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to their old jobs. They are all busy, events, so thorough and so liberal. well if in America men stirred themslaving doggedly and patiently to 'win There are, perhaps, small local libraries. selves. For the United States may have the leading place in their old industries. And the great reading-room in the to fight the danger of industrial GerThey are beginning to flood England British Museum is accessible, though many. High tariffs are at best a mere with their wares—their cutlery, their hedged round with formalities. But to expedient. Americans may erelong ask dyes, their stuffs and “notions.” The get books to read is not the easy matter themselves why they must pay three Londoners are shaved with German that it has for generations been with times as much for what they need as razors. They buy cheap German knives It takes much trouble and some they might have to pay if duties were and German corkscrews. The same ar- time to find a library worth visiting in abolished. They might learn much, too, ticles made here would, at the present England.
if they knew that here in London such price of labor in this country, cost three So, being baffled of their chances of things as shoes, sold at enormous profits times as much as in the Vaterland. But enjoying, as we can, the latest works on in the United States, can be bought for till the collapse of the strikes, a week science, art, and even works of fiction, little more than half the sums charged ago, the British laboring man was deaf the people in England turn instinc- by the storekeepers on Broadway. and blind to all except his selfish aims. tively for an alternative relaxation to The English have more common sense He would not see that unless Germans cricket, boating, racing, and the like. than we have in America when they are could be forced to raise their scale of They need some brightness in their now dealing with the profiteering problem. wages within five years the British in- too worried lives. They must have This year, for instance, straw hats have dustries might rot and “Deutschland something to allow them to forget their been boycotted. Not from a sudden über Alles" might become a fact, at least heavy tolls and income tax. Sport gives scorn of good straw hats, but just bein commerce.
them, for a song, what they most crave. cause a brash attempt to charge high I think the unions are awakening, Nor can one wonder. After all, they are prices for them was made by the hat. rather late. We hear at last of a re- but human.
ters. Two years ago, again, the cost of vival of the trades, of a new effort to England has been slipping back, in a men's and women's suits rose so outsave British industry. To-morrow all, or disquieting way, for some months in the rageously that a reaction came. An nearly all, the mines in England, Wales, fierce race for trade and shipping and anti-profiteering scheme started. and Scotland will be busy. The en- world influence. But has she realized And now a sack suit can be bought in gineers have had the great good sense the fact, and has she worried? No. Not countless stores for four or five poundsto accept reductions in their over- till now. She has been quite serene, say, eighteen to twenty dollars. The boosted wages. The railway companies trusting to luck and to the old belief Middle Classes Union may have failed. will soon be running regular and excur- that she will muddle through her It has done little that it once hoped sion trains as usual. Too many of those troubles some day, somehow. The car- to accomplish. Yet an unorganized retrains, though, may be filled with sport- nival of sport has not been checked. It bellion against organized and ruthless ing "fans" bound for the races and the has been fostered, not discouraged, by profiteers nas somehow brought about a golf links and the cricket fields.
Music may be para- heavy slump in prices. Few Englishmen to-day are reading lyzed. It seems almost dead. Drama The stores this month have all marked books. The prices of most books are may languish. Art may be at a stand- down their goods. Big bargain sales now prohibitive. The cost of paper, still. But cricket, polo, racing, boating, are drawing eager crowds. The public labor, and distributing has forced the thrive. “Vogue la galère!" And after simply would not stand the robberies of publishers to triple their old charges. us—the deluge.
the early post-war period. It fought the A novel which before the war might I do not wish to seem a croaker of ill rogues; it wore old clothes and merely have been offered at the bookstalls for, tidings. I am a Londoner by birth, and waited. There is more thrift here than say, half a crown, is now marked eight not an alien in this English world. But there was two years ago. But it spells and six-or, say, two dollars. Unhap I can see what is unguessed at by most ruin for the painters, singers, actors. pily, too, there is no equivalent here for Englishmen--the growing menace of And too much time is being wasted our fine public libraries; nothing, at all new German competition. It might be here on-play.
