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Thomas; if life is a garden, then Armstrong selected the site, plowed the ground, sowed the seed and planted the seedlings, and Frissell Weeded, pruned, trained the growing plant, and harvested the crop; if life is a school, then Armstrong gave life to the pupils, Frissell discovered unconscious life in the pupils and drew it from them. General Armstrong was a pioneer, Frissell a teacher; Armstrong a creator, Frissell an organizer. I wish I had space to essay a snap-shot of them both, but I must confine myself here to the one selected to be the subject of this sketch.
I do not find in his daughter's biog. raphy any description of General Armstrong's appearance. The faded shadow. picture in my memory is that of a young man, somewhat under six feet, of slim build but broad shoulders, with no superfluous flesh, erect in pose, with keen eyes that looked not at you but into you, and an electric energy at once physical and moral.
I say young man, for he had up to the last the charm of youth. To him every day was a new beginning. In every day was the freshness of interest which belongs to youth. He would never have passed the dead line of fifty, not if he
COLORED STUDENT PLASTERERS AT HAMPTON AT WORK ON A BUILDING had lived to be a hundred. He lived in
"With the exception of the church and the Robert C. Armstrong Auditorium, and
possibly two or three cottages, all the buildings have been erected by the students the present for the future. I never
themselves and all the farm work and all the household work is done by the pupils" heard him talk of the past, would hardly have known that he had been a general health, did nothing to abate his un- General Armstrong what he thought of in our Civil War except for the soldier's quenchable humor. One day after its editor, Mr. Godkin. "I think,” said title which fitted him so perfectly that paralysis had laid him aside from work General Armstrong, "that he would behe could not have laid it off if he had and his physician had prescribed for gin the Commandments with 'I am the tried. I was surprised when I began him a walk of a few hundred yards as Lord thy Godkin, thou shalt have no the preparation of this article to learn his only exercise, he was taking the pre- other Godkins before me.'” that he was only four years my junior. scription with his intimate friend, Rob. He was an electric battery, and in his I had always thought of him as a much ert C. Ogden. They were talking of the writing, his conversation, his speeches younger man. Years, infirmity, failing "Evening Post," and Mr. Ogden asked he scintillated. He was unconsciously
epigrammatic. Spontaneous epigrams, always kindly, though often keen, made him an intensely interesting conversationalist. When you talked with him, you naturally said only enough to start him talking or to keep him going. From his daughter's biography I select by chance a few of these spontaneous epigrams:
"Laughter makes sport of work."
In a speech to his students: "Spend your life in doing what you can do well. If a man can black boots better than anything else, what had he better do? Black boots."
After a visit to some of the missionary schools in the South, in answer to the question, "What was your impression?" "One sweetly solemn thought comes to me o'er and o'er."
From letters: “Human life is too DR. H. B. FRISSELL, weak to be an incessant flight toward GENERAL ARMSTRONG's
the Sun of Righteousness. Wings will SUCCESSOR, MAKING
sometimes be folded because they are AN ADDRESS, WITH
wings.” “God's kings and priests must TWO HAMPTON STI: . DENTS ON THE
drudge in seedy clothes before they can PLATFORM
wear the purple." "To get at truth,
divide a hyperbole by any number "General Armstrong was a pioneer, Frissell a
greater than two. ... In animated narteacher; Armstrong a ratives divide facts by ten." creator, Frissell an
Such spontaneous epigrams as these organizer
are both revealers of character and inspirers to life. A "Table Talk" of General Armstrong on the plan of the
THE WATER-FRONT AT HAMPTON INSTITUTE-AN INDUSTRIAL VILLAGE
of friction, the problems of every-day 1
"Table Talk” of Coleridge and that of ished." He was right. No historian The boy took it, for a moment was puzLuther would be a classic.
