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either physically or spiritually, seeking admission. Climatically Canada is attractive only to the hardy northern races--mainly the British, French, and Scandinavian—and this fact itself greatly simplifies the Dominion's problems of selection.

Although a country of varied resources, Canada's fundamental industry is agriculture, and the type of immigrant most welcome is the farmerpreferably the farmer of experience and with some capital. The area of Canada is 3,729,655 square miles, and the arable lands are estimated at 300,000,000 acres, of which only one-sixth is as yet under cultivation. This land, much of which is of extreme fertility, is available to the settler either as free homesteads or as purchased farms at prices rarely ranging higher than thirty dollars an acre for virgin prairie. It has proved particularly attractive to farmers in the United States, who are accustomed to agriculture under similar conditions, and who in many cases are able to buy a section (640 acres) in Canada for the price realized from the sale of 80 or 100 acres in their old home locality in the United States, where the pressure of population has forced the price of land into high figures. The opportunity for the tenant-farmer and the farm laborer to become owners is of course such as is not found in countries of older settle ment and consequently higher land prices.

The Canadian Department of Immigration and Colonization therefore centralizes the positive side of its immigration efforts upon securing farmers and

farm laborers, and upon filling the conlaul Thompson


which latter has become an important TWELVE TIMES MORE WELCOME IF THEY HAD BEEN GERMAN!

phase of the Department's work, with Among the most desirable people in the world are the French. Among those who have shown

too many ramifications to be discussed themselves least worthy of American citizenship are many Germans. Yet the United States at length in this article. Hostels for law admits 13,608 Germans in a month, but limits the number of French who can be admitted the care and direction of women housein the same time to 1,138. Canada has a livelier memory; for she shuts out all Germans. But then Canada was really at war

hold workers are provided in the prin

cipal centers, and a careful system o attraction. The movement Canadawards universal happiness, two such countries selection abroad and supervised trans began in earnest about the first year of must be deeply interested in any influx portation to Canada is in effect. Other the present century, when, in round of population which could to any per classes of aborers are not sought numbers, 50,000 people entered the ceptible degree affect the culture of abroad except on the advice of the Dominion. Ten years later-in 1910% either. In area and natural resources Canadian Department of Labor when the total annual immigration had both countries are about the same, but there is a shortage of workers in any reached the figure of 208,794. It con- as the density of population in the particular trade, and all required labor tinued to increase until 1914, when a United States is twelve times as great is not available in Canada. total of 384,878 immigrants were re- as in Canada, the angles from which For the convenience of the intending ceived, of whom 142,622 were British, immigration is viewed, although similar, immigrant the Canadian Government 107,530 were from the United States, and are not identical,

maintains twelve agencies in the United 134,726 from all other countries. With Canada's need of immigrants is per- Kingdom and some eighteen information the outbreak of war the movement from haps a much more pressing one than bureaus in the United States. Here the Great Britain almost entirely ceased, that of the United States; but, while the prospective settler can obtain full inand the United States became the prin- Dominion stands with welcoming arms formation and advice concerning the cipal source of Canadian immigration extended to the desirable type of settler, trip to Canada, the selection of land or until 1920, when the British totals the policy of the Canadian Department obtaining employment, the conditions to again mounted into first place.

of Immigration and Colonization is dis- be complied with, rates of wages, prior In their immigration problems, as tinctly a policy of selection. Not only of land, cost of living, social and otherwise, the two countries have much must the immigrant be morally and economic conditions, etc. The function in common. Divided by a border-line physically acceptable; he must be of a of these offices is primarily one of ser. which stretches across a continent, un- vocation or adaptability which reason. vice; service perhaps quite as valuable marked by a fort or a gun; speaking the ably assures him of success under Cana- to the country in which they are located same language; employing the same sys- dian conditions. In this connection it as to the Dominion, as they tend to pretems of currency, transportation, and may be noted that the Canadian climate, vent the irritating incidents which so business; actuated by the same ideals healthful but vigorous, acts as an auto readily arise where citizens of one counof liberty and the highest standard of matic deterrent toward weaklings, try seek to enter another wii hout any


pecially for classes other than agriculturists and household workers) are subject to change, and any such change may be reflected in the amount of landing money which the immigrant is required to possess.

authoritative advice as to the conditions which must be complied with.

I have spoken of the positive side of Canadian immigration activities. There is also the negative side—the side which has to do with protecting Canada from the immigrant unsuited to Canadian conditions and protecting the would-be immigrant from a step which would ultimately prove to be a disappointment. By maintaining its agencies and information bureaus in the principal countries from which emigration takes place to Canada the Canadian Government leaves the intending immigrant without excuse if he attempts to enter Canada in ignorance or disregard of the regulations which have been laid down in that connection.

The Canadian Immigration Act prohibits the landing in Canada of the following:

(a) Idiots, imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics, insane persons, and persons who may have been insane at any time previously.

(b) Persons afflicted with tuberculosis in any form or with any contagious or infectious disease which may become dangerous to the public health.

(c) Immoral persons and persons who have committed any crime involving moral turpitude.

(d) Professional beggars or vagrants; persons afflicted with chronic alcoholism and persons likely to become a public charge.

(e) Anarchists; persons who disbelieve in or are opposed to organized government, including those who belong to organizations holding such views

(1) Immigrants who are nationals of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, or Turkey.

