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Othman dominions, and the Russians to the north. Persia hath indeed of late years been miserably torn and distracted by intestine divisions; but when it shall unite again in a settled government under one sovereign, it may become again, as it hath frequently been, a dangerous rival and enemy to the Othman emperor. The power of Russia is growing daily; and it is a current tradition among the common people in Turkey, that their empire shall one time or other be destroyed by the Russians. Sir Paul Rycaut, in his account of the Present State of the Greek Church, speaking of the respect and reverence which the Muscovites have for the see of Constantinople, says also that "the Greeks, on the other side, have an esteem and affection for the Muscovites, as for those, whom ancient prophecies mentioned to be designed by God for their avengers and deliverers in after ages.' Which, if it proveth nothing more, yet proveth that the Greek church interpreteth this prophecy much in the same sense as we explain it. However this may be, the Porte is at all times jealous of the junction of the two powers of Persia and Russia, and exerts all its policy to prevent it. They are certainly two very formidable neighbours to the Turks; and who can say what tidings may or may not come from thence to trouble the Porte? who can say, how unlikely soever it be at present, that they may not hereafter be made instruments of Providence in the restoration of the Jews? Whatever be the motive and occasion, the Turks shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.' The original word, which we translate utterly to make away,' signifies to anathematize, to consecrate, to devote to utter perdition,' so that it strongly implies, that this war should be made upon a religious account. And he shall plant the tabernacles of his camp between the seas in the glorious holy mountain.' It is a notion advanced by some commentators, that here both the Turk and the Pope are signified, the former of whom hath fixed his seat between the Mediterranean and Euxine seas, at Constantinople, and the latter between the Mediterranean and Adriatic, at Rome; both Antichrists, the one without, the other within the temple of God. But such notions are more ingenious than solid, and have rather the resemblance of worth than the substance. Between the seas in the glorious holy
* Chap 3, p. 83.
Anathematizavit, anathemate vel anathematı, internecioni, perditioni devovit: 'consecravit, devotum effecit.-Buxtorf. (He anathematized, devoted by a curse or to a curse, to utter destruction, to perdition; he consecrated or devoted.] See Poole, and his additional commentators.
mountain' must denote, as we have shown, some part of the holy land. There the Turk shall encamp with all his power, ' yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him,' shall help him effectually, or deliver him. The same times and the same events seem to be presignified in this prophecy, as in that of Ezekiel concerning Gog of the land of Magog.' He likewise is a northern power. He is represented as of Scythian extraction,* xxxviii. 2.
He cometh from his place out of the north parts'-ver. 15. His army, too, is described as consisting chiefly of horses and horsemen,'-ver. 4. He, likewise hath Ethiopia and Lybia with him,' -ver. 5. He shall come up against the people of Israel in the latter days,'-ver. 16, after their return from captivity, ver. 8. He, too, shall encamp 'upon the mountains of Israel,'-xxxix. 2. He shall also fall upon the mountains of Israel, and all the people that is with him,'-ver. 4. There the divine judgments shall overtake him, xxxviii. 22, 23, and God shall be magnified' and 'sanctified in the eyes of many nations'
At that time there shall be great tribulation, xii. 1,- such as never was since there was a nation, even to that same time:;' And after him shall be the general resurrection, ver 2,- and many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.' They certainly are guilty of manifest violence and injury to the sacred text, and rack and torture the words to confess a meaning which they never meant, who contend that nothing more was meant in this passage, than the persecution of the Jews by Antiochus, and the Maccabees after some time coming out of the holes and caves of the earth, wherein they had concealed themselves from the fury and cruelty of their enemies. These critics usually pretend to be strong advocates for the literal and obvious meaning of the prophecies: but here they pervert the plainest expressions into figures, and prefer the most forced to the most natural interpretation. The troubles under Antiochus were neither in degree nor in duration to be compared to what the nation had suffered under Nebuchadnezzar; so that the time of Antiochus could not be reckoned 'a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation.' The Maccabees too came out of their lurking holes and caves, and recovered their city, and cleansed the sanctuary, even before the death of Antiochus himself; but the resurrection in this place is described as something subsequent to the destruction of the king of the north. Besides, how could the Maccabees, who were a set of brave virtuous
* Vide Bocharti Phaleg. lib. 3, cap. 13, col. 187, &c.
men, zealously devoted to their religion, liberty, and country by coming forth from the rocks and caves to oppose the enemy in the open field, be said to awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt?' Such expressions can with truth and propriety be applied only to the general resurrection of the just and unjust and though it be said many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, yet that is no objection to the truth here delivered for as Theodoret observed long ago, "the prophet hath said many for all, in the same manner as St. Paul hath put many for all, when he said,"* If through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many,'-Rom. v. 15: and again, ver. 19,-As by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.' The proper conclusion of all is the general resurrection, and the consequent happiness of the wise and good; ver. 3,-' And they that be wise, shall shine as the brightness of the firmament, and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.'
