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Jerome, out of ancient authors, affirms, that "he gathered together an incredible army out of the countries beyond Babylon; and, contrary to the league, he marched with this army, Ptolemy Philopaor being dead, against his son, who was then four years old, and was called Ptolemy Epiphanes, or the illustrious."* Justin also says, that "Ptolemy Philopator, king of Egypt, being dead, in contempt of the childhood of his son, who being left heir to the kingdom, was a prey even to his domestics, Antiochus, king of Syria, resolved to take possession of Egypt;"+ as if the thing were as easily executed, as resolved.
But Antiochus was not the only one who rose up against young Ptolemy. Others also confederated with him And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision, but they shall fall,-ver. 14. Agathocles was in possession of the young king's person; and "he was so dissolute and proud in the exercise of his power, that the provinces, which before were subject to Egypt rebelled, and Egypt itself was disturbed by seditions ;" and the people of Alexandria rose up in a body against Agathocles, and caused him, and his sister, and mother, and their associates to be put to death. "Philip too, the king of Macedon, entered into a league with Antiochus, to divide Ptolemy's dominions between them, and each to take the parts which lay nearest and most convenient to him." And this is the meaning, as Jerome concludes, of the prophet's saying, "that many shall rise up together against the king of the south." Also the robbers of thy quoque elephantos alios accepit, ut jam centum quinquaginta bestias haberet, &c. [Translated in the text.] Polyb. lib. 11, p. 652.
* - Incredibilem de superioribus locis Babylonis exercitum congregavit. Et Ptolemæo Philopatore mortuo adversum filium ejus, qui tunc quatuor annorum erat, et vocabatur Ptolemæus Exa, rupto fœdere movit exercitum. [Translated in the text.] Hieron. in locum, col. 1124.
+ Mortuo Ptolemæo Philopatore rege Ægypti, contemptaque parvuli filii ejus ætate, qui in spem regni relictus prædæ etiam domesticis erat, Antiochus rex Syriæ occupare Ægyptum statuit. [Translated in the text.] Justin. lib. 31, cap. 1.
Polyb. lib. 15, p. 712, &c., edit. Casaubon. Tantæ enim dissolutionis et superbiæ Agathocles fuit, ut subditæ prius Ægypto provinciæ rebellarent; ipsaque Ægyptus seditionibus vexaretur. [Translated in the text.] Hieron. ibid. Justin. lib. 30, cap. 2.
§ Philippus quoque rex Macedonum, et magnus Antiochus pace facta, adversum Agathoclen et Ptolemæum Epiphanem dimicarent, suk hac conditione, ut proximas civitates regno suo singuli de regno Ptolemæi jungerent. [Translated in the text. Hieron. ibid. Polyb. lib. 3, p. 159; lib. 15, p. 707. Justin. ibid.
Et hoc est quod nunc dicit multos consurgere adversus regem Austri, Ptolemæom scilicet Epiphanem, qui erat ætate puerili. [This is the meaning of the prophet's sayur,
people.' It is literally the sons of the breakers,'* the sons of the revolters, the factious and refractory ones, of thy people;' for the Jews were at that time broken into factions, part adhering to the king of Egypt, and part to the king of Syria; but the majority were for 'breaking away' from their allegiance to Ptolemy. In the Vulgate it is translated, the sons also of the prevaricators of thy people;' in the Septuagint, the sons of the pestilent ones of thy people.' What shall they do? shall exalt themselves to establish the vision;' shall revolt from Ptolemy, and thereby shall, contribute greatly, without their knowing it, towards the accomplishment of this prophecy concerning the calamities, which should be brought upon the Jewish nation by the succeeding kings of Syria. That the Jews revolted from Ptolemy, is evident from what Jerome affirms, that "the provinces, which before were subject to Egypt, rebelled:" and heathen anthors intimate, that Antiochus took possession of the cities of Cole-Syria and Palestine without any opposition,§ at least they do not mention any. But they shall fall; for Scopas came with a powerful army from Ptolemy, and Antiochus, being engaged in other parts, soon reduced the cities of Cole-Syria and Palestine to their former obedience. He subdued the Jews in the winter season, placed a garrison in the castle of Jerusalem, and returned with great spoils to Alexandria; for he was noted above all men for his avarice and rapacity. The expression of Josephus is remarkable, that "the Jews submitted to Scopas by force," but " to Antiochus they submitted willingly."**
It was in the absence of Antiochus, that these advantages were obtained by the arms of Egypt, but his presence soon turned the scale, and changed the whole face of affairs. So the king of the north shall come. and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced
now, many shall rise together against the king of the south, namely, against Ptolemy Epiphanes, who was then in a state of childhood.] Hieron. ibid.
