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bombardment of the Confederate 'longshore positions the next New Year (1862) and witnessed the burning and evacuation of Pensacola the following ninth of May.

While Charleston and Pensacola were fanning the flames of secession the wildfire was running round the Gulf, catching well throughout Louisiana, where the Governor ordered the state militia to seize every place belonging to the Union, and striking inland till it reached the farthest army posts in Texas. In all Louisiana the Union Government had only forty men. These occupied the Arsenal at Baton Rouge under Major Haskins. Haskins was loyal. But when five hundred state militiamen surrounded him, and his old brotherofficer, the future Confederate General Bragg, persuaded him that the Union was really at an end, to all intents and purposes, and when he found no orders, no support, and not even any guidance from the Government at Washington, he surrendered with the honors of war and left by boat for St. Louis in Missouri.

There was then in Louisiana another Union officer; but made of sterner stuff. This was Colonel W. T. Sherman, Superintendent of the State Seminary of Learning and Military Academy at

Alexandria, up the Red River. He was much respected by all the state authorities, and was carefully watching over the two young sons of another future Confederate leader, General Beauregard. William Tecumseh Sherman had retired from the Army without seeing any war service, unlike Haskins, who was a one-armed veteran of the Mexican campaign. But Sherman was determined to stand by the Union, come what might. Yet he was equally determined to wind up the affairs of the State Academy so as to hand them over in perfect order. A few days after the seizure of the Arsenal, and before the formal secession of the State, he wrote to the Governor:

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SIR: As I occupy a quasi-military position under the laws of the State, I deem it proper to acquaint you that I accepted such position when Louisiana was a State of the Union, and when the motto of this seminary was inserted in marble over the main door: "By the liberality of the General Government of the United States. The Union - esto perpetua." Recent events foreshadow a great change, and it becomes all men to choose. I beg you to take immediate steps to relieve me as superintendent, the moment the State determines to secede, for on no earthly account will I do any act or think any thought hostile to, or in defiance of, the old Government of the United States.

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ILLUSTRATIONS

"LET US HAVE PEACE"-APPOMAT

TOX, 1865

From the painting by Ferris. In the
Ferris Collection of American Historical
Paintings. Copyright, J. L. G. Ferris.

NORTH AND SOUTH IN 1861

Frontispiece

Map by W. L. G. Joerg, American Geo-
graphical Society.

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CIVIL WAR: CAMPAIGNS OF 1862

Map by W. L. G. Joerg, American Geo-
graphical Society.

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CIVIL WAR: VIRGINIA CAMPAIGNS, 1862

Map by W. L. G. Joerg, American Geo-
graphical Society.

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CIVIL WAR: CAMPAIGNS OF 1863

Map by W. L. G. Joerg, American Geo-
graphical Society.

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CIVIL WAR: CAMPAIGNS OF 1864

Map by W. L. G. Joerg, American Geo-
graphical Society.

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