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Wherever in America adolescent girls and boys allow themselves to be hurried into an early marriage, is the true scene of this book's opening chapter. To be sure, Mr. Norris clothes it in the wonderful beauty of the mellow Californian fruit harvesting, but as you read the intensely real incidents of the story you feel that his people are such warmly human Americans as are to be seen in every village, town, and city.
Before you realize it you are sharing with them the tension of the conditions which are making for or destroying their happiness in marriage. Increasingly you desire to see the final effect upon them for better or for worse of the marriage bond—accepted or evaded.
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Tammany and Fusion.......
591 Settling Strikes in Pennsylvania...... 591 Lord Bryce and the Washington Conference
592 Will Congress Clip Its Own Wings P. 592 The Sourest-Natured Dog That Lives 593
Cartoons of the Week Acquittal, Yes; Vindication, No .... 594 Church Union in Canada Probable... 594 The Restoration of Rheims..
595 The American Legion's Pilgrimage... 596 The Supreme Council and Upper Silesia 596 A German Shock to German Faith .. 596 Small and Lusk.....
596 Caruso, Phonography, and Art ... 597 Coal and Congress ...
598 The Affections of France.
599 By Stéphane Lauzanne Knoll Papers : To a Troubled Mother 600
By Lyman Abbott When Liberty Turns Her Back...... 601 While the Immigrant Was Still An Emigrant....
604 By John Gleason O'Brien How Canada Handles the Immigration Problem...
... 606 By Robert J. C. Stead Democracy and Self-Support at Vassar 610
Photographs by Margaret De M. Brown
General Samuel Chapman Armstrong
612 By Lyman Abbott Of Hypselometopy
615 By Robert Withington Impressions of the Japanese Parliamentary Delegation...
616 By Kiyo Sue Inui Coal and the Consumer..
617 A Letter from Senator Calder, of New York Adventurers in Marriage....
618 By Natalie de Bogory The Book Table : The Ideals of a Realist....
621 By Lloyd R. Morris The New Books..
622 Contributors' Gallery ...
624 Publisher's Notes .
625 English Titles...
627 By P. W. Wilson By the Way..
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AUGUST 17, 1921
TAMMANY AND FUSION
their nominations of candidates to op- economical management of the city's HE Mayoralty election this autumn pose the present city administration. business. It cost about $275,000,000 to in New York City is a matter of
They have selected Henry H. Curran, at run this city last year, a sum provided National as well as of municipal
present President of the Borough of by the inhabitants, non-taxpayers as interest. Only three of the forty-nine
Manhattan, for their candidate for well as taxpayers. The non-taxpayer States of the Union have a population Mayor; State Senator Charles E. Lock- pays his share in the increased cost of larger than that of New York City. To a
wood for Comptroller; and Vincent Gil- rent, food, and fuel which comes fror. very large extent the physical, mental,
roy for President of the Board of Alder- excessive and inefficiently administered and moral welfare of its six million in
These are the chief officers of the taxation. Another curious phenomenon habitants is in the control of its Mayor;
city ticket. Messrs. Curran and Lock- of democracy is that thousands of men not that the Mayor is himself an all
wood are Republicans; Mr. Gilroy is an will pay each many hundreds of dollars powerful autocrat, like Lorenzo de' Me
for costly housing, food, sanitation, and dici, the great Mayor of Florence, but by
schooling, due to an inefficient mayor, his appointments and by his influence
without complaint, and will support him the Mayor of the city of New York exer
for office because he professes that he is cises an authority which in a way is
going to save them a few cents a day in more concentrated and direct than the
transportation. authority of the President of the United
The Fusion candidate, Mr. Curran, States.
has not only got to run against Mayor It is not necessary to accuse Mayor
Hylan, but probably against one or more Hylan of corruption in order to state
misguided independent candidates. If his unfitness for the great administra
the citizens really and vitally interested tive position which he holds. He is in
in a businesslike and efficient governcompetent by training and education.