can adequately estimate the value of the zled, then smiled, put down the mustard With this freshness of interest in life service to our National development pot, took up the General's teacup ani was combined the courage of youth, but rendered by the campaigns carried on in brought it back refilled, and the General not the rashness. Rashness leaps be- the North by General Armstrong, Dr. took it and went on with his meal and his fore it looks; courage looks before it Frissell, Booker T. Washington, and the conversation, quite oblivious of the little leaps; timidity does not leap at all. Christian churches. To these campaigns comedy in which he had taken a part. The wise man in asking, What shall I we owe the consciousness that the race He did not live in a "fool's paradise." do? takes counsel of courage; in asking problem is a National problem, and with "Mere optimism," he said, "is stupid; How shall I do it? takes counsel of that consciousness a better mutual un sanctified common sense is the force caution. It is because General Arm- derstanding between the North and the that counts." But neither did he live in strong was both inspired by courage and South and between the white and the a fool's purgatory. "It remains to make guided by caution that he won the con- colored races.
the best of things. Those who are hope fidence of men who had no ambition to With this youthful interest, this cau- less disarm themselves and may as well be pioneers. He wanted for his school tious courage, this ever-reinvigorated go to the rear; men and women of faith, a building which would cost seventy-five energy, was coupled a spirit of humility
energy, was coupled a spirit of humility optimists, to the front." The cynic thousand dollars; he had on hand two which I have not often found in men scoffs at those who will not face facts; thousand dollars. He used the two thou who do things. He had self-confidence, but there is no man who so persistently sand dollars to dig the cellar and lay but was singularly free from self-conceit. refuses to face facts as the cynic. Genfoundations, and so had a “mute ap- I had written in what was then the eral Armstrong saw the evil in men, peal" to speak to the visitors from the "Christian Union" an article about but also saw the good, and instinctively, North who came down to lay the corner. Hampton, not then known and honored and without knowing it, gave life and stone, and it talked to good purpose. as it is to-day, and received from him power to the good. There is no work The students learned brickmaking by the following characteristic letter of which seems to me so discouraging as making the brick and bricklaying by appreciation:
“raising money"—the need seems so imbuilding the walls, and at the end he
perative, the public so apathetic. Genhad made both a building and the build
Boston, December 18, 1884.
eral Armstrong apparently believed that ers. The vision appealed to the ideal
Dear Dr. Abbott:
if you know how to strike the rock in
Thanks for your kind article in the ists, the method to practical men-and
last Xian Union on Hampton.
the desert you can always get water. he got the money.
It is very cordial and earnest and
"Begging trips," he called them, and be I felt that by the triple task that he will do good. It is not easy to live
rejoiced to escape from them to the had set himself he was killing himself. up to where you place me. The true more congenial companionship of the To overcome race prejudice in the prayer for a man in a responsible school at Hampton, but his habitual South, to educate for useful service position is
attitude toward the apathetic North was Negroes at Hampton, and to create in Lord, help me to not make an ass one of cheer. "I never cease to wonder," the North an understanding of the prob- of myself. I often pray this fer
he wrote in one of his reports, "at the lem and at the same time the means to
patience and kindness of those who carry the work on was too much for
S. C. ARMSTRONG.
daily listen to appeals from here (Hamp any one man to undertake. I joined
ton) and some other quarters, the wear with other friends in urging him to se I have no doubt that this was true. and tear of which can be hardly less cure a permanent endowment for Hamp With all his seeming abandon he walked than of those who solicit aid from these ton, and so relieve himself from the "circumspectly." Yet his abandon was overtaxed givers." Northern campaigning. "Yes,” he re- not a seeming. One of his teachers tells He carried the same spirit into his plied in substance, "I would like an me the following incident illustrating campaign appeals for teachers to give endowment for Hampton; we need it. his habitual self-forgetfulness. To one of themselves. The difficulty of his job But I do not wish to avoid the begging the Hampton boys was assigned the care appealed to him, and he believed that campaign. To educate the North is as of the General's house and waiting on it would equally appeal to others. Life important for the Nation as to educate him at his meals, for the General ate was to him what a game is to the chess the South and the Negro." At the same with the rest of the teachers in a room player—the more difficult the problem, time that the old Abolition Society was in the students' hall. As this teacher the more interesting it is. Thus his apformally by resolution disbanding be- was passing out from dinner the Gen- peals were what Christ called a fan; cause nothing remained for it to do eral beckoned to her for some consulta: they separated the wheat from the chaff. General Armstrong was organizing his tion and was immediately absorbed in discouraged the timid and self-distrustcampaign to carry forward the work the business in hand. Presently, his ful, inspired and attracted the cour. which the Abolition Society had only eyes fixed on the teacher and his mind ageous and self-denying. Professor Pes. begun. "It failed to see," said he, "that on their topic, he took up the mustard body in his story of Hampton quotes the everything remained. Their work was pot at his side and, without turning his following summons from General Art ist beginning when slavery was abol- head, reached it out toward the waiter. strong to Miss Helen W. Ludlow, which he rightly calls “one of the classic passages of Hampton literature."