ENGLAND AT WORK
N leaving England after a visit of
just a month my heart is filled with
admiration for the way in which the English are grappling with the grave difficulties that now confront them. When I landed in England this time, after an absence of eight years, I was somewhat uneasy as to what condition of affairs I should find. Vague rumors and gossip recounted to me by credulous compatriots had suggested various forms of discomfort, both great and small, for the American visitor. Because of the coal strike trains would be few and unreliable, cold food would be one's usual fare. There would be a shortage of many of the necessaries of life, and, most disagreeable of all, Americans, owing to their rejection of the League of Nations, would find themselves personae non gratae on English soil. A dozen hours ashore sufficed to
BY FRANCIS ROGERS dispel these gloomy forebodings. A of the shilling (24 cents) English prices comfortable express train bore are appreciably lower than ours; the swiftly to London and provided us with present value of the shilling (18 cents) an appetizing and bountiful hot lunch. enhances tremendously the purchasing eon; in all respects the service was as power of the dollar. For less than four good as, if not better than, our American dollars a day one can obtain excellent service, and at a substantially less cost. board and lodging in the best provincial The taxi that carried us to our hotel hotels. Think of that, Americans! was more comfortable and cheaper than Linen, woolen, and silk goods, too, are our New York taxis. The rooms, the much cheaper than with us. And so it meals, and the service in the hotel were goes all along the line-rents, domestic as satisfactory as one would find in any service, supplies, etc. Indeed, if the but the most expensive American hotels American visitor asks no questions and and were much less expensive.
avoids the newspapers, he may even The impressions of those first hours leave England in the belief that all is have all been confirmed by the varied well with it. experiences, both in and out of London, Superficially, there is little to remind of the passing weeks. England is as the traveler that England has just comfortable for the traveling American passed through the costliest and most as ever it was and a cheaper place for devastating war in all her long history. him to live in than his own country. Mutilated men are rarely seen; the Even on the basis of the pre-war value losses and sorrows of the last few years
are seldom referred to; little or no out- marked somewhere in No Man's Land. ward sign of mourning is visible. But To one faded handful, typical of many, let the traveler ask a few questions of was attached
card which was any native or scan only the headlines of scrawled, “In memory of our Arthur, the papers, and he will begin to realize who died in France. Dad, Mum and the appalling cost of England's victory Sis.” In all the world there is no more ---a cost paid by all, young and old, men eloquent or sadder monument than the and women. Ex-service men do not Cenotaph, which to countless parents is wear service buttons, as ours do, and the the memorial stone of their boy who multi-colored service ribbons are usually went forth to battle and was heard of no concealed under the coat, but one soon more. gets the impression that every able- The war had to be won and it was bodied man in England was in the fight. won. The tumult and the shouting have The tailor who cuts your suit left a leg died and England is now face to face in France; the clerk in the picture shop with its huge war bill. The cost in was gassed at Messines; the brother of human lives has, for the most part, althe chambermaid was killed at Gallipoli. ready been paid; but the cost in mateIt is the same with the educated men, rial things it will take generations to who have discarded their military titles defray. Not only has the price of every. and wear no ribbons; they, too, seem all thing been doubled, even trebled, but to have been in it. The university men taxes have reached an unprecedented volunteered en masse; during a large height. One-third of a yearly income of part of the war there was not a single $1,000 goes to the Government, and the student enrolled at Corpus Christi Col- proportion increases with the size of the lege, Cambridge. Most eloquent of all, income till it reaches three-quarters. perhaps, are the honor rolls posted in Everybody, except the war profiteers, every town and in every institution. In is retrenching in his expenditure. The the colleges their length is heartbreak- man with a small income is depriving ing. Eight choristers from the choir of himself and his family of all but the little old St. Bartholomew the Great in absolute necessaries; the landed proprie. London laid down their lives for their tor is selling his estates and collections country: twenty from the choir of Ely to the highest bidder. Charitable instiCathedral. Three employees of the lit- tutions are closing because the newly tle post office at Torquay died in service. poor can no longer support them and Everywhere the lists meet the eye; the newly rich have not yet learned to every one you meet lost near and dear give. Labor troubles complicate the
Behind these willing, courageous situation greatly, and the recent coal combatants stood shoulder to shoulder strike was little short of being a na. and uncomplaining their people who tional disaster. Then there is the etercould not fight, but who loyally did their nal strain of the Irish question. On top bit at home and now are left to mourn of it all comes the fierce drought which so many of their brave boys. I have for weeks and weeks has been burning stood beside the Cenotaph in Whitehall up the fields of England, usually so and watched silent, black-clad parents green and fruitful. Such conditions lay at its base a bunch of simple flowers bring unemployment in their wake, and in memory of their lad who lies un- many willing hands are idle.