ment of the city could really get toIt is one of the curious phenomena of
gether, Mayor Hylan could easily be democracy that a population which
defeated. The question is whether they would not for a moment tolerate John
can combine, or whether they will be F. Hylan as principal of a grammar
diverted by jealousies, petty political school, nevertheless puts him practically
ambitions, and false issues from opposin charge of the entire educational sys
ing a united Tammany. tem of the city. It is not of course necessary that the Mayor should know
SETTLING STRIKES IN how to teach school, but it is necessary
PENNSYLVANIA that he should know something about
THE State of Pennsylvania has been the principles of education, and enough, at least, to enable him to select the ex
strikes that is really ending many labor perts who are going to conduct the
controversies and that is worth examinschool system. (C) Paul Thompson
ing. It is a matter of common report HENRY H. CURRAN, FUSION
In an effort to improve industrial con
CANDIDATE that if Tammany had really believed
FOR MAYOR OF NEW YORK CITY
ditions, the Pennsylvania State Legislathat it was going to win the Mayor
ture created some years ago the Departalty election four years ago it would independent Democrat, member of ment of Labor and Industry, with various never have nominated John F. Hylan. Tammany Hall, and supporter of subdivisions, one of which, the Bureau It is also commonly supposed that Mayor Hylan four years ago. The of Mediation and Conciliation, exists Mayor Hylan has the support and ticket is generally considered to be a for the sole purpose of trying to end backing of William Randolph Hearst. good one. Mr. Curran is a graduate of strikes by reason rather than by force. This also seems to us to be a very curi- Yale, a lawyer of clean reputation, and The Bureau of Mediation is headed by a ous human phenomenon. Mr. Hearst, has been active in city politics for ten chief who, under the law, goes in perwhatever may be said of his principles, years. He has been a city magistrate, or sends suitable substitutes to is a man of ability, and he selects men served in the World War with an excel- places where labor disputes occur, and of ability as his leaders in his vast pub- lent record, having attained the rank of endeavors by mediation to bring the two lishing business. Unless we are very major in service, and has been an ad sides to an understanding. Failing in much mistaken, John F. Hylan is one mirable administrative officer as Presi- this, he may offer to arrange for arbitraof the last men that he would put in dent of the Borough of Manhattan. Sen- tion. There is nothing in the law, howcharge of the business management of ator Lockwood is a graduate of the pub- ever, that compels either the employer one of his newspapers or magazines, and lic schools, is a lawyer, and has been in or the employee to accept the services yet he does all he can to put this incom- the State Legislature for nearly ten offered. petent in charge of the greatest human
The success of such a bureau is magazine in the United States—the City The popular issue in the campaign is largely dependent upon the character of of New York.
the transit issue-Shall the surface and the man who heads it. In this respect The anti-Hylan forces, usually known subway railways charge a five-cent fare Pennsylvania has had rare good fortune. as the Fusion Committee, have made or more? The real issue is the efficient Mr. Patrick Gilday took charge of the
Bureau of Mediation at its inception, and made it of great usefulness to Pennsylvania industry and Pennsyl. vania workers. Mr. Gilday was a selfmade man who worked up through the various grades of coal mining until he became an expert. His kindliness, wisdom, and humanity made him a natural leader. For nearly twenty-five years he was the first official of one of the great divisions of the United Mine Workers of America. He had also been one of the conciliators of the National Government.
For two and a half years, until his death, he served as chief of the Bureau of Mediation. During that period he or his subordinates settled more than three hundred strikes, which is at the rate of one strike every three days. And these strikes were not merely tempo. rarily suspended. They were settled. So great was the confidence won for this bureau by Mr. Gilday's work that after his death the machinery continued to function along the lines he had laid down for it, and strike after strike is now adjusted and ended that without this agency of mediation would drag on in bitter desperation.
How these adjustments are accomplished can best be shown, perhaps, by quoting from a letter that Mr. Gilday wrote to an inquirer: “Our first step is to ascertain the true and complete facts in the situation at issue as well as in other related situations as to wages, hours, etc., in like or similar industries, and lay this information be. fore the parties at interest. ... The State mediators always try to exert an impartial endeavor to see that full justice is accorded both employer and employee. The success of the efforts of the mediators has been largely because they have been able to get both sides to reason together without passion or personal feeling. The mediators have been able, many times, after they have surveyed the situation, to offer a plan in which both sides can agree."
