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been a missionary in Mexico and acquired God in his providence has given her.” The command of the Spanish language and a people freely buy and read copies of the knowledge of Spanish Roman Catholicism, Scripture-a rare thing in Catholic lands. and so was exceptionally equipped for this 9. Immediate Needs. “The success of service. In October, 1899, Rev. Teofilo the work,” says Dr. Moseley, “is an embarBarocio was transferred from San Luis rassment' to us. New doors are being Potosi, Mexico, to Santiago, as pastor of opened to us on every side.” At least three the church there. In the fall of the same more American missionaries are needed. year, Miss Anna M. Barkley and Miss Three chapels should be erected this year Effie Purdy were appointed by the Woman's at a cost, including sites, of about $15,000. Baptist Home Mission Society of Chicago; The Society is unable to do this without and Miss Elma G. Gowen, formerly a mis- generous offerings for this purpose. The sionary in the City of Mexico, was appointed need is great, for without a suitable place by the Woman's American Baptist Home of worship work is done at a serious disMission Society of Boston, as assistants at advantage. Santiago and vicinity. In June, 1901, Rev. 10. Our Duty and Privilege. The measure D. A. Wilson, for years a missionary at of our duty is determined by the deplorable Guadalajara, Mexico, went to Puerto Principe religious condition of the people; by their under the Society's auspices. From time proximity to us; by their accessibility and to time there have been a few other laborers, readiness to receive the Gospel; by their some of them natives; hough it is too soon to particularly friendly disposition toward this find qualified Cubans for important positions. country. As it was our privilege, in the It was truly a remarkable Providence which interests of humanity, to help in Cuba's gave us, within two years, four out of seven emancipation from the Spanish yoke, and missionaries, who at once were able to tell pilot her on her new career, so it should be the people in their own language the great esteemed a privilege by the Christian people truths of the Gospel of which they had no of this country to crown that work by the saving knowledge.

religious emancipation of Cuba, which then Our mission stations in the Province of indeed shall be “Cuba libre.” Shall the Santiago are City of Santiago, Manzanillo, “Pearl of the Antilles” become, through our Guantanamo, El Caney and Bonito, and the efforts, a pearl in the diadem of our Lord? City of Puerto Principe in that province.

7. What has been Accomplished. At Santi Independence of State Conventions, ago a fine property has been secured at a

0. A. WILLIAMS, D.D. cost, including improvements, of about $12,000. At Manzanillo a site has been

Rev. Wm. M. Haigh, D.D., for many years secured and a chapel is soon to be erected.

Superintendent of Missions in the West and The other missions occupy rented buildings, Northwest, when visiting the Conventions in ill-adapted to their needs.

1897, presented to the boards in Iowa, WisThe total Baptist Church membership is consin and Minnesota, a communication from about 200, of which 130 are in Santiago.

the Board of the American Baptist Home The Santiago church contains men of in

Mission Society, recommending that in these Avence: has an efficient Christian Endeavor States the conventions should assume the Society; has a Sunday School of 150, and responsibility of carrying on, without further maintains six mission schools; the total aid from the Society the entire work of supenrollment being about 400. With proper porting missionary pastors, within their borattention similar results may be expected in ders. It was further recommended that with other fields.

a gradual reduction of appropriation, Iowa 8. An Open Door. Dr. Moseley says: should assume this responsibility in 1900, "In Mexico and other Catholic countries Wisconsin in 1901, and Minnesota in 1902. everything is against us. In Cuba the tide It was also understood that this same policy is in our favor. There is absolutely no was to apply to other States, working in cofanaticism manifested toward us. All classes operation with the society, as they increased of people, in crowds, attend our services. in numerical and financial strength. To-day is the day of opportunity. Rome The fact that Dr. Haigh, who had directed is alert and at work to win back to her fold the work so long and so wisely, approved the this people who have been alienated, and plan, commended it to the favorable considershe will succeed if protestant America is ation of the Conventions of these States. In blind to this matchless opportunity that each the question was carefully discussed,

and the recommendations adopted. Iowa has had the experiment of self-support for one year. Wisconsin, at its last anniversary meetings, voted to let the plan go into effect, according to previous agreement. Minne sota, on account of the rapid development of the northern half of the State, calling for larger plans of work, and a larger outlay of money, lest the work should be crippled, has requested that the co-operation of the Society be continued, which request has been granted.

