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THE FOUR FOLD CAREER OF WHITELAWREID ambitions were dominant, and, though

we believe he remained nominal editor BY LYMAN ABBOTT

of the "Tribune" to the end, the last

years of his life were spent in the diploHITELAW REID fulfilled four Hayes had critics enough barking at his matic service of his country. His most

functions in American history: heels, furnished by the professional poli- distinguished service rendered, W he was a war correspondent, an ticians of both the political parties. A probably, in the part he took in the editor, a political manager, and a diplo- little warm, generous, uncritical support difficult and successful negotiation of mat.

from the New York “Tribune" would the treaty with Spain at the end of the As war correspondent he was one of have made Mr. Hayes's endeavor to Spanish-American War. the first of a profession which by its

Mr. Cortissoz's two volumes give a letters to the American press rendered

history of the forty-odd years of Mr. great service to this country during the

Reid's public life more valuable to the Civil War and by its letters to the press

special student than to the general of Italy, France, Great Britain, and the

reader. There is usually something like United States still greater service to the

half or three-quarters of a century of the world during the Great World War.

world's life concerning which the averSuccess in this profession requires a

age citizen is comparatively ignorantcombination of qualities not often to be

that which immediately antedates his found in one individual: courage, enter

own active life. It is so recent that the prise, initiative, keenness and quickness

historian has not yet interpreted it; it of mind, knowledge of men, love of

is so remote that the periodical and truth, and literary skill. All of these

daily press have dismissed it. Mr. Corqualities Whitelaw Reid possessed.

tissoz in narrating Mr. Reid's share in From war correspondent he graduated

the events of that half-century assumes to become Horace Greeley's second in

a knowledge of them which this generathe editorship of the New York "Trib

tion does not possess. Thus, to give but une.” Editors are of two kinds-writers

one illustration, his chapter on the and administrators. Mr. Greeley won

“Cipher Dispatches” gives interesting his fame and influence as an editorial

details respecting their accidental diswriter. He was as devoted to certain

covery and respecting the ingenuity repolitical principles as was an

quired in deciphering them. But we apostle to the tenets of his religious

venture to affirm that not one American faith. He was the most passionate and

recent college graduate in ten, probably powerful editorial writer of his time.

not one in fifty, and practically no reWilliam Lloyd Garrison was as pas


cent high school graduate, knows what sionate, but his implacable spirit and

the Cipher Dispatches are and what his lack of common sense made him cieanse the Augean stables easier and light their discovery and publication ineffectual, except to a small though not might have made it more successful; but throws on the hotly contested Hayesinsignificant body of disciples. White- Mr. Reid, who when Greeley was nomi. Tilden Presidential campaign. A better law Reid won his place and influence nated merged the editor in the political historical background would have made by his administration. He was a good

manager, when Mr. Hayes was elected clearer to the general reader of this writer, but his leaders were too judicial, forgot the political manager in the edi. generation the not unimportant part too well balanced, too carefully consid- tor.

which Whitelaw Reid played in a critiered, to strike fire as did the more In the main, however, his political cal period of American history. vehement utterances of his chief. Nevertheless Mr. Cortissoz's chapter entitled "An Editor's Methods” is well worth

THE NEW BOOKS careful reading by any young person ambitious of making journalism his pro


as high a degree of success in dealing fession.

CHILDREN OF THE WHIRLWIND. By Leroy with motive and character as he did in

Scott. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, $2. Mr. Reid is not the only man who has

"The Portygee,” which marked a dis

Criminals, detectives good and bad, a attempted to be both a great editor and

tinct development in his grasp on the a great political manager, and it is not police captain who is more objectionable

art of fiction. than any of the criminals, a painter who strange that he failed in an endeavor to is forced to become a genius despite him

GRINDING (THE). By Clara play a double part in which no one ever

Henry Holt & Co., New York. $2. self, a convict who has served his term succeeded. His political adroitness en

This is a tale of life in the Louisiana and is almost a miracle of moral purabled him to secure the nomination of

sugar-growing country. The title has a pose and gentlemanly manners, his fine Horace Greeley to the Presidency,

double reference, to the culmination of old pawnbroking grandmother who is a though his better judgment compelled friend of thieves but not a thief, and

the sugar product and to the process by him as a politician to disapprove the

which a young, fashionable, and helpless other figures in New York City's undernomination. No real independent at

society girl finds out what work and life world and fashionable world figure in that time could have anticipated any.

mean. The minor characters, Cajuns this story. It has abundance of plotthing but the disastrous failure which

and Negroes, are cleverly drawn. The in fact, superabundance, for to male followed in the election.

construction of the story might be imeverything and everybody come out all When four years later Mr. Hayes suc

proved, but otherwise it is of rather right at the end is a complex task. ceeded to the Presidency, with a divided

unusual quality and promises well for party giving him a half-hearted support, GALUSHA THE MAGNIFICENT. By Joseph C. future work from this author. a wise political manager would not have Lincoln. I). Appleton & Co., New York. $2.

