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440; who the man of sin, ib.; his exalting himself, 441; his sitting in the temple of

God, ib.; these things communicated before to the Thessalonians, 441-2; what liv.

dered the revelation of the man of sin, 442; his destruction foretold before his other

qualifications, ib.; his other qualifications described, 443. II. This prophecy

strangely mistaken and misapplied by some famous commentators, 443—53. Grotius's

application of it to Caligula and Simon Magus, refuted, 443--5. Hammond's appli-

cation of it to Simon Magus and the Gnostics, refuted, 445–447. Le Clerc's appli-

cation of it to the rebellious Jews and Simon the son of Gioras, refuted, 447—8.

Whitby's application of it to the Jewish nation with their bigh-priest and Sanhedrim,
refuted, 450 ; Wetstein's application of it to Titus, and the

Flavian family, refuted,

450-1 ; they bid fairer for the true interpretation who apply it to events after the de-

struction of Jerusalem, 451 ; application of it to Mahommed, refuted, 452; applica-

tion of it to the Reformation, refuted, ib.; application to the future Antichrist of the

Papists, refuted, 453. III. The true application of this prophecy, ib. &c. the apostacy

charged upon the church of Rome, 454; the pope shown to be the man of sin, 455-6;

how these things came to be mentioned in an epistle to the Thessalonians rather than

to the Romans, 456-7; the seeds of popery sown in the apostle's time, 457; the em-

pire of the man of sin raised on the ruins of the Roman empire, 458. Machiavel

cited to show how this was effected, 458-9; miracles pretended in the church of

Rome, 460; the empire of the man of sin will be totally destroyed, ib. ; the man of

sin the same as the little horn or mighty king in Daniel, 461; generally both by

ancients and moderns denominated Antichrist, 461-2; the ancient fathers give much

the same interpretation of this whole passage, 462. Justin Martyr,'Irenæus, and

Tertullian in the second century, 462-3; Origen in the third century, 463; Lactan-

tius, Cyril, and Ambrose in the fourth century, ib.; Jerome, Austin, and Chrysostom

in the latter end of the fourth, or the beginning of the fifth century, 463-5; wloso-

ever affected the title of universal bishop, he was Antichrist in the opinion of pope

Gregory the Great, 465; how the true notion of Antichrist was suppressed, and re-

vived again with the reformation, 465-6 ; how this doctrine afterwards became un-

fashionable, but is now growing into repute again. 466-7. Conclusion ; such a

prophecy at once a proof of revelation, and an antidote to popery; the blindness

of the papists in this particular, 468.

St. Paul much affected with the foresight of the great apostacy of Christians, 469; de.

scribed here more particularly, 469-70 J. The apostacy shown to be idolatry,

470-1 ; some in Scripture often signifies many, 471; the apostacy to be great and

general, 472; the same in the Jewish and Christian church, 473. II. Shown more

particularly to consist in the worshipping of demons, 473-4; demons in the Gentile

theology, middle powers and mediators between the gods and men, 4745 ; two kinds

of demons, souls of men deified or canunized after death, and separate spirits, 476;

good and bad demons, 477 ; the Gentile notion of demons has sometimes place in

Scripture, 477-8; a passage in Epiphanias, that much confirms and illustrates the fore-

going exposition, 478–80; the worship of saints and angels now the same as the

worship of demons formerly, 480 ; the rise of this worship, 481 ; too much promoted

and encouraged by the fathers from Constantine's time, and particularly by Theodoret,

481—3 ; the conformity between the Pagan and Popish worship, 483-4. III. The

worship of the dead to take place in the latter times, 484-5; what these latter times

are, 485. IV. The worn rip of demons foretold expressly by the Spirit in Daniel,

486-7. V. Propagated and established through the hypocrisy of liars, 487-8.

VI. Forbidding to carry a further character of these men, 488; who first recom-

mended a profesion of single life, 489; the same persons who prohibited marriage,

promoted the worship of the dead, 490-1. VII. The last note of these men, com-

manding to abstain from meats, 491; the same persons who propagated the worship

of the dead, impose also abstinence from meats, ib. ; this abstinence perverting the

purpose of nature, 492; all creatures to be received with thanksgiving, ib.

Very useful to trace the rise and progress of religions and governments, 493 ; pone more

wonderful than that of Rome, in its success and prevalence, ib. ; this signified before-

hand by the spirit of prophecy, and particularly in the revelation, 494; the objections
made tj thjs book by several learned men, 491-5; this book difficult to explain, 495;

a memorable story to this purpose, of Bishop Lloyd of Worcester, ib.; this book not

therefore to be despised or neglected, ib.; the right method of interpreting it, 496:

what helps and assistances are requisite, ib. ; bard fate of the best interpreters of this

book, ib; great encouragement however in the Divine benediction, 497.