Hampton, September 27, 1872. Dear Miss Ludlow :
Five millions of ex-slaves appeal to you. Will you come? Please telegraph if you can.
There's work here and brave souls are needed. If you care to sail into a good hearty battle where there's no scratching and pin sticking but great guns and heavy shot only used, come here. If you like to lend a hand where a good cause is shorthanded, come here.
We are growing rapidly; there is an inundation of students and we need more force. We want you as teacher. "Shall we whose souls are lighted ?" etc. Please sing three verses before you decide, and then dip your pen in the rays of the morning light and say to this call, like the gallant old Col. Newcome, "Adsum."
S. C. ARMSTRONG.
Miss Ludlow responded to the bugle ture, and “Amiel's Journal,” the most call "as though called into action," and modern and least ecclesiastical. was in the school from 1872 until 1910, After his death a memorandum was some years after the General's death, found among his papers from which I
My impression is that General Armquote three paragraphs: strong was a Congregationalist; but he Few men have had the chance that did not belong to the Congregational I have had. I never gave up or denomination; he did not belong even to
sacrificed anything in my life-have Hampton Institute. He belonged to God
been, seemingly, guided in every
thing. and to God's world. So far as I know,
Prayer is the greatest thing in the he never talked about his spiritual ex
world. It keeps us near to Godperience. I find in his biography two my own prayer has been most weak, very significant sentences. One: "I wavering, inconstant, yet has been would rather minister than be a minis the best thing I have ever done. I ter.". The other: "True worship is a
think this is universal truth-what gentle, sensitive, shrinking emotion that
comfort is there in any but the
broadest truth? steals softly in hearts in quiet moments,
I am most anxious to get a glimpse often in response to some beautiful
at the next world. How will it seem? scene; sometimes it comes to us from Perfectly fair and perfectly natural, the faithful true ones near us."
no doubt. We ought not to fear Two favorite religious books of his are death. It is friendly. said to have been Thomas à Kempis's To this glimpse of his inner life, the "Imitation of Christ," the most archaic source of his charm and his power, no and ecclesiastical of devotional litera friend would wish to add anything.
BY ROBERT WITHINGTON.
VIHEN Professor Grandgent coined luxury" of the sentimentalist is the amused (or words to that effect) the
the adjective osteocephalic, he pride of the highbrow; no one would be club should go back to high art. W did much to remove the sting hypselometopic if it were not for his Poor things! They have just disfrom "bone-head;" for, no matter what neighbors. The sentimentalist culti. covered Shaw, and take him seriously. we may say, there is a lot in a name. vates emotion for the sake of the thrill, One might judge, from the way they I know a teacher who pays his students as Mr. Neilson puts it; and he inevitably talk, that the less action a play has, the a compliment (as they think) when he develops into a cynic. The altifrontal, more dramatic it is. They are so inputs them into a teleost section of his who has also been called a "culturine," tent on elevating the stage that I fear course-far removed from the elasmo- is not primarily interested in gaining they will soon have us back (or up) to branchs—and if "solid ivory” is not culture for his own sake, but that he the Attic Theater. One sign of hypselo"complete bone" I should like to know may enjoy the thrill of impressing his metopy is the desire to elevate. what is. Perhaps the students confuse neighbor.