Necessarily the course pursued by the mediator must vary with the particular situation he faces. This item from the Venango “Daily Herald" shows how one particular case was handled: "Mr. M. T. Fredericks, representing the Department of Labor and Industry at Harrisburg, was responsible for bringing about a talk by General Charles Miller, chairman of the board of the Franklin Manufacturing Company, to the striking employees. As a result of this talk and the resulting conferences, the difficulty was adjusted. The function of the Department of Labor and Industry in the handling of labor matters seems to rest purely in the bringing of the two conmiling factions to a clear understand
one another's positions, and to
keep all material offered for discussion ture, seeking the good of mankind as within proper limits."
well as the advantage of their respective During its few years of existence the nations, able to appreciate the workings Bureau of Mediation and Conciliation of those better forces which alone can has brought about the adjustment of bring reconcilement and peace to a dismany hundreds of labor controversies tracted world. Such men did not apthat affected thousands of workers, that pear." caused the loss in wages of many hun- Lord Bryce answers the question as to dreds of thousands of dollars, that oc- why they did not appear by saying that casioned untold hardships, and that they could not have been expected, since would have resulted in further suffering the delegates to the Conference were and perhaps in bloodshed had they not bound by the national ambitions, jealbeen thus ended. Here is an agency of ousies, and passions of the constituents government appointed for the specific who sent them. Is there any cure for purpose of settling strikes that is actu- this unhappy situation? “The prospect ally settling them.
of improving the relations of state and
people to one another depends on the LORD BRYCE AND THE
possibility of improving human nature
itself. A sound and wide view of na. WASHINGTON CONFERENCE
tional interests, teaching the peoples F the Institute of Politics now in
that they would gain more by the cosession at Williamstown, Massachu
operation of communities than by their setts, under the auspices of Williams
conflict, may do much to better those College, has done nothing else than pro
relations. But in the last resort the vide a group of thoughtful hearers for
question is one of the moral progress of the series of lectures or addresses by
the individual men who compose the Lord Bryce, it would have justified its
This is sound doctrine, and a docLord Bryce, · better known in this
trine which we think is beginning to country as James Bryce, the author of "The American Commonwealth," is one
make an impression. The Washington
Conference called by President Harding of the greatest living experts on the
is based .on moral rather than on politi. theory and practice of government. He
cal and geographical relationships. If it combines ripe knowledge and high
can be maintained on this basis, there ideals with common sense and an under
is considerable hope that it may be sucstanding of human relationships. While
cessful in some of the respects in which he never uses the language of the alarm.
the Paris Conference failed. It does no ist, he evidently thinks Europe is in a
good to sneer at this moral or ethical dangerous condition. He does not be
basis of an international association as lieve that the Treaty of Peace made at
the aspiration of over-pious and inVersailles was wisely framed or can be
practical minds. As a matter of fact, successfully carried out. This is not be.
the attempt to attain world peace by cause Lord Bryce believes it is impossi
means of political and economic forces ble to organize an association of nations
has failed. It can at least do no harm to maintain peace and justice. On the
to have an international conference in contrary, he is a believer in such an
which obligations and duties take preceassociation. The trouble, in his opinion,
dence over rights and privileges. is that the Peace Conference at Ver
Lord Bryce's lectures at Williamssailles endeavored to settle definitely too
town make us wish that he might rep. many geographical, racial, and political
resent Great Britain at the Washington details and did not deal enough with
Conference instead of Lloyd George. general principles. The task before the negotiators at
We mean by this no reflection on the Paris, he says, “was one of unprece
personality or purposes of the British
Prime Minister. But he was one of the dented difficulty. New states had to be
Big Four at the Paris Conference who created, territories redistributed, and indemnities secured, and all on a scale
failed, and if he comes to Washington incomparably greater than any interna
as the leader of the British delegation tional congress
we fear that public interest in the Cofiever before had attempted. A task so great needed not
ference may be diverted from the prinpoliticians of the usual type, but persons
ciples and issues in debate to the per of the class which we now call super
sonalities of the debaters. men; persons who possessed not only profound and accurate knowledge of the WILL CONGRESS CLIP facts they had to deal with, but also a ITS OWN WINGS? wide vision, a grasp of fundamental
ARTIN B. MADDEN, from Illinois, is principles, a calm judgment raised above the revengeful passions of the moment,
priations Committee of the House of persons who loved and sought justice, Representatives. His selection and eleclooking beyond the present to the fu- tion formed the first departure from the