HEEL OF ACHILLES (THE). By E. M. Delademanded impossibilities of so honest, Mr. Lincoln gives us her a new

The Macmillan Company, New York. able, and independent a President. Mr. Cape Cod story with characters as $2.50.



Bush. 19.

quaint and human as those of his other The Lydia about whom this story re 1 The Life of whitelaw Reid. By Royal ('or

numérous and always popular stories. volves is clever in making people do isso..

vols, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $10. He does not, it seems to us, quite reach things, and is witty and ambitious. All



her life she almost succeeds in doing which have won for Keats the enduring author is perhaps a sufficient indication
what she wants, but not quite. Finally love of poets and men of letters through of his point of view and the interest of
she concludes that the trouble was indi. out the world. The contributions to his book to lovers of literature. The
cated in a remark she overheard some this "Memorial Volume," originating in subjects taken include Francis
one make about her, namely, that she large measure in England and the Thompson, Ibsen's “Peer Gynt,” Rus-
was "a situation-snatcher"—that is, that United States, nevertheless include rep- kin's “Seven Lamps," Tennyson's "In
her cleverness led her to pose in the resentative tributes from Continental Memoriam," Masefield's "Everlasting
limelight so much that she gained more and Oriental writers, and thus consti- Mercy," and others.
admiration than friendship. One way in tute a significant addition to the study

THIRTEEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS (THE). which she made headway was by remem- of Keats's works by which we may esti- Translated from the Sanskrit with an Outbering her grandfather's remark, "Al- mate the influence of his art upon the

line of the Philosophy of the Upanishads

and an Annotated Bibliography by Robert ways let the other people talk about culture and tradition of contemporary

Ernest Hume, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of the themselves.” There is a good deal that literature in many lands.

History of Religions in Union Theological is animated and not a little that is

Seminary, New York. Humphrey Milford,

Oxford University Press, New York. cynical about the talk in this book.


“To every Indian Brahman to-day ESSAYS IN BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION. By LOW CEILINGS. By W. Douglas Newton. D.

Upanishads are what the New Testa

Henry Preserved Smith. The Marshall Appleton & Co., New York. $2.

ment is to the Christian." But the dif

Jones Company, Boston. $2.50.
The title indicates the repression and The author, in his preface, modestly

ference in the point of view, or habit confinement which beset people who says, “This book does not claim to be a of thought, between the East and the have no love for the open air in social history of Biblical interpretation.” Nev

West is so great that the ordinary life and intellectual intercourse. A ertheless the Essays are so connected

American reader can make but little out young man subject all his days to this as to furnish something akin to a con

of the original foundations of Oriental atmosphere finds it hard to break away tinuous history; and this history makes philosophy. For them that philosophy from smug conventions, fear of what it very clear that the modern method of must be translated, not merely into the people will say, and distress at anything treating the Bible, not as a single book English language, but into the English said or done out of the ruts of narrow- all of whose writings possess equal

forms of thought; and even then it mindedness. Then comes the war, and authority, but as a collection of Hebrew seems hardly thinkable. The American this and the influence of just the right literature which can be fully understood thinks of men as a collection of indiman and just the right girl open vis- only as we know what can be known viduals each complete in himself, whose ions of liberty and free our young concerning the writers who speak and

connection with other individuals is friend from "low ceilings" forever. The the persons and times to which they voluntary and incidental, if not accidialogue is decidedly good; the construc- were speaking, is no new doctrine, but

dental; and he thinks of God as another tion not remarkably so. is only a consummation of a long period

individual dealing with men as their of study and of a long succession of Creator, their Ruler, or, perhaps, their HISTORY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY

interpreters. The conclusion to which Friend. The Oriental thinks of God as INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF JAPAN

modern theology has come has hardly, the Great Spirit breathing through men (AN), By Katsuro Hara. G. P. Putnam's

even in modern times, been more radi. who variously interpret him, as the air Sons, New York. $2.JO. The author is a professor in the College

cally expressed than by Luther in the breathes through the pipes of an organ of Literature of Kyoto University, and

rule: "What urges Christ is Scripture, whose various voices are the utterances his book affords an excellent synopsis of

though written by a Judas; what does of one infinite and all-pervading breath. the history of his country from the

not stand this test is not Scripture His thought finds expression in the folseventh century to the restoration of the though written by an Apostle."

lowing verse, which Mr. Hume puts as a

motto at the beginning of his volume: Meidji and the granting of a Constitu

SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF RELIGION (THE). tion in 1889. Of interest to those who

The One who, himself without color,
By George Willis Cooke.