I remember a meeting, years ago, ad. Técos with the — if they think of These reflections were inspired by a dressed by a dramatic poet (or perhaps the matter at all-and vaguely imagine recent theatrical performance in our it would be more accurate to say they have gone far from the osteo- town--a comedy, put on by amateurs, poetic dramatist) who pleaded for a cephalic end of the class; perchance for the delectation of themselves and poetic drama on the ground, as far as they are afraid that if they looked up their neighbors. We have had what is I could make out, that he could write the word in the dictionary their class known in the vernacular as "highbrow little else, and the public ought to be mates would accuse them of being stuff"—that is, the fare served by educated up to his plays. There seemed hypselometopic. Or altifrontal. (If the Little Theaters all over the country, not to be little room for discussion after the superciliousness of the Roman high- for human nature's daily food, but for talk; but the chairman tried to provoke brows has ruined a word, we must make the pampered appetites of the hypselo some (as chairmen will), and called on a new one. And we have observed that metopics; but this time the club chose various members of the small group most men receive a polysyllabic adjec- something different. Not a farce ex- which made up the audience to "say a tive of unknown meaning as a compli- actly, but a good, broad comedy, healthy few words." Among them, he summent. A philosopher could prove that and laughter-bringing; it had some moned the late Professor Wendell, who, this shows an innate kindliness-op clever lines, too, some of which passed obviously, had nothing to say and did timism-or conceit in man; but most over our heads. but we came away over our heads, but we came away not want to speak; but, being called
not want to speak philosophers are inclined to hypselomet pleased on the whole, and the applause upon, he rose, and after a word or two opy themselves.)
left no doubt of our enjoyment. (Al (during which we felt an Idea being There is, I am sorry to say, a good ready there have been two requests born) he burst out: "Some people spell deal of alticiliousness in the college for other performances elsewhere.) It Drama with a big D, and pronounce it town which I inhabit, but it is chiefly was none of your exotic, bizarre, alti- God." Could there be a better exposition confined to the townsfolk. 'Tis comfort frontal plays, and the audience of of the hypselometopic attitude? ing to imagine that the students are, in friends and neighbors was pleasantly I don't know why it is that hypselogeneral, too busy with their work (and surprised.
metopy fastens chiefly on the drama. play) to think of hypselometopy, which, But not all. A small group in the Perhaps that is the form which the like sentimentality, exists in and for club, suffering from the peculiar form present attack takes, because just now itself. “The real motive of the senti- of hypselometopy sometimes found in the theater is strongly intrenched in the mental giving of alms," writes President small cities, lamented aloud, scorning public esteem. I suppose other forms Neilson in "The Essentials of Poetry," the rest of us, who had (for once) found the rest of us, who had (for once) found
of art a
of art are subject to attack-music, for “is not the good of the beggar but the enjoyment at one of the amateurs' pro- instance, and painting; and I know giver's flush of satisfaction from the ductions; they said that that kind of there are altifrontals glibly repeating picture of himself as Benevolence re. thing was all very well once in a while, that Archibald Marshall is a modern lieving Misery." Akin to the "emotional but now that the groundlings had been Trollope, knowing nothing of Barchester
or Allingford, and perchance not even Societies, with presidents and honorable hinted at; but the sad thing is that the Watermeads.
secretaries, meeting in Wordsworth's patients rarely realize they are ill. Hypselometopy is really dangerous, cottage, or in Burns's? In every age When they do, the cure has already however, only when it is organized. précieuses have been ridicules-save to begun. Sometimes one feels as if there were a themselves; and this is one proof that You have, gentle reader, become aware mania for organization in this country; they lack a sense of humor. That they that the affliction derives its name from we are inclined to forget that if things can appreciate Shaw may show them undós and MÉT WTOV. It is not a new are healthy they grow naturally, and if to have a sense of wit, or else a high illness, but it is increasing. Perhaps they are forced they become unhealthy. conceit which makes them (in their own that is a good sign; for once a hypseloWho can imagine a League for the eyes) superior to their plodding and metopic patient is cured, he is a snob Preservation of the Drama in the Lon- duller neighbors.
no longer, and may become actually don of William Shakespeare? or Poetry The cure for the disease has been intelligent.