* 70 13775 1351. [Translated in the text. Vide 1 Sam. xxv. 10.
Filii quoque prævaricatorum populi tui.-Vulg. OF VITO 201 To σ. Sept. [Translated in the text.]
Ut subditæ prius Ægypto provinciæ rebellarent. [Translated in the text.] Hieron. ibid.
Polyb. lib. 3, p. 159. Appian. de Bell. Syr. in principio.
Hieron. col. 1125. Polyb. apud Joseph. et Joseph. Antiq. lib. 12, cap. 3, sect. 3, p. 520, 521, edit. Hudson.
¶ Polyb. lib. 17, p. 773.
** Hoteμsμever yар avтw @роσεleтo, oppugnata enim, in ejus partes concessit [Translated in the text.] 'Exoiw; duto w;odeJevto Iudar. Judæi ultro deditionem fecerunt. [Translated in the text.] Joseph. ibid.
cities,' or the city of munitions, and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand. But he that cometh against him, shall de according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed,'-ver. 15 and 16. "Antiochus being willing to recover Judea, and the cities of Colo-Syria and Palestine, which Scopas had taken, came again into those parts. Scopas was sent again to oppose him, and Antiochus fought with him near the sources of the river Jordan, destroyed a great part of his army, and pursued him to Sidon, where he shut him up with ten thousand men, and closely besieged him. Three famous generals were sent from Egypt to raise the siege; but they could not succeed, and at length Scopas was forced by famine, to surrender upon the hard conditions of having life only granted to him and his men; they were obliged to lay down their arms, and were sent away stript and naked."* This event, I conceive, was principally intended by his casting up a mount, and taking the city of munitions;' for Sidon was an exceeding strong city in its situation and fortifications. But if we take the phrase more generally, as our translators understand it, Antiochus, after the success of this battle and of this siege, reduced other countries and took other fenced cities,' which are mentioned by Polybius, † and recited by Jerome out of the Greek and Roman historians. The arms of the south' could not withstand' him neither his chosen people;' neither Scopas, nor the other great generals, nor the choicest troops who were sent against him: but he 'did according to his own will, and none' was able to stand before him; for he soon rendered himself master of all Colo-Syria and Palestine. Among others, the Jews§ also readily submitted to him, went forth in solemn procession to meet him, received him splendidly into their city, supplied him with plenty of provisions for all his army and elephants, and assisted him in besieging the
* Antiochus enim volens Judæam recuperare, et Syriæ urbes plurimas, Scopam ducem Ptolemæi, juxta fontes Jordanis, ubi nunc Paneas condita est, inito certamine fugavit, et cum decem millibus armatorum obsedit clausum in Sidone.
Ob quem liberandum misit Ptolemæus duces inclytos Eropum, et Menoclem, et Damoxenum. Sed obsidionem solvere non potuit: donec fame superatus Scopas manus dedit, et nudus cum sociis dimissus est.-Hieron. ibid. [Translated in the text.] Joseph. ibid. Valesi Excerpta ex Polyb. p. 77, &c.
† Polyb. apud Joseph. ibid. Hieron. ibid.
Liv. lib. 33. cap. 19. Justin. lib. 31, cap. 1. Polyb Legat. 72, p. 893.
garrison, which Scopas had left in the citadel. Thus he stood in the glorious land,' and his power was established in Judea. Which y his hand shall be consumed? So this passage is generally unaerstood and translated, and commentators hereupon observe that Josephus relates, that “Antiochus the Great reigning in Asia, the Jews, their country being wasted, suffered many things, as well as the inhabitants of Celo-Syria. For Antiochus warring against Ptolemy Philopator, and against his son Ptolemy Epiphanes, it was their fate to suffer, whether he was conqueror, or was beaten, so that they were like a ship tost in a tempest, and lying between both were sure to suffer, which ever side prevailed."* But then they could not be said to be 'consumed by the hand of Antiochus particularly; they were consumed as much or more by Scopas: and the word is capable of another interpretation, which agrees as well with the truth of the Hebrew, and better with the truth of history. It may be translated, Which shall be perfected,' or prosper, or florish, in his hand.' The original will well admit of this sense, and the event confirms it. For Antiochus, to reward and encourage the Jews in their fidelity and obedience to him, gave orders that their city should be repaired,† and the dispersed Jews should return and inhabit it; that they should be supplied with cattle and other provisions for sacrifices; that they should be furnished with timber and other materials for finishing and adorning the temple; that they should live all according to the laws of their country; that the priests and elders, the scribes and Levites should be exempted from the capitation and other taxes; that those who then inhabited the city, or should return to it within a limited time, should be free from all tribute for three years, and the third part of their tribute should be remitted to them for ever after; and also that as many as had been taken and forced into servitude, should be released,
