeking to build up a great denominais a theoretical theological treatise, he is American students' strike against the tional organization. One has to put going to stay at home and get his ma- Church. It is the more portentous be- this claim first to become affliated terial for thought from the Sunday pa. cause so wholly spontaneous. Why have with the conferences, synods, etc. In per. What the bulk of the congregation these students struck? The common other words, only those laymen who are wants, after all, is "food for thought.” explanations--that there is better pay of narrow sectarian views and willing And they don't want to hear what the elsewhere, that the preacher's social to put up money and finance sectarian Rev. B- thinks Paul meant in the standing has sagged, that he is muzzled projects are allowed in the inner circles. second paragraph of his third letter to -do not explain.
The people as a whole care very little the Corinthians. The orthodox members They have struck because the theo. for this form of church service. Most will absorb this as well as anything logical training of students is out of of them want spiritual uplift and enelse. They attend through a sense of date. Good colleges and universities in- couragement to meet their daily probduty.
troduce young men to modern ideas and lems. It matters little to the average In my little town the minister of my the modern world; theological institu- man whether one follows one creed or church is the graduate of an excellent tions then invite them to take on the another—what matters is a Christianity Eastern university. He is brilliant, a harness of antiquity, which they cannot that serves him and helps him to meet good thinker, but a man that apparently do without self-stultification. They also his problems and causes him to comdoes too much thinking. He isn't a man see the present unhappy plight of the mune with the higher self. that one would readily follow in any pulpit, where well-meaning men are The Church is combing the world for undertaking. Physically he is insignifi- floundering ineffectually, unable to grap- members, but in itself it has done little cant, and his personality does not over ple with the problems of a revolution- to solve the problem of crime, of povcome the deficiency. I never go to ized modern world because they were erty, of war, of alcohol, of famine, of church at home. It “gets on my nerves." equipped with antiquity as their tool for disease, of hygiene, and many other This man is the one minister of the improving the present.
problems that are shackling the human town who is well educated. The others It is a great mistake to see tragedy race. In fact, it has openly fought are fair enough men, but they are in or pathos in this desertion of the pulpit, some of them. What was done along every sense "small town” ministers. for rather is the event a splendid out this line had to be done by church mem
Now at Mandel Hall we have such burst of spiritual honesty, indicating the bers out of the Church organization. men as Bishop William Fraser McDow- only way of modernizing the Church. When its leaders think less of buildell, Dr. Henry van Dyke, Dr. Harry With only a thin stream of applicants ing denominational fences and more of Emerson Fosdick, Dr. Lynn Harold for the pulpit, the churches must either pulling the fangs of ignorance, superstiHough, and others of that class. They close, or accept inferior men who will tion, self-greed, and incompetence from know how to speak to the people. empty the pews, or transform them the body politic, then the Church will The situation is unavoidable. The selves into organs of modern life in come into its own. ATTORNEY.
The Financial Department is prepared to furnish information regarding standard investment securities, but cannot undertake to advise the purchase of any specific security. It will give to inquirers facts of record or information resulting from expert investigation, and a nominal charge of one dollar per inquiry will be made for this special service. All letters of inquiry should be addressed to THE OUTLOOK FINANCIAL DEPARTMENT, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York.
SAFETY OR YIELD HERE are as many different kinds of investments as there of two thousand dollars a year, however, conditions would probare styles of women's hats. And just as one style of hat ably be reversed. Everything depends upon the circumstances
may be eminently suited to one woman and absolutely un- of the individual investor. There are so many kinds of investsuited to one another, so there are investments which fulfill some ments to be had, however, that there is no good reason apparent people's requirements and do not at all measure up to those of why every one should not get the right kind. others. A man with an income of a million dollars a year, for Take the man with a small salary, a family to support, and instance, would probably find it more to his advantage to in. scanty savings; he would be foolish to invest his meager capital vest his money in 4 per cent tax-free Government or municipal in a speculative mining or oil venture, where the chances of bonds than to buy 8 per cent bonds of a concern on which he loss outweigh the probabilities of gain by about a hundred to would have to pay the income tax. For a man with an income
The proper investment for him is something as safe as
Revitalizing the Arteries of Trade
"he Federal Government has
proposed to advance the railroads, on account of withheld compensation, and similar items, half a billion dollars within the next six months.
July 1, and is expected to save
Lower prices for coal, it is
These savings are being effected in two of the largest items of railroad expenditures-labor and fuel.
This should materially improve the financial position of the railroads and hasten the time when they can make much needed expenditures for maintenance, improvements, and expansion.
This should have a direct influence on various industries connected with transportation and facilitate the liquidation of a considerable volume of “frozen” credit, which should tend to stimulate business generally.
The recent decision of the Railroad Labor Board reducing railroad wages on an average of 12 per cent. went into effect on
During the first five months of this year the net operating income of the railroads was $90,380,000, as contrasted with $26,400,000 in the corresponding period of last year.
The railroads are the arteries of trade of this country. Their revitalizing is an important step toward the revival of business as a whole.
Guaranty Trust Company of New York