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made agent for the mortgagee and required to account to the mortgagee for all sales. Is not valid on after acquired property unless the property is actually delivered to the mortgagee or the mortgagee takes possession before other rights intervene.

Oklahoma.-Must be filed with the register of deeds where the mortgagor resides if a resident of the state; if not, where the property is located. Remains in force for three years. Must be renewed within thirty days preceding expiration by affidavit showing the 'amount unpaid. It is valid as to third parties in stock of merchandise remaining in possession of the mortgagor, but is not valid on after acquired property.

Oregon.-Must be filed or recorded with the county clerk where the mortgagor resides. If he does not reside in the state, must be filed or recorded in the county where the property is located. Remains in force for one year and must be renewed within thirty days preceding expiration by affidavit showing the amount unpaid, unless it is executed and acknowledged as a real estate mortgage and recorded, in which case no renewal is required. Is not valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in possession of the mortgagor or on after acquired property.

Pennsylvania.-Must be recorded with the county re corder or register where the mortgagor resides. If the mortgagor does not reside in the state, must be recorded in the county where the property is located. Only specific articles can be mortgaged. Must be renewed within three months after maturity. Is not valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in possession of the mortgagor or on after acquired property.

Rhode Island. Must be recorded with the town clerk where the mortgagor resides. If he does not reside in the state, must be recorded in the county where the property is located. No renewal is necessary. If properly recorded, it is valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in the possession of the mortgagor, but is not valid on after acquired property as against creditors who secure a lien before the mortgagee takes possession.

South Carolina.-Must be recorded within forty days with the register of conveyances where the mortgagor resides. If he does not reside in the state, must be recorded in the county where the property is located. No renewal is necessary. It is valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in the possession of the mortgagor and also on after acquired property.

South Dakota.-Must be filed with the register of deeds where property is located. Remains in force for three years. Must be renewed within thirty days preceding expiration by an affidavit showing the amount unpaid. It is valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in the possession of the mortgagor, provided the mortgagor is required to account to the mortgagee for the proceeds of sales. It is also valid on after acquired property.

Tennessee.-Must be filed or recorded with the reg. ister of deeds where the mortgagor resides. If he does not reside in the state, must be filed or recorded in the county where the property is located. Remains in force for six years. Need not be renewed. Is not valid as to third parties on a stock of merchandise remaining in the possession of the mortgagor, nor on after acquired property.

Texas.—Must be filed with the county clerk where the mortgagor resides. If he does not reside in the state, must be filed in the county where the property is located. Need not be renewed. Is not valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in the possession of the mortgagor.

Utah.-Must be recorded in the office of the recorder where the mortgagor resides. If he does not reside in the state, must be recorded in the county where the property is located. Remains in force for one year. Must be renewed within thirty days after one year from filing by affidavit showing amount unpaid. It is not valid after five years. Is not valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in possession of the' mortgagor.

Vermont.-Must be recorded in the city or town clerk's office where the mortgagor resides. If he does not reside in the state, must be filed in the county

where the property is situated. Need not be renewed. It is valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in possession of the mortgagor. If possession is taken, it is valid on after acquired property.

Virginia.—Must be recorded in the county or city clerk's office where the property is located. Need not be renewed. Is not valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in possession of the mortgagor unless the mortgagor has possession as mortgagee's agent, and the proceeds go to the reduction of the mortgage debt, but it is not valid on after acquired property.

Washington.-Must be filed and recorded with the county auditor where the property is located. Remains in force for two years if less than $300; if over $300, for the life of the debt. May be renewed within two years by an affidavit showing the amount unpaid. It is valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in possession of the mortgagor, but the mortgage should be so drawn that the mortgagor must apply sales in payment of mortgage debt. It is valid on after acquired property.

West Virginia.-Must be recorded with the county clerk where the property is located, and if property is removed must be re-recorded within three months. No renewal is necessary. It is not valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in possession of the mortgagor, nor is it valid on after acquired property.

Wisconsin.-Must be filed with the city or town clerk where the mortgagor resides. If he does not reside in the state, must be filed in county where property is located. Remains in force for two years. Must be renewed within thirty days preceding the expiration by an affidavit showing the amount unpaid. It is valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in possession of the mortgagor, provided sworn statements are filed every sixty days, showing amount of goods sold, amount added, and payment made on mortgage debt, but is not valid on after acquired property.

Wyoming.-Must be recorded in the county clerk's office where the property is located. Remains in force for two months after the debt is due. If property is removed, mortgage must be re-recorded. Must be re newed within sixty days after maturity of the secureä debt. It is valid as to third parties on stock of merchandise remaining in the possession of the mortgagor, provided the proceeds of the sales are applied to the debt secured. It is also valid on after acquired property.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF DEEDS

An acknowledgment is the act of declaring the execution of an instrument, but the word also denotes the official certificate of such declaration. All deeds and conveyances of land to be effectual as to third parties must be recorded upon previous proof or acknowledgment of their execution. Erasures and interlineations should be noted previous to the execution, or referred to in the certificate of the officer taking the acknowledgment. It is advisable to comply with the form of acknowledgment prescribed by the statutes of the various states.

Within the several states acknowledgments may be taken in general before the following officers: Notaries public and justices of the peace generally within their territorial jurisdiction, and in any place of the state usually before judges and clerks of the supreme, circuit, probate, and county courts, judges of the United States courts, chancellors, registers, masters in chancery, and court commissioners; county recorders, town clerks and their assistants, United States commissioners, courty surveyors, county auditors, registers of deeds, mayors, and clerks of incorporated cities may take acknowledg. ments within their jurisdiction; besides the foregoing, in several states also the deputies of the enumerated officers, and in Connecticut, commissioners of the school fund; in Louisiana, parish recorders and their deputies; in Maine, women appointed by the governor for that purpose; in Michigan, members of the legislature; in Mississippi, members of county board of supervisors; in Nebraska, the secretary of state; in New York, recorders of cities and commissioners of deeds; in Pennsylvania, mayors, recorders, and aldermen of Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allegheny, and Carbondale; in Rhode

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61 Island, state senators; in Vermont, registers of probate; in West Virginia, prothonotaries; in Wisconsin, police justices.

Without the state and within the United States, the following officers are authorized to take acknowledgment: Judges and clerks of courts of record, notaries public, commissioners appointed for that purpose by the governors, and officers authorized to take acknowledg. ments within their respective states. Besides the foregoing, also, in Colorado, secretaries of state; in Delaware, mayors of cities; in Illinois, justices of the peace, commissioners of deeds, and mayors of cities; in Kentucky, secretaries of state; in Michigan and Wisconsin, master in chancery; in New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island, mayors and chief magistrates of cities.

Without the United States, the following officers may take acknowledgment: Judges of courts of record, mayors or chief magistrates of cities, towns, boroughs, counties, notaries public, diplomatic, consular, or com. mercial agents of the United States resident and accredited in the country where the acknowledgment is taken.

The forms of deeds conveying land are prescribed by several states, and such forms should be generally used. The requisites of a valid deed are: (1) Competent parties; (2) consideration; (3) the deed must be reduced to writing; (4) it must be duly executed and delivered. The mode and effect of an acknowledgment or of a deed is governed by the law of the state where the land lies, and not by that of the place where the acknowledgment is taken. Where the deed is executed by an attorney in fact, it is customary to have the power of attorney acknowledged by the principal and the deed acknowledged by the attorney. A deed executed by several grantors should be acknowledged by each of them.

Seals' or their equivalent (or whatever is intended as such) are necessary in Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming. In almost

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