Char. I. Ver. 1, 2, 3, contain the title of the book, the scope and design of it, and the

blessing on him that readeth, and on them that attend to it, 497. Ver. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,

the dedication to the s-ven churches of Asia, and a solemn preface to show the great

uthority of the Divine revealer, 498. Ver. 9–20: the place, time, and manner

of the first vision, 499; the place, Patmos, whither St. John was banished in the reign

of Nero, more probably than in that of Domitian, ib.; the arguments for this opinion,

500-1 ; the Revelation given on the Lord's day, 502; the manner and circumstances of

the first vision, ib.

CHAP. II. III. contain the seven epistles to the seven churches of Asia, 502-6; why

these seven addressed particularly, 506; these epistles not prophetical, bat peculiar
to the church of that age, 507; the excellent form and structure of these epistles, ib.;
in what sense they may be said to be prophetical, ib.; present state of the seven
churches, 508-12; of Ephesus, 508 ; of Smyrna, 508-9; of Pergamos, 509-10; of
Thyatira, 510; of Sardis, 510-11; of Philadelphia, 511; of Laodicea, 512; use that

we are to make of these judgments, 512-13.

Chap. IV. the preparatory vision to things which must be hereafter, 513-14; the scenery

drawn in allusion to the encampment of the children of Israel in the wilderness, and to

the tabernacle or temple, 514-15.

CHAP. V. a continuation of the preparatory vision, in order to show the great importance

of the prophecies here delivered, 515-16; future events supposed to be written in a
book, 516; this book sealed with seven seals, signifying so many periods of prophecy,
ib.; the son of God alone qualified to open the seals, 517 ; whereupon all creatures sing

praises to God and to Christ, ib.

Chap. VI. Ver. 1, 2, contain the first seal or period, memorable for conquest, 517; this

period commences with Vespasian, includes the conquest of Judea, and continues

during the reign of the Flavian family and the short reign of Nerva, 517-18. Ver.

3, 4: the second seal or period noted for war and slaughter, 519; this period com-

mences with Trajan, ib. ; comprehends the horrid wars and slaughters of the Jews

and Romans, in the reigns of Trajan and Adrian, 519-20; continues during the reigns of

Trajan and his successors by blood or adoption, 521. Ver. 5,6: the third seal or

period, characterized by the strict execution of justice, and by the procuration of

corn, oil and wine, ib. ; this period commences with Septimus Severus, ib.; he

and Alexander Severus just and severe emperors, and no less celebrated for procuring

corn and oil, &c. 522; this period continues during the reign of the Septimian family,

523. Ver. 7,8: the fourth seal or period, distinguished by a concurrence of evils,

war, and famine, and pestilence, and wild beasts, ib.; this period commences with
Maximin, ib. ; the wars of this period, 521; the famines, ib. ; the pestilences, 524 5; the
wild beasts, 526 ; this period from Maximiņ to Diocletian, ib. Ver. 9, 10, 11: the
fifth seal or period, remarkable for a dreadful persecution of the Christians, 527 ; this
the tenth and last general persecution, began" by Dincletian, ib.; from hence a me-
morable æra called the æra of Diocletian, or æra of martyrs, 528. Ver. 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17: the sixth seal or period remarkable for great changes and revolutions, expressed
by great commotions in the earth and in the heaven, 528-9; no change greater than
The subversion of the Heathen, and establishment the Christian religion, 529; the
like figures of speech used by other prophets, 530; the same thing expressed after-

wards in plainer language, ib.

Chap. VII. a continuation of the sixth seal or period, 530-1; a description of the peace

of the church in Constantine's time, 532 3; and of the great accession of converts

to it, 533 ; not only of Jews, but of all nations. ib. ; this period from the reign of

('onstantine the Great to the death of Theodosius the Great, 534.

Chap. VIII. Ver. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6: the seventh seal or period comprehends seven periodo

distingaished by the sounding of seven trumpets, 534 ; the silence of half an hour

previous to the sounding of the trumpets, 535; as the seals foretold the state of the

Roman empire before and till it became Christian, so the trumpets foreshow the fate

of it afterwards, ib.; the design of the trumpets to rouse the nations against the

Roman empire, ib. Ver. 7: at the sounding of the first trumpet Alaric and his Goths

enrade the Roman empire, twice besiege Rome, and set fire to it in several places,

636-7. Ver. 8, 9: at the sounding of the second trumpet Attila and his Huns waste

the Roman provinces, and compel the eastern emperor, Theodosius the Second, and

the western emperor, Valentinian the Third, to submit to shameful terms, 537-8.