Stratford seek knowledge of Japan's past, it will Company, Boston. $3.70.

by the manifold application of his be found useful in achieving greater

power This author presents the human

Distributes many colors in his hidden familiarity with the traditions of her origins of religion in terms of the social

purpose, art and literature. history of the race and emphasizes those

And into whom, its end and its be-
pliases which reflect and interpret the

ginning, the whole world dis-
needs and aspirations of mankind. He

solves-He is God!
JOHN KEATS MEMORIAL VOLUME (THE). traces religion through the tribal, feudal, May He endow us with clear intel-
Issued by the Keats House Memorial Com-
national, international, and universal

lect! mittee. The John Lane Company, New York.

phases of its evolution. “Whether re- Professor William James, in a letter This sumptuous volume, a notable ex

ligion comes to man through instinct, to Henri Bergson, expresses the same ample of English book-making at its

intuition, philosophical insight, revela- idea, though not necessarily his own best, was issued on the centenary of the

tion, or some form of supernatural inter- philosophy, in the following sentence: poet's death by the Committee which revention, it must ultimately be brought

"The brain is an organ of filtration for cently purchased as a permanent memowithin the compass of the human under

spiritual life." It is this radical differ. rial the house in Hampstead in which standing and fitted to the needs of

ence between the assumptions, or the the poet resided in 1818 and composed hoping and sorrowing men and women.

approaches, or the points of view, or the file "Ode to a Nightingale." That the It must be reduced to practice, fitted to

methods of thought, which leads Rudfunds acquired by its sale will go daily utilities, and made to conform to

yard Kipling to say that East and West individual and social demands. toward the purchase and maintenance

can never meet. Yet if the Oriental is of this memorial should of itself assure SPIRITUAL VOICES IN MODERN LITERA

too dreamy and mystical in his univerthe volume a wide distribution among TURE. By Trevor H. Davies. The George

salism, the Americans are too crass in lovers of poetry. To collectors of Keats- H. Doran Company, New York. $2.50. their individualism; and, while it is iana it affords a unique opportunity to A series of ten essays originally de true that neither can adopt the phi. acquire an important contribution to the livered by Dr. Davies as lecturer in the losophy of the other, it is also true that body of critical literature and personalia Metropolitan Church, Toronto. Criti- each can learn something by comprerelating to the poet.

cism of these lectures as essays in the hending the philosophy of the other. To But this volume is something more interpretation of literature is disarmed the average American reader Professor than a collector's book. Planned to cele- by the author's statement that he "was Hume's book will be an enigma; but to brate the beauty which is peculiarly the not attempting essays in literature, but the catholic-minded student it will be common heritage of England and Amer. the enforcement of Christian truth." valuable both for the interpretation it ica, it gives the lover of literature an The fact that these two ainis should be brings and for the intellectual stimulant Inicght into those qualities of spirit considered absolutely disparate by the which it furnishes.



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dividuals or of organizations. Employes THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD AND

were entirely free to vote for any emMR. ROGERS'S ARTICLE

ployes whom they themselves selected.

The ballot gave the union and non-union N Sherman Rogers's article on "Employee Representation," which is published in this issuc, man equal rights to select union or nonthere is an account of the methods employed for co-operation between employer and employer

union men to represent them. in the Pennsylvania Railroad. It seemed to us desirable, if any criticism or comment were to be made on this article by the authorities of the railroad, our readers should have it at the same

Representatives were elected. New time with the article. As the article was about to go to press, therefore, we sent a galley proof

schedules of working conditions that are to General W. W. Atterbury, Vice-President of the Pennsylvania in Charge of Operation, with a

mutually satisfactory have been agreed letter, and received a reply. Both letters are subjoined:

to and are in effect or are now being THE OUTLOOK COMPANY

The employe representatives who have formulated for all classes of employes Three-Eighty-One Fourth Avenue been elected have acted in good faith

concerned. New York E. H. A.-C. with the management. The manage

Officers of the Shop Crafts Union inEnclosure

ment has acted in good faith with them. structed their membership not to vote.

August 17, 1921. Dear Sir:

Manifestly, the rights and interests of The balance of the employes did vote, We enclose you a galley proof of an

these representatives and the employes however, and the Company recognized article on "Employee Representation"

whom they represent must be recog. the representatives so elected. written by our Industrial Corresponnized and protected.

