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all the states deeds by corporations must be under seal. Forms are prescribed or indicated by the statutes of most of the states except Connecticut, Florida, Louisiana. Separate acknowledgment by wife is required in Alaska, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kentucky, Louisiana, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas. One witness to the execution of deeds is required in District of Columbia, Maine (customary), Maryland, Nebraska, New Jersey (usual), Oklahoma Territory, Utah, Wyoming. Two witnesses to the execution of deeds are required in Arkansas, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Vermont, Wisconsin.
WILLS A will or testament is a final disposition of a person's property to take effect after his death. A codicil is an addition or alteration in such disposition. All persons are competent to make a will except idiots, persons of unsound mind, and infants. In many states a will of an unmarried woman is deemed revoked by her subsequent marriage. A nuncupative or unwritten will is one made by a soldier in active service, or by a mariner while at sea.
In most of the states a will must be in writing, signed by the testator, or by some person in his presence, and by his direction, and attested by witnesses, who must subscribe their names thereto in the presence of the testator. The form of wording a will is immaterial as long as its intent is clear.
Age at which persons may make wills is in most of the states 21 years. Males and females are competent to make wills at 18 years in the following states: California, Connecticut, Hawaiian Islands, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oklahoma Territory, South Dakota, Utah; and in the following states only females at 18 years: Colorado, District of Columbia, Ilinois, Maryland, Missouri, Washington, Wisconsin.
In the following states persons of 18 years may dispose of personal property only: Alabama, Arkansas, Missouri, Oregon, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia; in Georgia any one over 14 years and in Louisiana any one over 16 years is competent to make a will. In Colorado persons of 17 years, and in New York males of 18 and females of 16 years may dispose of personalty. Witnesses.-Most of the states require two witnesses, except in Connecticut (3), District of Columbia (3), Maine (3), Massachusetts (3), New Hampshire (3), South Carolina (3), Vermont (3).
THE BANKRUPTCY LAW Who May Become Bankrupts.-(a) Any person who owes debts, except a corporation, shall be entitled to the benefits of this act as a voluntary bankrupt. (b) Any natural person (except a wage-earner or a person engaged chiefly in farming or the tillage of the soil), any unincorporated company, and any corporation engaged principally in manufacturing, trading, printing, publishing, or mercantile pursuits, owing debts to the amount of one thousand dollars or over, may be adjudged an involuntary bankrupt upon default or an impartial trial, and shall be subject to the provisions and entitled to the benefits of this act. Private bankers, but not national banks or banks incorporated under state or territorial laws, may be adjudged involuntary bankrupts.
Duties of Bankrupts.-(a) The bankrupt shall (1) attend the first meeting of his creditors, if directed by the court or a judge thereof to do so, and the hearing upon his application for a discharge, if filed; (2) comply with all lawful orders of the court; (3) examine the correctness of all proofs of claims filed against his estate; (4) execute and deliver such papers as shall be ordered by the court; (5) execute to his trustee transfers of all his property in foreign countries; (6) immediately inform his trustee of any attempt, by his creditors or other persons, to evade the provisions of this act, coming to his knowledge; (7) in case of any person having to his knowledge proved a false claim against his estate, disclose that fact immediately to his trustee; (8) prepare, make oath to, and file in court within ten days, unless further time is granted, after the adjudication if an in voluntary bankrupt, and with the petition if a voluntary bankrupt, a schedule of his property, showing the amount and kind of property, the location thereof, its money value in detail, and a list of his creditors, showing their residences, if known (if unknown that fact to be stated), the amount due each of them, the consideration thereof, the security held by them, if any, and a claim for such exemptions as he may be entitled to, all in triplicate, one copy of each for the clerk, one for the referee, and one for the trustee; and (9) when present at the first meeting of his creditors, and at such other times as the court shall order, submit to an examination concerning the conducting of his business, the cause of his bankruptcy, his dealings with his creditors and other persons, the amount, kind, and whereabouts of his property, and, in addition, all matters which may affect the administration and settlement of his estate; but no testimony given by him shall be offered in evidence against him in any criminal proceedings.