Ver. 10, 11: at the sounding of the third trumpet Genseric and his Vandals arrive

from Africa, spoil and plunder Rome, and set sail again with immensc wealth and in-

numerable captives, 538-9. Ver. 12: at the sounding of the fourth trumpet Odoacer

and the Heruli put an end to the very name of the western empire, 540. Theodoric

founda the kingdom of the Ostrogoths in Italy, ib.; Italy made a province of the

eastern empire, and Rome governed by a duke under the exarch of Ravenna, 541.

Ver. 13: the three following trumpets are distinguished by the name of the woe-

trumpets and the two following relate chiefly to the downfal of the castern empire, as

the foregoing did to the downfal of the western empire, ib.

Chap. IX. Ver. 1-12: a prophecy of the locusts, or the Arabians, under their false

propbet Mobammed, 541–9; at the sounding of the fifth trumpet a star fallen from

heaven opens the bottomless pit, and the sun ard air are darkened, 542; Mohammed

fitly compared to a blazing star, and the Arabians to locusts, ib. ; a remarkable coin-

cidence, that at this time the sun and air were really darkened, 543; the command

not to hurt any green thing, or any trec, how fulfilled, ib. ; their commission to burt

only the corrupt and idolatrous Christians, how fulfilled, ib. ; to torment the Greek and

Latin churches, but not to extirpate either, 514; repulsed as often as they besieged

Constantinople, ib.; these locusts described so as to show that not real but figurative

locusts were intended, ib.; likened unto horses, and the Arabians famous in all ages

for their horses and horsemanship, 545; having on their heads as it were crowns like

gold, ib.; the faces as the faces of men, and hair as the hair of women, 546; their teeth

as the teeth of lions, their breast-plates as it were breast-plates of iron, and the sound

of their wings as the sound of chariots, 546-7; like unto scorpions, 547 ; ibeir king

called the destroyer, ib. ; their hunting men five months, how to be understood, 547-8;

fulblled in every possible construction, 549; conclusion of this woe, ib. Ver. 13–21:

a prophecy of the Euphratean horsemen, or Turks and Othmans, 550 ; at the sounding

of the sixth trumpet the four angels or four sultanies of the Turks and Othmans are

loosed from the river Euphrates, 550-1; in what sense they are said to be prepared

for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, to slay the third part of men, 552-3;

their numerous armies, and especially their cavalry, 553-4; their delight in scarlet,

blue, and yellow, 554; the use of great guns and gunpowder among them, 554-5

their power to do hurt by their tails, or the poisonous train of their religion, 555

the miserable condition of the remains of the Greek church among them, 556; the
Latin or western church not at all reclaimed by the ruin of the Greek or eastern church

but still persist in their idolatry and wickedness, ib.
CHAP. X. a preparatory vision to the prophecies relating to the western church, 556-7.

the angel with the little book or codicil to the larger book of the Apocalyps, 557; this
properly di sed under the sixth trumpet, describe the state of the

church
after the description of the state of the eastern, ib.; cannot be known what things .
were meant by the seven thunders, 558; though the little book describes the calamities
of the western church, yet it is declared that they shall all have a happy period under
the seventh trumpet, ib. St. John to publish the contents of this little book as well as

the larger book of the Apocalyps, ib.

Char. XI. Ver. 1–14: the contents of the little book, 559 ; &c. the measuring of the

temple to show that during all this period there were some true Christians, who con-

forined to the rule and measure of God's word, 560; the church to be trodden under

foot by Gentiles in worship and practice forty and two months, ib.; some irue wit

nesses however to protest against the corruptions of religion, ib. ; why said to be two

witnesses, 560-1 ; to prophecy in sackcloth as long as the grand corruption itself

lasted. 561; the character of these witnesses, and of the power and effect of their

preaching, 561-2; the passion, and death, and resurrection, and ascension of the

witnesses, 562–4; some apply this prophecy of the death and resurrection of the

witnesses to John Huss and Jerome of Prague, whose doctrine revived after their dea'ib

in their followers, 564; others to the protestants of the league of Smalcald, who were

entirely routed by the emperor Charles V. in the battle of Mulburg ; but upon the

change of affairs the emperor was obliged, by the treaty of Passau, to allow them tho

free exercise of their religion, 564-5; some again to the massacre of the protestants

