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says the historian. The king of the south shall not stand,' says the prophet; "Ptolemy was afraid, and fled," says the historian. 'Many shall fall down slain,' says the prophet; " and many were wounded to death," says the historian. The misfortunes of Ptolemy Philometor are by the prophet ascribed principally to the treachery and baseness of his own ministers and subjects: 'for they shall forecast devices against him; Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him.' And it is certain that Eulæus was a very wicked minister, and bred up the young king in luxury and effeminancy, contrary to his natural inclination.* Ptolemy Macron, too, who was governor of Cyprus, revolted from him, and delivered up that important island to Antiochus ; and for the reward of his treason, was admitted into the number of the king's principal friends, and was made governor of Colo-Syria and Palestine. Nay, even the Alexandrians, seeing the distress of Philometor, renounced their allegiance;‡ and taking his younger brother, Euergetes, or Physcon, proclaimed him king instead of the elder brother.
History hath not informed us by what means Ptolemy Philometor came into the hands of Antiochus, whether he was taken prisoner, or surrendered himself of his own accord; but that he was in the hands of Antiochus, it is evident beyond all contradiction. And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed,'-ver. 27. After Antiochus was come to Memphis, and the greater part of Egypt had submitted to him, he and Philometor did frequently eat and converse together at one table:' but notwithstanding this appearance of peace and friendship, their hearts' were really bent to do mischief,' and they spoke lies' the one to the other. For Antiochus pretended to take care of his nephew Philometor's interest, and promised to restore him to the crown, at the same time that he was plotting his ruin, and was contriving means to weaken the two brothers in a war against each other, that the conqueror, wearied
* Valesii Excerpta ex Diodoro, p. 311, 313.
+ Valesii Excerpta ex Polybio, p. 126. 2 Macc. x. 13. Macc. iii. 38. 2 Macc viii. &
Porphyr. apud Eusebii Chron. Græc. p. 60 et 68.
§ Nulli dubium est quin Antiochus pacem cum Ptolemæo fecerit, et inierit cum eo convivium, et dolos machinatus sit, &c.-Hieron, ibid. col. 1128. [There is no doubt that Antiochus concluded a peace with Ptolemy, feasted with him, and meditated treachery]
Polyb. Legat 84 p. 909, edit. Casaubon. Liv. lib. 44, cap. 19; lib. 45, cap. 11.
and exhausted, might fall an easier prey to him. On the other side, Philometor laid the blame of the war on his governor, Euæus*, professed great obligations to his uncle, and seemed to hold the crown by his favour, at the same time that he was resolved to take the first opportunity of breaking the league with him, and of being reconciled to his brother: and accordingly, as soon as ever Antiochus was withdrawn, he made proposals of accommodation, and by the mediation of their sister, Cleopatra, a peace was made between the two brothers, who agreed to reign jointly in Egypt and Alexandria. But still this artifice and dissimulation did not prosper' on either side. For neither did Antiochus obtain the kingdom,† neither did Philometor utterly exclude him, and prevent his returning with an army as each intended and expected, by the measures which he had taken: for these wars were not to have an end' till the time appointed,' which was not yet come.
Antiochus, hoping to become absolute master of Egypt, more easily by the civil war between the two brothers than by the exer tion of his own forces, left the kingdom for a while, and returned into Syria. Then shall he return into his land with great riches, and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land,'-ver. 28. He did indeed ' return with great riches;' for the spoils which he took in Egypt were of immense value. The writer of the first book of Maccabees says, "Thus they got the strong cities in the land of Egypt, and he took the spoils thereof. And after that Antiochus had smitten Egypt, he returned." Polybius, describing his opulence, and the great shew that he made of silver, gold, jewels, and the like, affirms, that "he took them partly out of Egypt, having broken the league with the young king, Philometor."§ Returning too from Egypt, he set 'his heart against the holy covenant.' For it happened while he was in Egypt, that a false report was spread of his death. Jason thinking this a favourable opportunity for him.
* Liv. ibid. Polyb. Legat. 82, p. 908. Porphyr. apud Eusebium, ibid.
† Et nihil profecerit; quia regnum ejus non potuerit obtinere, &c.—Hieron. ibid. ¡And it did not prosper; for he could not obtain his kingdom, &c.]