Much may be said to show that the position of the Society was right and just, when it recommended self-support to these older States:

(1) Changes not dreamed of have taken place East and West, since the Society sent its first missionaries to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, etc., the then Far West. Owing to the influx of foreign population, the cities of the East are to-day as truly, and as needy, home mission fields as are any parts of the new West. These fields cannot be left out of any plans that look for the evangelization of the entire country. In the rapid development of the nation, the center of population has stead ily moved westward. But the center of membership of the denomination, as represented by Northern Baptists, has made a more rapid progress westward. To-day more than one half of Northern Baptists are found in those States where laborers commissioned by the Home Mission Society were the foundationbuilders, or where they are to-day doing pioneer missionary work. Surely God has done great things for us, and the question may be rightly asked, “Should not these States assume more and more the responsibility of prosecuting the work of Home Missions within and without their own borders?"

(2) In the States referred to representatives of the Society have been at work for more than half a century, and it becomes necessary that the demands upon the Society should diminish year by year, or cease altogether, so as to enable it to respond more liberally to the pressing calls that come from new and more needy fields, whether it be among the foreign population East, the new settlements West, or the new possessions in the islands of the sea.

The educational work of the Society among the Afro-Americans of the South is so vital, that every consideration of patriotism and of Christianity demands the sincere sympathy and the hearty support of all.

(3) The Conventions in the older States, which have so long acted in co-operation with the Home Mission Society, are thoroughly

organized, and are blessed with leaders of experience, who have the best interests of the denomination at heart, and who are willing to make sacrifices of time and money for its furtherance. As far, therefore, as it is in their power to carry on the work, it can be safely committed to them.

But it must be admitted that the arguments on the other side of this most important question are not without force. The withdrawing altogether of the strong arm of the Society will mean much to these State organizations, and many difficulties will arise consequent to assuming the entire responsi bility of the work.

By self-support in the State we understand it to mean that the churches composing the Convention have sufficient strength to retain all that has been gained, and to move forward to new fields, as the opportunities present themselves. If independence is assumed at the expense of curtailing aggressive work within the borders of the State, it can hardly be called self-support.

The Home Mission Society and the Convention were organized for the same purpose of preaching the Gospel, of establishing and supporting churches, of building chapels, and of promoting the cause of Christian education. The field of operation in the one is the continent, in the other the State. The fundamental principle, therefore, which goyerns the action of both bodies is, how can the mighty task of taking the country for Christ be best accomplished?

Difficulties (1) While the numerical strength of Northern Baptists is found to-day in what has been, or still is, Home Mission territory, yet mere numbers may not give a correct idea of ability to prosecute mission work. In this great conflict, money is one of the sinews of war, and every line of missionary work is crippled by the lack of it. The period that measures the history of missionary efforts in the West, is also the period that marks the entire growth and development of this section of the country. During these years its cities and towns, its farms and homes, its schoolhouses and chapels, its railroads and highways, have been built. The energies and earnings of the settlers have been largely directed to these objects. The first question for the immigrant has necessarily been a home and subsistence for his family. The schoolhouse and the chapel are undertaken later. The building of the cities and towns, of the farms and of

the homes, has been largely done by Eastern contribute an average of nearly 50 cents per capital, and a large portion of the products member. Even one dollar per member would of the soil, of the outputs of the mines, and of not be sufficient to meet the demands of the the profits of business, was consumed in work in these States. paying interest on borrowed Eastern capital. (4) The strong arm of the Society, acting It has been only within the last four or five in co-operation, has been a girding and an years that much has been accomplished in inspiration for the work in these States, and lifting these burdens. This condition made it its entire withdrawal may prove a discouragedifficult to secure large gifts for the support ment to the workers and a hindrance to the of missions, and for the building of chapels. work. If some policy could be devised, by

(2) Since the hard times swept over the which it were possible for the Home Mission country, there has been a peculiar condition Society, with its wise leadership and large exin many of the leading Baptist churches of perience, to continue in close touch with every these States. The wealth of a large number department of Home mission work, and in of the leaders and the moneyed men of ten every part of the country, it would doubtless years ago was swept away as with a besom of prevent many mistakes, it would give heart destruction. The writer was present at a and courage to our workers, and it would ingathering of the leading business men and sure a larger measure of success. of pastors of the strongest Baptist churches MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. of one of the States of this district, when this question was asked to a representative of