rest

In France, and to Henry III. afterwards granting them the free exercise of their

religion, 565-6 ; others again to later events ; Peter Jurieu to the persecution of the

protestants by Lewis XIV. Bishop Lloyd and Whiston to the duke of Savoy's per-

secution of the protestants in the valleys of Piedmont, and his re-establishing them

afterwards, 566; in all these cases there may be some resemblance, but none of

these is the last persecution, and this prophecy remains yet to be fulfilled, 567; when

it shall be accomplished, the sixth trumpet and the second woe shall end, ib. ; an

pistorical deduction to show that there have been some true witnesses, who have

professed doctrines contrary to those of the church of Rome, from the seventh cen-

tury down to the Reformation, 567-8, &c witnesses in the eighth century, 568; the

emperors Leo Isauricus and Constantine Copronymus, and the council of Constantino-

ple, ib. ; Charlemain and the council of Franefort, ib.; the British churches and

Alcuin, 569; the council of Forojulio, ib.; Paulinus, bishop of Aquileia, ib. ; wit-

vesses in the ninth century, 569–72; the emperors of the east, Nicephorus, Leo

Arminius, &c. and the emperors of the west, Charles the Great, and Lewis the Pious,

569; the council of Paris, ib.; Agiobard, archbishop of Lyons, ib. Transubstantia-

tion first advanced by Paschasius Radbertus, and opposed by many learned men, 570;

Rabanus Maurus, ib. ; Bertramus, ib. ; Johannes Scotus, 571; Angilbertus and the

church of Milan, ib; Claude, bishop of Turin, ib. ; witnesses in the tenth century,

572_4; state of this cencury, 572; the council of Trosly, 572-3; Athelstan, 573 ;

Elfere, earl of Mercia, ib.; Heriger and Alfric, ib.; the council of Rheims, and

Gerbert, archbishop of Rheims, 574; witnesses in the eleventh century, 575—7;

atate of this century, 575; William the Conqueror and William Rufus, ib. ; heretics

of Orleans, ib.; heretics in Flanders, ib.; Berengarius and his followers, 576 ; Eccle-

siastics in Germany, &c. 576-7; the council of Winchester, 577; witnesses in the

twelfth century, 577—83; the constitutions of Clarendon, 577; Fluentius, ib.; St.

Bernard, ib.; Joachim of Calabria, 578; Peter de Bruis and Henry his disciple, ib. ;

Arnold of Brescia, ib. ; the Waldenses and Albigenses, 579; their opinions, 580 ; tes-

timonies concerning this sect, 581–5; of Reinerius, the inquisitor-general, 581-2;

of Thuanus, 582-3; of Mezeray, 523; witnesses in the thirteenth century, 583—5;

farther account of the Waldenses and Albigenses, 583-4; Almeric and his disciples,

684; William of St. Amour, ib.; Robert Grosthead or Greathead, bishop of Lincoln,

685; Matthew Paris, ib.; witnesses in the fourteenth century, 585–8; Dante and

Petrarch, 585 ; Peter Fitz Cassindor, 586; Michael Cæsenas and William Occam, ib.;

Marsilius of Padua, ib. ; in Germany and England, the Lollards, ib.; the famous

John Wickliff, ib.; the Lollards' remonstrance to the parliament, 587; witnesses in

the fifteenth century, 588–92; the followers of Wickliff

, 588 ; William Sautre, ib. ;

Thomas Badby, ih. ; Sir John Oldcastle, ib.; in Bohemia, John Huss and Jerome of

Prague, 589, opinions of the Bohemians or Hussites, 590-1; Jerome Savonarola,

591; in the sixteenth century the Reformation, 592; hence an answer to the popiske

question, Where was your religion before Luther ? 593. Ver. 15—18: a summary

account of the soventh trumpet and the third woe, the particulars will be enlarged

bereafter, 593-4. Conclusion of the first part, 594.