The union officers, employed by the dent, Sherman Rogers. There are some

This decision of the Labor Board, railroad, could have nominated them. pointed remarks in this article regard

however, would destroy real employe selves and instructed their membership ing the adoption of employee representarepresentation on this railroad.

to vote for them, if they so desired, and tion by the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Our objection to the decision is based the management would have recognized While neither The Outlook nor Sheron the grounds that:

them as representatives if they had been man Rogers would change the article in

1. It makes a national labor union, elected. the slightest degree as set up in the

whose' officers are not employes, eligible As a matter of fact, some classes of enclosed proof, unless of course to corto represent our men.

employes have already elected union rect any possible errors in grammar or

2. It discriminates in favor of the men to represent them. The manage. typography, we would gladly print any

union itself as a candidate and against ment has recognized these representacriticism within reasonable limits which the non-union candidate.

tives and is now dealing with them. you may make of his remarks in the

3. If the union as an organization It is contrary to custom in any city, issue in which his article appears, which

were elected, the non-union man would state or national election to require a new will be under date of August 31st.

have no voice in determining the condi- election simply because some men refuse Yours very truly, tions under which he must work.

or fail to exercise their right to vote. The Editors of The Outlook.

4. It gives thousands of men who are Our Presidents are invariably elected by (Signed) ERNEST HAMLIN ABBOTT.

no longer employes an opportunity to a minority of the eligible voters. Gen. W. W. Atterbury, Vice President,

vote on equal terms with men who are One of the most objectionable features Pennsylvania Railroad, employes.

of this decision is the requirement that Executive Oilices, Philadelphia, Pa.

5. The whole effect of the ballot re. men who are not now employes should quired under the decision is to compel

be furnished a ballot and should be perthe non-union man to join the union in mitted to vote on equal terms with emTHE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD COMPANY General Office, Broad Street Station

order to have a voice in matters affect. ployes. The Labor Board says men Philadelphia ing his welfare.

"who have been laid off or furloughed W. W. Atterbury, Vice President in charge of Operation.

6. It violates a fundamental right of and are entitled to return to the service August 17, 1921.

employer and employes to deal directly under seniority rules ... if accessible Ur. Ernest H. Abbott,

with each other in settling their own shall be furnished a ballot and be perSecretary, The Outlook Company, affairs.

mitted to vote." There is no sanction in 381 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 7. It would destroy the validity of law or otherwise for such a ruling. Dear Sir:

contracts freely entered into between Many of these furloughed men are now Thank you very much for your letter the officers of this railroad and their working in outside industries. Under of August 15th, enclosing galley proof employes although these contracts are this ruling, employes of other industries of an article entitled “Employee Repre- mutually satisfactory.

would be negotiating working conditions sentation" written by Mr. Sherman 8. It would not be fair to the em- for our employes. Rogers, which will appear in the August ployes or to the railroad, to say nothing Furthermore, the Labor Board in an 31st issue of The Outlook. about the public.

Addendum to Decision No. 218, copy of In my judgment, this article is a very Briefly, the facts of this case are as which is enclosed, indicates very plainly fair statement of the underlying princi- follows:

that it is not infallible, and that its deples and success of employe representa- The management is doing its utmost cisions are subject to change in vital tion and covers in a general way what to carry out the provisions of the Trans- particulars. In this Addendum the

are trying to accomplish on the portation Act in getting together with Labor Board changes its original decis. Pennsylvania Railroad in our efforts to its employes on a mutually satisfactory ion to the extent of providing for a get together with our employes on basis. At the same time we have con- secret instead of an open ballot (the mutually satisfactory basis.

sistently and earnestly tried to comply Pennsylvania Railroad ballot was a real, It may interest you to know, however, with previous decisions of the Labor secret ballot). And the Labor Board that we feel that the recent decision of Board.

says frankly that the open ballot origthe United States Railroad Labor Board Announcement was made by the Com- inally proposed was "the established in the case of the Shop Crafts Union if pany on May 20, 1921, that all employes method of taking a ballot among railapplied to any of the industries men- would be given an opportunity to have way labor organizations." It is evident tioned in this article would completely a voice in the management in matters that this form of ballot would be sub dest roy real employe representation. affecting their welfare."

versive of real democratic representaEmploye representation on the Penn- All were given an opportunity to vote tion and would be in the interest of sylvania Railroad is now in effect. for employe representatives, of their autocratic union domination.

A majority of our employes want to own selection, whether union or non- I am very grateful for the opportunity deal with the management through em- union men. All were urged to exercise presented in your letter of offering these ploye representatives.

their right of franchise without inter- suggestions in connection with Mr. About 175,000 employes on this rail- ference on the part of officers or subor- Rogers' article, for we feel that the road are interested in rules covering dinate officials.

whole principle of employe representaworking conditions. About 117,000 of A fair, impartial and secret ballot was tion is at stake in this issuie. these employes have expressed a desire distributed to all employes. No candi

Very truly yours, ro negotiate rules through employe rep. dates were mentioned and no names

W, W. ATTERBURY, posentatives. were printed on the ballot either of in

Vice President.




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