1 Macc. i. 19, 20.
$αὶ ταυτα δε παντα συντελεσθη, ἐξ ὧν τα μεν ἐκ της Αιγυπτυ ἐνοσφισατο παρασπονδησας του Φιλομήτορα βασιλέα παιδισκον ὄντα, Omnia porro hæc sic absoluta et exculta sunt partim iis quibus in Ægypto, perfide violato fœderis pacto, regem Ptolemæum Philometora adhuc puerulum defraudaverat.—Polyb. apud Athenæum, lib. 5, p. 195, edit. Casaubon. [Translated in the text]
|| 2 Macc. v. 5-23. 1 Macc. i. 20-28. Joseph. Antiq. lib. 12, cap. 5, sect. 3, p. 532, lib. 13, cap. 8, sect. 2, p 582.-De Bell. Jud. lib. 1, cap. 1, sect. 1, p. 958.
to recover the high-priesthood, marched to Jerusalem with a thousand men, assaulted and took the city, drove Menelaus into the castle, and exercised great cruelties upon the citizens. Antiochus hearing of this, concluded that the whole nation had revolted; and being informed that the people had made great rejoicings at the report of his death, he determined to take a severe revenge and went up with a great army, as well as with great indignation, against Jerusalem. He besieged and took the city by force of arms, slew forty thousand of the inhabitants, and sold as many more for slaves, polluted the temple and altar with swine's flesh, profaned the holy of holies by breaking into it, took away the golden vessels and other sacred treasures, to the value of eighteen hundred talents, restored Menelaus to his office and authority, and constituted one Philip, by nation a Phrygian, in manners a barbarian, governor of Judea. When he had 'done' these 'exploits,' he 'retu: ned to his own land.' So says the writer of the first book of Maccabees, "When he had taken all away, he went into his own land, having made a great massacre, and spoken very proudly.' So likewise the author of the second book of Maccabees, "When Antiochus had carried out of the temple a thousand and eight hundred talents, he departed in all haste unto Antiochia."+ Josephus too, to the same purpose," When he had gotten possession of Jerusalem, he slew many of the adverse party; and having taken great spoils, he returned to Antioch." These things are not only recorded by Jews; for, as Jerome observes, "both the Greek and Roman history relates, that after Antiochus returned from Egypt, he came into Judea, that is, 'against the holy covenant,' and spoiled the temple, and took away a great quantity of gold; and having placed a garrison of Macedonians in the citadel, he returned into his own land."§
De Maccab. sect. 4, p. 1396. Polybius Megalopolitanus, Strabo Cappadox, Nicolaus Damascenus, Timagenes, Castor, et Apollodorus apud Joseph. contra Apion. lib. 2 p. 1369, edit. Hudson. Diodorus Siculus, Ex. lib. 34. Ecloga prima, p. 901, edit Rhod. et apud Photii Biblioth. cod. 244, p. 1149, edit. Rothom. 1653.
* 1 Macc. i. 24.
+ 2 Macc. v. 21.
† Εγκρατης δ ̓ ὗτος των Ιεροσολυμων γενομενος, πολλὰς ἀπεκτείνεν των ἐναντια φρονείται και χρήματα πολλα συλησας ὑπέςρεψεν εἰς ̓Αντιοχειαν. Ubi autem is in sua potestate habuit Hierosolyma, multos diversarum partium interfecit; magnaque pecuniæ vi direpta, Antiochiam rediit.— Joseph. Antiq. lib. 12, cap. 5, sect. 3, p. 532, edit. Hudson Translated in the text.]
Et Græca et Romana narrat historia: postquam reversus est Antiochus expulsus ab Ægyptiis, venisse eum in Judæam, hoc est, adversus Testamentum sanctum et spoliasse templum, et auri tulisse quam plurimum: positoque in arce præsidio Macedonum reversum in terram suam.—Hieron. in locum, col. 1129. [Translated in the text.]