These are all mighty problems to solve. Only a civilization built on the soundest principles of self-government could possibly sustain a strain of such magnitude. The solidity of every foundation, the strength of every buttress, is being tested as never before; but though the fabric may quiver and sway, it was constructed with a wisdom and a skill that will enable it to withstand the present tempest as it has withstood many another. There is little that is stimulat. ing or glorious about the battles of peace, but England is now fighting hers with much of the same dogged determi. nation that did so much to bring defeat to the Germans. During the war, even in its blackest moments, some Tommy would often cry out, "Are we downhearted ?" "No!" was always the vociferous answer, followed by a cheery "Carry on! Carry on!" And England is carrying on, and will continue to carry on till she has won the fight.
We Americans should never forget that what is strongest and best in our civilization is of English origin--our systems of government, law, and educa. tion are all based on the experience of England through the long centuries. The collapse of England would probably mean our collapse. Self-interest alone would urge us to extend to her every material aid. How much more should we, her offspring, the heirs to all her intellectual and spiritual possessions, be forward not only in sharing with her our material wealth, but also in giving her our unstinted moral support and sympathy! Let us never forget what we owe to the great nation that from 1914 to 1917, without our co-operation, fought our battles by land and sea, and during the last eighteen months of the war fought side by side with us that our common civilization should not perish.
WHY FRANCE WILL BACK UP AMERICA AT THE
BY STÉPHANE LAUZANNE
EDITOR LE MATIN," PARIS
HE suggestion of the President of the United States to summon a
conference at Washington for the purpose of studying the question of disarmament has been received with real favor by the whole of France. Seldom is an invitation so well received.
And there are numerous reasons for this.
First of all, the invitation comes from America. To the great majority of the French this means that there are no underhand doings, no intrigues, no de. sire to effect a political success at the detriment of such and such a nation. It will be a loyal debate promoted by the most disinterested people on the earth,
who on this occasion are prompted by Europe, can eventually meet with somethe most loyal ideals.
thing tangible. This is the only efficaSecondly, the invitation is intended to cious study. lead to something practical. There is Finally, for the first time since the nothing the French hate more than to Versailles Treaty of Peace, France has be working in the clouds, for experience been invited to an international conferhas taught them that one always ends ence at which there will be no intention by falling down to earth and that one of requesting her to give up any one of is hurt in the falling.
the advantages she has obtained by the The study of disarmament by the so- Treaty to the greater glory and greater called League of Nations is a study in profit of England. All the international the clouds, which will never come to a conferences which have been held in practical result, as it is but a discussion Europe during the past two years at of dreamers and philosophers. But the Paris, at London, at Hythe, at Boulogne, study of disarmament by the three great- at Spa, at San Remo, always aimed at est naval Powers of the globe, and by making England the great arbiter of one of the greatest military Powers of Europe. France appeared before this
arbitrator, who immutably took the features of Mr. David Lloyd George.
Sometimes France had kind things said to her; sometimes she heard disagreeable words. But she never left the tribunal without having been obliged to make some.sacrifice, moral or material; be it a question of coal, of penalties, of money, of the reparations of her devastated regions, invariably she had to give up something
This time things will be changed. At Washington there will be but one single arbitrator—the American people. And France willingly accepts its verdict.
On the other hand, those who this time will have to make sacrifices to peace, to harmony, and to the good understanding of all will be England and Japan in particular. This time the preachers of morals will also have to be the paymasters.
When the question of the Pacific is raised, we shall hear no more about French imperialism, French militarism, and French annexationism. We shall only have the great English disinterestedness and the great English moderation facing iis.
And we shall be the better able to pay
a hearty tribute to that disinterestedness and to that moderation, as it will no longer be at our expense.
Whatever the case may be, the line of conduct of France at the Conference of Washington is regulated in advance. She will back up America with all her heart and power.
It is very probable that Prime Minister Briand will go himself to Washing. ton, accompanied by Marshal Foch and Admiral Lacaze as his technical counselors. M. Briand desires particularly to go himself to place his statesman's authority in person at the disposal of the President of the United States for the good work which he has undertaken, and to get into touch with the American people, whom he loves and admires above all.
If, however, by some impossibility, M. Briand were to be detained in Paris through governmental duties, it would be M. René Viviani whom France would delegate to Washington.
In any event, America will have at the Conference in the person of the French delegates men who are only anxious to help her practically in her beautiful and useful scheme.
BY HENRY W. KINNEY
's Japan the victim of a gigantic of the various burning questions at the
international conspiracy of white coming Conference.
nations? Is the invitation that she The note of surprise is predominant. attend the Disarmament Conference to Japan felt rather secure at the moment. be called at Washington merely a dia. Most of her public men did not believe bolically clever scheme whereby she will that anything would ever come of the be placed in a position where she must Disarmament Conference plans.