The angel having thus finished his prophecy of the things noted in the scripture of truth,' an inquiry is made relating to the time of these events. It was said before, xi. 40,- At the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him :' and here the question is asked, ver. 6,- How long shall be the end of these wonders?'+ The answer is returned in the most solemn manner, ver. 7,-' that it shall be for a time, times, and a half.' A time, times, and a half,' as there hath been occasion to show in a former dissertation, are three prophetic years and a half; and three prophetic years and a half are 1260 prophetic days; and 1260 prophetic days are 1260 years. The same time therefore is prefixed for the desolation and oppression of the eastern church, as for the tyranny of the little horn, vii. 25, in the western church; and it is wonderfully remarkable, that the doctrine of Mohammed was first forged at Mecca, and the supremacy of the Pope was established by virtue of a grant from the wicked tyrant Phocas, in the very same year of
Πολλοι δε ἀντι το παντες ἐφη και γαρ ὁ μακαριος Παυλος ἀντι το παντες, οἱ πολλοί πεθεικε λέγων. κ. τ. λ. Multi autem pro omnes dixit. Etenim beatus quoque Pauus multi pro omnes posuit, cum dixit, &c. [Translated in the text.] Theod. in ocum. p. 693.
+ mixbon pp Usque quo finis mirabilium? [How long the end of wonderfu things?] Pagnin. Usque quo finis horum mirabilium? [How long the end of these wonderful things?] Vulg. Εως πότε το πέρας ὧν είρηκας των θαυμασίων; [How long the end of the wonders which thou hast declared?] Sept.
Christ 606. "It is to be observed, says Dean Prideaux,* that Mahomet began this imposture about the same time that the Bishop of Rome, by virtue of a grant from the wicked tyrant Phocas, first assumed the title of Universal Pastor, and thereon claimed to himself that supremacy which he hath been ever since endeavouring to usurp over the Christian church. [Phocas made this grant A. D. 606, which was the very year that Mahomet retired to his cave to forge that imposture there, which two years after, A. D. 608, he began to propagate at Mecca.] And from this time both having conspired to found themselves an empire, in imposture, their followers have been ever since endeavouring by the same methods, that is, those of fire and sword, to propagate it among mankind; so that Antichrist seems at this time to have set both his feet upon Christendom together, the one in the east, and the other in the west; and how much each hath trampled upon the church of Christ, the ages ever since succeeding have abundantly experienced." There is a farther notation of the time in the following words, And when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished;' when the Jews shall be recalled from their dispersion, then all these things shall receive their ful! and final completion. The prophet not sufficiently understanding this answer, inquired, ver. 8,- What' or how long shall be these latter times' or latter wonders ?'+ and it is answered again, ver. 11, that from the time of taking away the daily sacrifice, and setting up the abomination that maketh desolate, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.' The days still are prophetic days or years: but even if they were natural days, they could by no manner of computation be accommodated to the times of Antiochus Epiphanes. The setting up of the abomination of desolation' appears to be a general phrase, and comprehensive of various events. It is applied by the writer of the first book of Maccabees, i. 54, to the profanation of the temple by Antiochus, and his setting up the image of Jupiter Olympius upon the altar of God. It is applied by our Saviour, Matt. xxiv. 15, to the destruction of the city and temple by the Romans, under the conduct of Titus, in the reign of Vespasian. It may for the same reason be applied to the Roman emperor Adrian's building a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus, in the same place where the temple of God had stood; and to the misery of the Jews, and the desolation of Judea that followed. It
* Life of Mahomet, p. 13, 8th edit. See also Bishop Jewel's Reply to Harding
8. [Translated in the text.]
may with equal justice be applied to the Mohammedans inva ling and desolating Christendom, and converting the churches into mosques: and this latter event seemeth to have been particularly intended in this passage. If this interpretation be true, the religion of Mohammed will prevail in the east the space of 1260 years; and then a great and glorious revolution will follow; perhaps the restoration of the Jews, perhaps the destruction of Antichrist; but another still greater and more glorious will succeed and what can this be so probably as the full conversion of the Gentiles to the church of Christ, and the beginning of the millennium or reign of the saints upon earth? For, ver. 12,- blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days.' Here are then three different periods assigned, 1260 years, 1290 years, and 1335 years: and what is the precise time of their beginning, and consequently of their ending, as well as what are the great and signal events, which will take place at the end of each period, we can only conjecture, time alone can with certainty discover. If we are mistaken in our conjectures, it is no more than Mr. Mede* and other much more learned men have been, who have gone before us in this argument. It is indeed no wonder that we cannot fully understand and explain these things; for as the angel said to Daniel himself, ver. 4 & 9, though many should run to and fro,' should inquire and examine into these things, and thereby knowledge should be increased;' yet the full understanding of them is reserved for the time of the end, the words are closed up, and sealed till the time of the end.' But, however, the great uncertainty of these events, which remain yet to be fulfilled, cannot shake the credit and certainty of those particulars, which have already been accomplished. As Prideaux† judiciously observes, it is the nature of such prophecies not to be thoroughly understood, till they are thoroughly fulfilled. Not that such prophecies are therefore like the pagan oracles, of an ambiguous, equivocal, and delusive nature. Obscure they may be, but there is a wide difference between obscurity and equivocation. The pagan oracles were purposely worded in such a manner, that if they failed in one sense, they might hold good in another, though directly the con-trary: the scripture prophecies have a determined meaning, and
* See Mede's Works, b, 3, p. 717. De numeris Danielis.
+ Prid. Connect. part 2, b. 3, in the conclusion.
As in these instances.-Croesus Halym penetrans magnam pervertet opum vin