After two years Antiochus marched into Egypt again.* the time appointed' (and hinted at before, ver 27,) he shall return, and come toward the south, but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter;' or, as it is translated in the Vulgar Latin, "the latter shall not be like the former."+ For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do, he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant,'-ver. 29, 30. Antiochus perceiving that his fine woven policy was all unravelled, and that the two brothers, instead of wasting and ruining each other in war, had provided for their mutual safety and interest by making peace, "was so offended, that he prepared war much more eagerly and maliciously against both, than he had before against one of them. Early therefore in the spring he set forwards with his army, and passing through Colo-Syria came into Egypt, and the inhabitants of Memphis and the other Egyptians, partly out of love, partly out of fear, submitting to him, he came by easy marches down to Alexandria." But this' expedition was not as' successful as his former' ones; the reason of which is assigned in the next words, the ships of Chittim coming against him.' In the fifth dissertation it was proved, that the coast of Chittim' and the land of Chittim' is a general name for Greece Italy, and the countries and islands in the Mediterranean. The ships of Chittim' therefore are the ships which brought the Roman ambassadors, who came from Italy, touched at Greece, and arrived in Egypt, being sent by the senate, at the supplication of the Pto Jemies, to command a peace between the contending kings. The story was related out of the Greek and Roman historians in the last dissertation; it is needless therefore to repeat it here: it will be sufficient to add what St. Jerome says upon the occasion: "When the two brothers, Ptolemies, the sons of Cleopatra, were besieged by their uncle in Alexandria, the Roman ambassadors came one of whom, Marcus Popillius Lenas, when he had found him standing
* Et post biennium rursum contra Ptolemæum exercitum congregasse, et venisse ad austrum. [And after two years he again collected an army against Ptolemy, and came into the south.] Hieron. ibid.
+ Non erit priori simile novissimum. [Translated in the text.] Vulg.
- adeo est offensus, ut multo acrius infestiusque adversus duos, quam ante, adversus unum, pararet bellum:-ipse primo vere cum exercitu Ægyptum petens, in Coelen-Syriam processit.~[receptus ab iis qui] ad Memphim incolebant, et ab cæteris Ægyptiis, partim voluntate, partim metu, ad Alexandriam modicis itineribus descendit [Translated in the text.] Liv. lib. 45. cap. 11, 12.
on the shore, and had delivered to him the decree of the senate, hv which he was commanded to depart from the friends of the Roman people, and to be content with his own empire; and when he would have deferred the matter to consult with his friends; Popillius is said to have made a circle in the sand with the stick that he held in his hand, and to have circumscribed the king, and to have said, The senate and people of Rome order, that in that place you answer what is your intention. With these words being frightened he said, If this pleases the senate and people of Rome, we must depart;" and so presently drew off his army.* The reason of the Romans acting in this imperious manner, and of Antiochus so readily obeying, was, as Polybius suggests,† the total conquest that Paulus Æmilius, the Roman consul, had just made of the kingdom of Macedonia. It was without doubt a great mortification to Antiochus, to be so humbled, and so disappointed of his expected prey. Therefore he grieved, and returned.' "He led back his forces, into Syria," as Polybius says, "grieved and groaning, but thinking it expedient to yield to the times for the present." And had indignation against the holy covenant;' for he vented all his anger upon the Jews. he detached Appollonius with an army of twenty-two thousand men, who coming to Jerusalem slew great multitudes, plundered the city, set fire to it in several places, and pulled down the houses and walls round about it. Then they builded, on an eminence in the city of David, a strong fortress, which might command the temple; and issuing from thence, they fell on those who came
* Quumque duo fratres Ptolemæi Cleopatræ filii, quorum avunculus erat, obsiderentur Alexandriæ, legatos venisse Romanos: quorum unus Marcus Popilius Lenas, quum eum stantem invenisset in littore, et senatus consultum dedisset, quo jubebatur ab amicis populi Romani recedere, et suo imperio esse contentus; et ille ad amicorum responsionem consilium distulisset; orbem dicitur fecisse in arenis baculo quem tenebat in manu, et circumscripsisse regem atque dixisse: Senatus et populus Romanus præcipiunt ut in isto loco respondeas, quid consilii geras. Quibus dictis ille perterritus ait: Si hoc placet senatui et populo Romano, recedendum est; atque ita statim movit exercitum. [Translated in the text.] Hieron. ibid.
† Μη γαρ γινομενη τότε και πιςευθεντος, ἐκ ἀν μοι δοκεί, πειθάρχησαι τοις ἐπιταττομενοις AVTOYO. Nam hoc nisi accidisset, neque de ea re constitisset, nunquam, opinor, esset adductus Antiochus, ut imperata faceret. [Unless this had happened, and been credited, am of opinion that Antiochus would never have obeyed these orders.] Polyb. Legat. 92, 917, edit. Casaubon.
† Οὗτος μεν ἀπηγετο τας δυνάμεις εἰς την Αγριαν [Συρίαν ut putat Usserius] βαρυνόμενης και gvwr sixwv de Torg naipus naтα to waрov. Antiochus copias Agriam [Syriam] suas, gravate ille quidem ac gemens, sed tamen abduxit, in presentia tempori cedendum ratus. [Trans lated in the text.] Polyb. ibid. p. 916.
§ 1 Macc. i. 29--40; 2 Macc. v. 24-26.