At either make various concessions in re- least they thought that nothing would spect to the present troublesome Asiatic happen for quite a while to come. Miliand Pacific questions or must see her- tarists felt sure that no conference, even self forced into a position of absolute if one should be called, could have any isolation as a nation? Ever since Japan practical effect. They had seen too received the inquiry from the United many conferences pass apparently allStates as to whether she would attend important resolutions which in the end the Conference these questions have only resolved themselves into smoke. been agitating the minds of all Japanese So they did not bother to oppose diswho think on international questions at armament talk very strongly. The all. If matters had gone no further Minister of the Navy even said that than the delivery to the Foreign Office reduction of the naval budget might be of the American inquiry, the results considered, though the Japanese press thereof would nevertheless have been itself accuses him of being very "luketremendous when measured in the warm." The new Minister of War, in ternis of its effect on Japanese thought. office only a few weeks, says bluntly
For Japan has finally been brought to that he can see no reason for either realize that she stands alone, in the posi- naval or army reduction. However, on tion of a suspect; that the nations de the whole, even the advocates of armasirenay, may insist on her placing all ments felt reasonably secure, first, with her cards upon the table; that she must the thought that America was only either play the game in Asia and the bluffing, and would never actually call a Pacific along the lines of the new world conference; second, in the assurance morality now followed by other nations, that, even if such were called, the issue or must find herself an outcast with the might easily be so complicated that hands of all others against her. Japan nothing very tangible would result.. feels that she is at the parting of the Then came President Harding's inroads, that her destiny is about to be quiry, with the information that various determined-unless she may find some Asiatic and Pacific questions should be way to prevent or confuse the discussion discussed as a basis for disarmament
negotiations, and, further, that France, Italy, and China-yes, China—had been invited to participate. No Big Bertha bombshell ever created greater consternation. What did all this mean? No longer might one rest secure in the prospect of a technical, academic conference; on the contrary, as the Japanese say, this event bids fair to be as tremendous in its effects as the Paris Conference, or even more so, and with the great difference that the questions to be taken up will practically all be those in which Japan has a vital interest. Japan feels that she will virtually be called upon to place on the table her plans for the future in respect to Siberia, China, and elsewhere.
While both politicians and press have been very guarded in their expressions, and while almost all the most prominent men have been careful to veil their utterances in anonymity, the undercurrent of resentment is too strong not to be very noticeable. First of all, Japan feels with disappointment and disgust that England, her ally, has tricked her. It is agreed that while the voice may be Harding's the hand is England's. It is believed to be plain that England, facing the impusse where she felt she must either terminate or emasculate the Anglo-Japanese Alliance or must lose the friendship, of America and face the opposition of Canada, to a large extent Australia and other parts of the Empire, by an extremely shrewd move brought about the calling of a conference which, appears an inevitable call that she out. if the plans mature, will place Japan in line her Asiatic policy, for, in truth, she the position where either she must out- has none, or possibly it may be more line and promise to maintain a liberal correct to say that she has several, and satisfactory policy or she must place mainly that of the War Office and that herself in a position of isolation as an of the rest of the Cabinet. Thus at the out-and-out militarist nation, when she recent conference in Tokyo of members could not expect' renewal of the Alliance. of the Cabinet, Japanese administrators,
Next Japan has looked upon the com- and officials on the mainland of Asia position of the Conference. England and others it was decided to turn a new has already shown where she stood by leaf all around; troops would be withsidestepping renewal of the Alliance drawn from Siberia and the Shantung and by being instrumental-at least, so Railway, and a more liberal policy folJapan thinks-in bringing about this lowed towards China generally. This extremely uncomfortable Conference. was not so very surprising, for the Hara France and Italy both showed in the administration has ever refused to fol. matter of the Yap question that they far low the policy of its predecessors in repreferred the friendship of the United spect to the great Republic just across States to that of Japan. China-well,
But what has become of all Japan knows what she may expect from these policies? Nothing. The General China, which has not forgotten the Staff refuses to withdraw the troops Twenty-one Demands, and which is an from Shantung unless certain conditions extremely interested party in the Shan. are agreed to, and, instead of taking tung and other questions. “As a matter troops out of Siberia, it has just sent in of fact, we have become isolated even the Eleventh Division to relieve the before we enter the Conference," is a Eighth. Under the circumstances, common cry. "If we take part, we will which is the Japanese policy-that of be one against all the rest. If we do the Cabinet, with its good intentions, or not take part, we shall be condemned as that of the General Staff, which sarconfessed militarists. The position is donically sits tight and controls the impossible."