Self-Support of Churches. each church, "What is the estimated wealth of your church to-day compared with ten

pred with top

B

BY W. E. RANDALL, GENERAL MISSIONARY, years ago?” Almost without an exception

of West Washington. the reply was, “From one-half to one-third.” Two considerations warrant a convention The young business man of to-day has not board in recommending missionary appointyet reached the financial position once occu- ments with the involved appropriation of pied by his predecessor. From a financial funds from the treasury of the Home Mission standpoint some of these States were better Society: (a) To secure the preaching of the prepared to assume self-support ten years Gospel; (b) to consummate the organization ago than they are now. It is true that Min- and conserve the welfare of churches that give nesota the past year raised more money for promise of becoming effective, and without State missions than in any preceding year of unwarranted delay, self-supporting bodies. its history; but it was done because a larger The second object is deemed to be not less number contributed small sums, which more vital than the first-mentioned. Churches, than balanced the diminution of the offerings like persons, have characters, and character of the larger churches. If the spirit of is the measure of effectiveness. benevolence can thus be cultivated and de- It is held by our board that each aided veloped in the rank and file of the membership church must organize its work, systematize of our churches, the hard times may ulti- its finances, and make progress toward mately prove a blessing to them.

self-support. If missionary pastors fail to (3) The increase of population continues carry out the policy, through inefficiency or without abatement in these States. Be- unwillingness, they are neither able to hold the tween 1890 and 1900, there was added to the esteem of churches, nor the indorsement of the population of Minnesota 440,000. A large board. It is kindly and firmly impressed on number of these found their homes in the all of our churches that the board is like Northern half of the State, which is still a new Providence in at least one respect—it "helps territory. The 20,000 Baptists of the State those that help themselves," and the conrealized fully that they were unable, without verse is equally true. We assist in constructaid, to support the work in the older parts, and ing effective churches, but do not aim to spend at the same time to move forward to occupy money in developing cripples. The latter result the newer fields.

is rare, and never long-continued. The board, Minnesota Baptists show commendable as a matter of stewardship, does not hesitate zeal and energy in the prosecution of State to practice necessary ecclesiastical surgery. Convention work. The board has asked this When appropriations are made to churches year from the churches an average of more that merit assistance, the co-operation inthan 60 cents per member. Wisconsin is variably contributes good results. The plan not far behind. Its churches are asked to has produced nearly all of our well-organized

and effective churches. Wholesome teaching immigration whose fresh ideas or more sturdy passes into church character. Churches fog- life might enlarge the horizon of the Mexican's tered by the Society constitute our most existence; four-fifths of the people cannot symmetrical bodies.

read, hence they are debarred from instruction It should not be forgotten that our churches through the printed page; the schools, both composed of heterogeneous material, located government and clerical, rarely inculcate in a new state where the personal problems of lessons of self-help and manly independence the members are unusually numerous and of character. Such are the people we hope to complex, present exceptional conditions, and mould into self-sustaining and self-propagamerit the largest degree of consideration and ting Christian churches. The problem is patience that Eastern brethren may extend. complex, and at times, vexatious. But prog

In most instances our mission churches ress is making, and ultimately success will are gaining in strength and influence, and be assured. making progress toward self-support. They

THE PLAN PROPOSED are being encouraged and stimulated to

Th Baptist missionaries in Mexico, both achieve this success. There is a guarantee of prudent administration in the fact that a

Northern and Southerns and I treat now of

the whole field-have felt that it was their board composed largely of practical busi

province to be leaders in Christian influence ness and professional men meets quarterly, investing ample time and good judgment in

and authority, rather because of their spir

itual gifts, and perhaps superior education, the Master's work. Tacoma, WASHINGTON.

than because they handled the purse-strings and were almoners of foreign bounty. To

exert a personal influence, and not ecclesiSelf-Support in Mexico.

astical control, is what they have desired BY REV. WILLIAM H. SLOAN.

and sought.

These missionaries have believed that their In considering the subject of self-support in

proper sphere was that of evangelists, who Mexico, we must not fail to take into account

should go from place to place, witnessing to the different conditions that prevail in this

the truth as it is in Jesus, and baptizing such country and the Western States of the North

persons as give credible evidence of a change American Republic. These conditions are so

of heart. They have not believed it was their varied in character, that no argument in favor

duty, except in very rare and exceptional

dutor er of self-support, drawn in the one case, can

cases, to be pastors of native churches. We be properly applied in the other. In the

have held that every body of believers should United States, a feeble church in the West is

take care of itself, that is to say, select one of likely to be composed of energetic, ambitious

its number to be pastor or spiritual director, Anglo-Saxons, who will not be content to be

and that it should become responsible for his kept always in swaddling bands; immigration

support, and for the expenses of its own reinto the new fields is bound to augment the

ligious work; that it should also provide strength of the little church; a Protestant

elementary school training for the children of atmosphere surrounds it; doctrines of self

the church, and that such work should be help have been studiously inculcated in the

under missionary supervision. We have bepublic schools, and a certain national pride

lieved that the pastors of these churches (to say nothing of scriptural convictions) should be given a sufficient salary to provide impels it toward self-support. In the Re

for them and their families a decent living, public of Mexico, the large majority of our

and that only in extreme cases should foreign church members are content to take life about

money be used in a pastor's support. as it comes, taking no thought for the morrow, nor even for this afternoon; without aspira