(9) Persons who have been rejected at a Canadian port or who have been deported from Canada.

(1) Immigrants who do not go to

Canada from the country of their birth or citizenship by continuous journey and on through tickets purchased in their own country or prepaid in Canada.

(i) Immigrants over fifteen years of age who are unable to read. (Certain relatives are by law exempt.)

(i) Immigrants who are dumb, blind, or otherwise physically defective. (Under certain conditions, individuals of this class may be admitted, but only after special reference to a Canadian Government Emigration Agent.)

(k) Persons not included within any of the foregoing prohibited classes who upon examination by a medical officer are certified as being mentally or physically defective to such a degree as to affect their ability to earn a living.

Settlers do not pay a tax on entering Canada, but, as a rule, are required to be in possession of a certain amount of money at time of entry. The purpose of the money test is, first, to prevent a person entering Canada without sufficient funds to look after himself in case he is unable to secure employment immediately, and, secondly, to protect Canada against an oversupply of any class of labor for which there may not be a demand.

Industrial and labor conditions (es

By the maintenance of its offices in the United Kingdom and the United States the Canadian Department of Immigration and Colonization is able to a, to eliminate the unsuitable immigrant at the source. Elimination at the source is, naturally, much to be preferred over rejection upon arrival at a Canadian port, which may involve hardship to the immigrant, unnecessary transportation outlays, and vexatious accumulations of official activities at the point of entry. So effective have the elimination proceedings in the United Kingdom become that in the last fiscal year, notwithstanding the high standard required by the Canadian immigration authorities, only 662 persons out of 68,342 immigrants seeking entry into Canada at ocean ports were rejected. The selective measures employed by Cana. dian immigration agents in the United States are less effective, owing to the obvious fact that there is nothing to prevent any immigrant disregarding the advice of the Canadian Immigration Bureau and seeking entry into Canada at any point on the border. During the year above referred to 19,745 persons seeking entry into Canada at United States border points were denied admission out of a total of 69,401. A comparison of these figures indicates the effectiveness of the elimination which can be applied where passengers have to seek ocean transportation as compared to the conditions where they may arrive at the border of the country by railway train, by automobile, by prairie schooner, or on foot.





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gether in my district on hundreds of "abandoned" farms which the Government had seized and allowed the freedmen to occupy. There was irritation, but both classes were ready to do the fair thing. It was about a two years' task to settle matters by making terms with the landowners, who employed many laborers on their restored homes. Swarms went back to the “old plantations" on passes, with thirty days' rations.


From the first General Armstrong saw clearly what not all of his contemporaries saw, that it was not enough to transfer the New England schoolhouse into the Southern States. From the first he had an almost unique vision of the unique need of the hour, and to the realization of that vision he and his successor, Dr. Frissell, gave their lives with single-hearted and untiring devotion. Their object I state here in a sentence from memory as Dr. Frissell once stated it to me. “The object," he said, though I am not quoting his words, "is to give the Negro boys and girls what the State gives them by the public school. The public school gives the education; the family provides the support for the pupil while he is studying. Hampton gives the education to the pupil; and it provides productive work which enables the pupil to feed and clothe himself.” The pupils were paid for the work, not in cash, but in credit on the books of the school.

The school was opened in 1868 with fifteen pupils; on April 26 it had thirty pupils doing manual work in the morning and studying in the afternoon and evening. In 1918 I visited the school. It then had 140 buildings, 1,100 acres of land, 1,802 pupils, including those who attended the summer school, 2,098 graduates, besides 7,500 who had gone out from Hampton after having taken a partial course. With the exception of the church, capable of seating about fifteen hundred, and the Robert C. Ogden Auditorium, seating about twenty-five hundred, and possibly two or three cottages, all the buildings have been erected by the students themselves and all the farm work and all the household work

of the school, including that of an T the close of the Civil War General Howard put him in charge of a inn upon the grounds, is done by the

eral S. C. Armstrong called on camp near Hampton, Virginia, an ap- pupils.

- General 0. 0. Howard, head of pointment which gave him control as What has been called, I think without the Freedmen's Bureau, and asked for agent of the Freedmen's Bureau over exaggeration, the most efficient and an appointment for field service in the ten counties in Virginia and as Superin- capable industrial school in the United cause of the freedmen. He was the son tendent of Schools over the educational States, if not in the world, is primarily of missionary parents in Hawaii, a grad- work in a large, loosely defined area em due to an extraordinary corps of couate of Williams College, and on gradu- bracing those ten counties. His descrip- workers, dominated by the same spirit ating had entered the Army, had tion of his charge is quoted here from and guided and inspired by two leaders received a baptism of fire at Gettysburg, the biography of General Armstrong by of singularly different temperament, but and as colonel of a Negro regiment had his daughter, Edith Armstrong Talbot, inspired by the same spiritual ambition acquired a familiar acquaintance with page 142:

-General S. C. Armstrong and Dr. H. B the Negro's temperament and character,

Colored squatters by thousands and

Frissell. If life is a campaign, then and had earned promotion by his nota

General Lee's disbanded soldiers re Armstrong may be compared to Genservice in the Southern field. Gen. turning to their families came to eral Sheridan and Frissell to General

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