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to overwhelm the Christian religion, 603-4; but on the contrary the Heathen con-
querors submit to the religion of the conquered Christians, 604; another method of

persecuting the church, ib.
CAAP. XIn. Ver. 1–10: the description of the ten-horned beast, successor to the

great red dragon, 604-12; all, both papist and protestants, agree that the beast
represents the Roman empire, 605; shown to be not Pagan but Christian, not imperial
but papal Rome, 604—6; how successor to the great red dragon, 607-8; how one of his
heads was as it were wounded to death, and his deadly wound was healed, 608; the
world in submitting to the religion of the beast did in effect submit again to the religion
of the dragon, 608-9; the beast perfectly like the little horn in Daniel, 609; a gene.

ral account of his blasphemies and exploits, and how long to prevail and prosper,

609-10; a particular account of his blasphemies, 610; his making war with the

saints, and overcoming them, and so establishing bis authority, 610-11; an adınoni-

tion to engage attention, 611; something added by way of consolation to the

church, 611-12. Ver. 11–18: the description of the two-horned beast, 612–20;

the ten-horned beast the Roman state in general, the two-horned beast the Roman

clergy in particular, 612; his rise, and power, and authority, 613; his pretended

miracles, 613-4; his making an image of the beast, 614; what this image of the beast

is, 614-5; his interdicts and excommunications, 616-7 ; the number of the beast ex:

plained, 618–20.

CHAP. XIV. Ver. 1-5. the state of the true church in opposition to that of the heast,

620–2. Ver. 6,7: the first principal effort towards a reformation in the public op-

position of enperors and bishops to the worship of saints and images in the eighth

and ninth centuries, 622-3. Ver. 8: another effort by the Waldenses and Albigenses,

who pronounced the church of Rome to be the apocalyptic Babylon, and denounced

her destruction, 624-5. Ver. 9—13: the third effort by Martin Luther and his

fellow-reformers, who protested against all corruptions of the church of Rone, as

destructive of salvation, 625—–28; a solemn declaration from heaven to comfort them,

626; how the dead were blessed from henceforth, 627-8. Ver. 14–20: represent

the judgments of God upon the followers and adherents of the beast under the figures,

first of harvest, then of vintage, 628-9 ; these judgments yet to be fulfilled, 629.

CHAP. XV. a preparatory vision to the pouring out of the seven vials, 629—32; these

seven last plagues belong to the seventh and last trumpet, or the third and last woe

trumpet, and consequently are not yet fulfilled, 630-1 ; seven angels appointed to pour

out the seven vials, 631-2.

Chap. XVI. Ver. 1: the commission to pour out the seven vials, which are so many

steps of the ruin of the Roman church, as the trumpets were of the ruin of the Roman

empire, 632; Rome resembles Egypt in her punishments as well as in her crimes,

632-3. Ver. 2: the first vial or plague, 633. Ver. 3—7: the second and third vials or

plaques, 633-4. Ver 8, 9: the fourth vial or plague, 634-5. Ver. 10, 11: the fifth vial
cr plague, 635. Ver. 12–16: the sixth vial or plague, 635-6. Ver. 17–21: the

seventh or last vial or plague, 636-7.

CHAP. XVII. Having seen how Rome resembles Egypt in her plagues, we shall now see

her fall compared to Babylon, 638. Ver. 1-6: an account premised of her state and

condition, 638, &c. St. John called upon to see the condemnation and execution of the

great whore, 639; this character more proper to modern thav ancient Rome, ib.; her

sitting upon a scarlet colored beast with seven beads and ten horns, 640; her ornaments

of purple and scarlet color, with gold and precious stones, and pearls, 640-1; her en

chanting cup, 641; her inscription upon her forehead, 641—3; her being drunken with

the blood of the saints, 643-4. Ver. 7-18: the angel explains the mystery of the woman,

and of the beast that carried her, 644, &c. a general account of the

beast and his three-

fold state, 645; the seven heads are explained primarily to signify the seven mountains

on which Rome is situated, 645-6; also to signify the seveu forms of government, 646;

what the five fallen, ib. ;. what the sixth, ib.; what the seventh or eighth, 647-8; the

ten horns explained to signify ten kings, or kingdoms, 643; their giving their power
and strength unto the beast, 648-9; the extensiveness of the power and dominion of

Rome, 649; the same kings who helped to raise her, to pull her down, 649-50 ; the

woman explained to signify the great city or Rome, 650.

Chap. XVIII. Ver. 1-8: a description of the fall and destruction of spiritual Babylon

651, &c. to become the habitation of devils and foul spirits, 652; a warning to for-

sake her communion, ib. ; to be utte burnt with fire, ib. Ver. 9–20: the conse-

quences of her fall, the lamentations of some, and rejoicings of others, 653-4. Ver

21--24: her utter desolation foretold, 655.

CHAP. XIX. Ver. 1–10: the church exhorted to praise God for his judgments upon

her, 656 ; the smoke to rise up for ever and ever, 657 ; God also to be praised for the

happy state of the reformed church in this period, ib. St. John prohibited to worship

the angel, 658. Ver. 11–21: the victory and triumph of Christ over the beast and

false prophet, 658--60.

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