CONCERNING THIS PLAN. tions after a higher intellectual or spiritual I would say that to the natives of Mexico life, and satisfied with the most slender means the American missionary will always be a of subsistence. Their poverty is extreme, foreigner. No change in language, dress or and even with the best of intentions they find diet will make him less so. He should be it impossible to give more than a pittance supported by the denomination that sends towards the support of their pastors. The him out, and should never be dependent upon atmosphere they breathe is that of Romanism, the native churches. The Mexican preachers whose system and teachings always conduce should receive their support from the churches to the extension of pauperism; there is no that employ them. Perhaps these churches are only groups of feeble Christians. It race. Could not the same methods be would seem in that case that they ought to followed and the same results be achieved wait awhile before forming an ecclesiastical in Mexico? organization and calling a pastor. Let them

RESULTS ATTAINED. be content to preserve a somewhat informal

Perhaps in the early days our missionaries mode of existence, using every endeavor to

to

in Mexica did

in Mexico did not begin with great wisdom. hold meetings, and have a Sunday school,

Mistakes may have been made. But misuntil the Lord opens the way to something

sionary. methods were not so thoroughly diselse. These churches must believe that

cussed thirty years ago as they are to-day, Christ has given gifts unto men, that he has

and means of communication with the inshed forth upon them the Holy Spirit, that

terior of this country were not easy. The they have a right to plead the fulfilment of

first laborers had to toil to some extent in the the promise. Provision would seem to be

dark. And they seem to have been enthumade in this bestowment of spiritual gifts for

siastic toilers; in their eager zeal to see the conducting religious services. And if any man

works of Satan destroyed and the light of the undertake to minister to these Christians, let

gospel shed throughout the land, they may him understand that when the people have

have felt it necessary to employ native help. done everything they possibly can to main

They were on a field where there were very tain him and his family, he himself must be

few native converts. The temptation was

fomen willing to endure hardness for Christ's sake,

strong to take such young men as offered possibly suffer poverty. If he have no wife

themselves, and set them to work, first as and family, celibacy may be the path marked

evangelists, and then as pastors. Perhaps out for him by an overruling Providence.

it was a mistake, we believe it was, to conThe twelfth chapter of First Corinthians,

tinue the payment of their salaries out of giving as it does a picture of apostolic church

foreign funds. But it was surely hoped that worship, we believe to be a safe guide in the

in time the churches would grow strong holding of services among the weak churches

enough to bear their own burden. They are that I have mentioned. Surely it would be

aiding to an increasing amount, it is true, possible to gather for praise in some private

but they are very slow to learn their whole house the lovers of the Lord Jesus, and to

duty in the matter. We do not know that hold some sort of a simple service, under the

any church here, under the care of the Home direction of an appointed leader, and through

Mission Society, has become entirely selfprayer, the faithful study of the Word, and

supporting. A number of those that are a careful observance of the precepts of the

under the care of the Southern Baptist gospel, to grow into strength, and even to

Convention have attained that very desirable become an evangelizing agency in the sur

result, largely, we think, because it has been rounding districts. We believe that the Holy

the policy of the Society to make its American Spirit properly sought would take possession

missionaries in this country evangelists who of these Christians in such a way that through

should cover large tracts of country in their their agency there might be carried on among

tours, and whose visits to the native churches their own people an extensive work of evan

have been frequent. Gratifying progress is gelization.

being made by all the Baptists towards selfSUCCESSES ACHIEVED ELSEWHERE

support; in every church, we believe, a have led us to believe that the plan was larger amount for that purpose is being raised feasible for Mexico. In Burma we had this year than ever before. known of self-supporting Baptist churches; among the Telugus, and in the missions of

A QUESTION WITH TWO SIDES. Northern India self-support was the rule; in It is but just to say that not all missionaries Korea all the native churches, with but few are satisfied that the plan best to pursue with exceptions, assume their own financial bur- newly organized churches, or bands of newlydens. And the history of missions shows that converted Christians, is to place them under the native ministry in the countries mentioned the oversight and instruction of untaught as well as in some others, has furnished men, however zealous and willing these may notable examples of faithful service under be to assume the responsibility. In favor of the most trying circumstances. In many this plan, it is urged that the growth of a cases young men have declined lucrative mercenary spirit is prevented, that all the positions elsewhere in order to preach the brethren are taught habits of self-help and gospel to the lost and despised of their own co-operation, and that from the ranks of the

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