immediate situation? It seems hard to see a way out. This uncertainty, this lack of ability Japan promptly indicated her willing- to guarantee a policy, the necessity of ness to take part in a Disarmament Con- making a showdown, accounts to some ference, but, and this is the great ques. extent for the quandary in which Japan tion in Japan to-day, will she be able to finds herself. It is possible that to prevent that body from taking up, or those who wish to follow an open, lihat least making decisions on, the vari- eral policy the Conference may afford an ous questions in which she is so vitally opportunity to free themselves from the interested-Shantung, Siberia, the open militarist yoke, for it seems inconceivdoor in China, Yap, and so forth? She able that even the reactionaries of the has seen that if she refuses to take part General Staff would dare to violate unthe other nations may arrive at agree- dertakings entered into in a conference ments in respect thereto among them. of the world's leading nations; but, on selves. The "Nichi Nichi” has already the other hand, no matter how much stated that a secret agreement has been they may resent the iron dominance of entered into between the United States the militarists, they are first and fore. and Great Britain.
most Japanese, and they cannot look Japan is honestly nonplused at what with equanimity on what appears the
underhanded conduct of their ally, and they do not wish to have to treat with what seems a pistol at their head.
One thing has already been accomplished, which will in some measure make towards world peace, and that is that Japan has been made to realize that if she pursues a reactionary policy in the Far East she will stand alone, that the hands of all other nations of standing will be against her. She knows that now. She found it out during the first two or three days of surprised speculation over the vast potentialities indicated in the apparently rather innocuous Harding note. It will take some time before the effect reaches the masses, for these do not think, except on the very broadest and most puerile terms, on international questions. The question of what the effect will be presents one of the most interesting propositions which has ever arisen in the modern Far East. Some writers are already advocating a conciliatory attitude towards Russia, the forming of some sort of combination with Moscow, with Bolshevism left out. Undoubtedly others will advocate closer relations with Germany, for Japan has never forgotten her old love for the Kaiser's country. Many writers are sorry that Japan's high-handed methods of the past have made China inimical; they want to kiss and make up. How. ever, these solutions are all too distant to be of any value at present. Russia in her present condition can be of no value as an ally, nor can Germany, and China's memory is not so short that she can forget the Twenty-one Demands.
It is certain that at no time has Japan been engaged in taking stock of her policies and her position in respect to other nations as she has during the few days following the Harding inquiry. History in the Orient will depend on what course she decides to follow.
HE fifth summer conference of the of printing paper as well as the produc- sided over by the well-known portraitist
Pictorial Photographers of Amer- tion of transparencies as in the Lumière Clarence H. White, interesting demonTica took place at Canaan, Con- process; and motion pictures still await strations were given, consisting of the necticut, the first week in August. the successful application of a simple selection, from a given point, of the Photographers from various sections of and inexpensive process for showing most available subject for a landscape this country, and also a representative figures and scenes in natural colors. photograph, by Mr. W. E. Macnaughtan, from the City of Mexico, were present The bromoil process in photography, president of the photographic section of to confer and to exhibit their work. which was invented a few years ago, the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Demonstrations of certain novel proc- seems at present to be attracting the Sciences; of the most effective methods esses were given, most of them being of attention of the leading photographic of flower arrangement, by Mlle. Kichi a somewhat technical character. No pictorialists throughout the world. An Harada, of Japan, with accompanying outstanding developments or inventions example of this kind of work is shown photographic studies; of the use of kalliseem to have been produced during the on the opposite page. This is a com- type, a process revived during the war, year, or for several years for that mat plicated and laborious process, and by Mr. Dwight A. Davis, of Worcester, ter, as the disturbing influence of the while capable in expert hands of ex- Massachusetts; and of new methods in war and its aftermath has affected tremely pleasing results, it can never be connection with the bromoil process, by photography as it has so many other a commercial rival of the older methods. Messrs. W. A. Alcock, of New York, and activities. The greatest inventions in It necessitates the patient development Bernard S. Horne, of Princeton, New recent years in connection with pho- of each print by bringing it up with a Jersey. tography-those of color plates and brush held in the fingers, successive The interest shown in the Conference motion pictures-still fall short of com- "dabs" finally producing the finished indicates the increasing employment of plete success. Color photography, to be print.
photography as an art process. fected, must include an easy method At the Conference, which was pre.
HENRY Hoyt MOORE.