IMPRESSIONS OF THE JAPANESE PARLIAMENTARY
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF FAR EASTERN HISTORY AND POLITICS,
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES
MEMBERS OF THE
JAPANESE PARLIAMENTARY DELEGATION AND JAPANESE GUESTS 1. Hideo Higuchi, of the Kensei Kai (Progressiva party). 2. K. S. Inui. Secretary of the Delega. tion. 3. Kunimatsu Hamada, of the Kokuminto (Nationalist party), Via. Chairman. 4. Juicti Nozoye, of the Seiyu Kai (Liberal party). 5. Rokusaburo Nakanishi, of the Seiyu Kai (Liberal party), Chairman. 6. Takeo Tanaka, of the Kensei Kai (Progressive party), Director.
7. Naota Kumagai, of the Seiya Kai (Liberal party). & Tobei Nakamura, Sect tary of the House of Representatives. 9. Yel. kichi Hikita, of the Senyt Kai (Liberal party). 10 Nozubo Kawai, Assistant Secretary of the Hous of Representatives. 11. Senpei Yajima, of the Koshin Club (Independent Club). 12 Tarao Kawasaki, Secretary of the Delegation.
TN this land of many metropolises and visited Japan last year and to witness instance, the hosts and guests stood
varied activities, few can follow the deliberations of Congress. In addi. with arms around each other's shoul1 with any degree of intelligence and tion, they naturally expected to see as ders. “This, by the way, in a dry councontinuity many of the important events much of the United States as possible try," as one guest observed. that are taking place in this country. within the brief period of forty-five days. The mark of respect and distinction The visit of the Japanese Parliamentary They were eager to ascertain the trend was as omnipresent as that of cordiality. delegation is surely one of them. Yet of public opinion in this country on Many cities extended to the party the if one could see a motion-picture record questions of the day, particularly the privileges of the municipality, and in of its tour he would witness a veritable limitation of armaments. They had no Washington a rare courtesy was paid cvclone of American hospitality and other object, political or diplomatic. them when, on the motion of Mr. Mann, friendship.
The party came as the direct repre- former majority leader, the House de The Japanese party which landed at sentatives of the Japanese people to call clared a recess in order to meet the San Francisco on May 25 was composed on the direct representatives of the members of the Japanese Parliament. of eight members of the Japanese Diet, American people. Therefore their recep Congressmen whom the visitors had enrepresenting four different political par- tion everywhere was quite different tertained in Japan last year escorted the ties.
companied by two from the ordinary exchanges of courtesy. Japanese delegation from the diplomatic secretaries of the House of Representa; They were welcomed with simple cor- gallery to the floor of the House, where tives and two secretaries of the delega- diality and open-hearted friendship they were received most cordially. This tion who joined the party in this coun- wherever they went, including Califor- ceremony was repeated in the Senate. try.
nia, where their receptions were all The party visited the four principal The object of the mission was pri- happy disappointments. In return this cities of the Pacific coast and four more marily to pay a return compliment to spirit was splendidly entered into by the on the Atlantic coast, and on the way eleven American Congressmen who Japanese members. At Pittsburgh, for they stopped also at Denver, Chicago,
and Pittsburgh. They were entertained 3. In the Middle West and the East Japanese Alliance must not provoke by Americans some twenty times at many questions were asked regarding American misunderstanding. luncheons and dinners and an equal business conditions in Japan.
4. The presence of anti-Japanese sentinumber of times by Japanese. The fare. 4. A remarkable number of persons in- ment in parts of America is due to well banquet in San Francisco was given quired as to the extent of Japan's prohi. misunderstanding. by the City Church Federation, while bition movement.
5. Japan should seek a thorough unthe final banquet in New York, the night 5. A few sought information on the derstanding with the United States. before they sailed, was given by the status of the Yap controversy.
6. They were convinced that the Federated Churches of America. These 6. Others asked what progress, if any, American public is intensely interested naturally had their distinctive features had been made by Bolshevism in Japan. in securing international agreements on of farewell and God-speed.
7. There were many questions concern the limitation of armaments. It will surprise no one to learn that ing suffrage, especially of women.