* Τις γαρ Ιεδαίος, ἐπ' Αντίοχε το Μεγαλυ βασιλεύοντος της Ασια ς, έτυχεν αυτες τ πολλα ταλαιπωρησαι της γης ἀντων κακωμένης, και τις την Κολην Συριαν νεμόμενες πολιμοντος γαρ αυτα προς τον Ειπατορα Πτολεμαιον, και προς τον υιον αυτε Πτολεμαιον, τον κληθέντα Επιφανη, κακοπαθειν συνέβαινεν ἀυτοις και νικωντος, και πταιοντος ταυτα πασχειν ὡς δεν ἀπελειπον χειμαζόμενης νέως, και πονεμένης ἐκατερωθεν ὑπο τα κλυδωνος, μεταξύ της ευπραγία, της Αντιοχή, και της έπι θατερον άυτο τρίπης των πραγματων κείμενοι, Regnants in Asia Antiocho Magno, accidit ut tum Judæi terra eorum vastata, tum qui ColenSyriam incolebant, multa adversa paterentur. Eo enim belligerante adversus Ptolemæum Eupatorem [alibi constanter Philopatorem eum vocat] et ejus filium cognomine Epiphanem, contigit illis, ut si is superior fuerit, affligerentur: si inferior, plane eadem paterentur: adeo ut haud dissimiles essent navi in tempestate, fluctibus utrinque vexatæ, ut qui in medio jacerent, dum et Antiocho res prospere cederent et in contrarias partes mutarentur.-Joseph ibid. [Translated in the text.]
Vide Epist. Antiochi apud Joseph. ibid.
and their substance and goods be restored to them. Where Grotius remarks, that what is said about finishing' and 'completing' the temple, answers exactly to the word perfected' or consummated' in the Hebrew.* Thus also the seventy translate it, and thus Theodoret explains it; "And it shall be perfected by his hand,' that is, it shall prosper for so likewise Josephus hath taught us in his history, that the Jews of their own accord having received Antiochus, were greatly honoured by him."
Antiochus the Great, like other ambitious princes, the more he attained, aspired the more to conquest and dominion. He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him: thus shall he do, and he shall give him the daughter of women corrupting her,' or, to corrupt her but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him,'-ver. 17. 'He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom,' or rather' He shall also set his face to enter by force the whole kingdom' and Antiochus not contented with having rent the principal provinces from Egypt, was forming schemes to seize upon the whole kingdom.§ And upright ones with him; thus shall he do' If this translation be right, the upright ones' here intended are the Jews, who marched under the banners of Antiochus, and are so denominated to distinguish them from the other idolatrous soldiers. But the seventy and the Vulgar Latin exhibit a much more probable translation, that he shall set things right,' or 'make agreement with him,' as the phrase is used before, ver. 6. Antiochus would have seized upon the kingdom of Egypt by force: but as he
* Ubi áraρtionva est quod hic no quod alibi per ourλ (consummare,) alibi per τελειων (finire,) aut πληρον (implere,) vertunt LXX. [Where ἀπαρτισθῆναι ο perfect is the same as here; which the LXX in some places render by our (to consummate,) in others, by reλev (to finish,) or λnper (to complete) Grot. in locum.
† Και τελεσθήσεται ἐν τη χειρι αὐτο. [And it shall be finished by his hand.] Sept. * [Και συντελεσθήσεται ὂν τη χειρι αύτο.] Τετεςιν εὐοδωθήσεται' έτω γαρ ήμας και Ιωσηππος δια της ίςοριας ἐδίδαξεν ὅτι αὐτόματοι τον 'Αντιοχον οι Ιεδαίοι δεξαμενοι σφοδρα ὑπ' αὐτο Tiμnnar. Hoc est prosperc ei succedet. Sic enim nos idem Josephus docuit in historia. Judæos Antiocho ultro accepto, magno in honore ab illo habitos fuisse. [Translated in the text.] Theod. in locum. vol. 2, p. 681, edit. Sirmondi.
§ Πατα σπεδην ὁ Αντιοχος ἀπηει, ὡς Αίγυπτον ἔρημον άρχοντος ἀρπασομενος. Properavit in Ægyptum, ut occuparct orbatam principe [And Antiochus departed in haste that he might seize Egypt while deprived of its prince.] Appian. de Bell. Syr. p. 88, edit. Steph.; p. 144, edit, Tollii. Antiochus rex Syriæ occupare Ægyptum statuit. chus the king of Syria resolved to seize upon Egypt.] Justin. lib. 31, cap. I.
Kas iela warta μer' auth moines.-Sept. Et recta faciet cum eo.-Vulg. [TransJated in the text.]