7. American initiative looking toward American reporters were most frank in 8. The "Open Door" question in China disarmament will undoubtedly meet a putting their questions. But it may was touched upon.
popular welcome in Japan. surprise many to learn that the Japa- 9. The Shantung question, however, 8. The visiting Diet members, irrenese members were equally frank at all and the Siberian situation seemed to spective of their political ties, said they times and never did they evade a single have been forgotten.
would exert their influence in promoting query. Perhaps the following questions. The party sailed from New York for right relations with the United States. arranged according to the number of Europe on July 9. This is written after But the march of events moves faster times they were asked by reporters, their departure, but I think I am not than modern transportation. While the are indicative of public interest in mistaken in making the following gen- party is still en route to Europe the socertain phases of Japanese-American eral observations:
called disarmament conference has berelations:
1. The Japanese visitors agreed that come a certainty. America and Japan 1. "What is Japan's attitude toward friendship with the United States is ab- will both profit from the fact that these disarmament?" This question was never solutely essential.
eight members of the House of Repreomitted anywhere.
2. Discontinuance of the Anglo-Japa sentatives, duly selected for the mission 2. In California the questions of Japa- nese Alliance would be seriously miscon- by.Japan's four political parties, are renese immigration and assimilation were strued in Japan.
turning to their home land as firm frequently put.
3. The continuance of the Anglo friends of America and peace.
COAL AND THE CONSUMER
T TOU ask me the following question:
anxiety to other industries not so
charged with public interest. Assuming that the coal inter
Last spring, when it was reported ests ought to so manage the production, transportation, and distri
that there was a shortage of coal stocks bution of anthracite that there should
on hand, disquieting statements were isbe neither extortionate prices for coal
sued by the Railroad Administration, nor danger of shortage that would
the Inter-State Commerce Commission, produce serious general discomfort
the United States Geological Survey, and suffering, and assuming also that
and by other Governmental agencies. this year, at least, the conditions are
The Federal restrictions on the export of not such that it has been impossible
coal and on the price of coal were lifted. to mine a sufficient quantity of anthracite and to find railway facilities
The outlaw strike of the switchmen for transporting it, then is there ex
occurred simultaneously with an existing any legal way of bringing this
traordinary export demand which preabout by the National Government?
empted the use of dockage facilities at If there is no such existing way, then
Hampton Roads; the New England dewhat would be the proper line of
mand for soft coal was thrown into the legislation or public agitation or Na
field from which New York gets its coal, tional action to provide such means?
and this congested the railways to New In reply I would say that operators
York and New England. The Northwest should forward anthracite coal while
had to make its coal shipments before the conditions are favorable unless they (C) Harris & Ewing
the lakes had frozen and the high prices
WILLIAM M. CALDER are prepared to be condemned by the
were drawing the coal in other direc
United States Senator from New York public because of failure, as business
tions. The public was deluged with the men, to anticipate the needs of their in consuming districts, and prices at babel of conflicting reports, largely customers. They know to a nicety the mine, at wholesale, and at retail. If propaganda in its character, from soft amount of coal which must be bought these facts were issued by an agency in and anthracite coal operators and from in each community, and they have cars which the public had confidence, compe- the wholesalers and retailers. and labor to deliver this coal, which can tition might regulate the matter and Orders by the Inter-State Commerce be stored with no physical difficulty. It bring about a condition more satisfac- Commission giving priority in transporis hardly possible that the want of capitory than that from Government control. tation of coal were issued without notice tal can be an element in this matter, for If competition and public opinion or hearing. Railway facilities were conthe sale of anthracite coal in each com- based on facts do not so regulate the gested and coastwise shipping left idle. munity is a definite and certain matter matter, the publicly known facts would The public was thrown into a panic, and extends over a short period of certainly form a necessary and an intel so that anthracite coal sold as high as months.
ligent basis for further legislation. $27 a ton in Massachusetts and soft The first step in this matter is legisla. At the outset the public must deter- coal as high as $20 a ton at Hamption requiring full knowledge by the mine whether or not coal is charged ton Roads. The Government itself paid public from week to week of the facts with public interest and use. It is my $18 a ton for soft coal for the Shipping regarding coal-plant capacity, produc- own belief that it is, and that the recog. Board at New York, and through the tion, shipments, and storage at mine and nition of this fact need be no cause of War Department was obliged to pay $11