Provided, however, that he shall not be required to attend a meeting of his creditors, or at or for an examination at a place more than one hundred and fifty miles distant from his home or principal place of business, or to examine claims except when presented to him, unless ordered by the court, or a judge thereof, for cause shown, and the bankrupt shall be paid his actual expenses from the estate when examined or required to attend at any place other than the city, town, or village of his residence.
THE NEW DEPARTMENT OF
COMMERCE AND LABOR The Department of Commerce and Labor was established by Chapter 552 of the Acts of the Fifty-seventh Congress, approved February 14, 1903. The act provides that there shall be at the seat of government an executive department to be known as the Department of Commerce and Labor, headed by a Secretary of Commerce and Labor, appointed by the President at a salary of $8,000 per annum. An assistant secretary at $5,000 a year, a chief clerk, a disbursing clerk, and other clerical assistants as authorized shall be appointed.
The duty of this department shall be to foster, promote, and develop the foreign and domestic commerce, the mining, manufacturing, and shipping and fishing industries, the labor interests, and the transportation facilities of the United States. To this end there shall be transferred to the Department of Commerce and Labor from the jurisdiction of the Treasury Department, the Light-House Board and Establishment, the Steam. boat-Inspection Service, the Bureau of Navigation, the United States Shipping Commissioners, the National Bureau of Standards, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Commissioner-General and Commissioners of Immigration and the Immigration Bureau and service at large and the Bureau of Statistics. From the Department of Interior the Census Office is transferred to the new department. The Department of Labor, the Fish Commission. The Bureau of Foreign Commerce of the Department of State shall also be transferred and made a part of the Bureau of Statistics before mentioned.
There shall also be created a Bureau of Manufactures to foster and promote that industry by compiling and publishing information concerning it at home and abroad, consular offices and agents to assist in gathering the material.
A Bureau of Corporations is also created to investigate the organization, conduct, and management of the business of any corporation, joint stock company, or corporate combination engaged in commerce among the several states and with foreign nations, except certain common carriers. The commissioner shall have for this purpose the powers conferred upon the Interstate Commerce Commission. It is also the duty of this bureau to gather, compile, publish, and supply useful information concerning corporations doing business in the United States, including insurance companies.
The heads of the new bureaus shall be appointed by the President at salaries of $4,000 a year for the Bureau of Manufacture, and $5,000 for the Bureau of Corporations, the latter to have a deputy at a salary of $3,500.
The control of the salmon, seal, and other fisheries in Alaska and of the immigration of aliens into the United States is also to be transferred from the Treasury Department to the Department of Commerce and Labor.
The secretary of the department shall report in writing to Congress at the close of each fiscal year, enumerating receipts and disbursements, describing the work accomplished, and making recommendations. The President is authorized to transfer to the Department of Commerce and Labor at any time the whole or any part of any office or bureau engaged in scientific or statistical work in any of the other departments of the Government. The secretary of the new department shall also make special investigations and reports when requested by Congress or the President or which he himself may deem necessary and urgent.
PATENT OFFICE PROCEDURE Patents are issued in the name of the United States, and under the seal of the Patent Office, to any person who has invented or discovered any new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter or any new and useful improvement thereof, not known or used by others in this country before his invention or discovery thereof and not patented or described in any printed publication in this or any foreign country, before his invention or discovery thereof or more than two years prior to his application, and not in public use or on sale in the United States for more than two years prior to his application, unless the same is proved to have been abandoned; and by any person who, by his own industry, genius, efforts, and expense, has invented and produced any new and original design for a manufacture, bust, statue, alto-relievo, or bas-relief; any new ornamental and original design for an article of manu. facture; the same not having been known nor used by others before his invention or i 'oduction thereof, nor patented nor described in any pr nted publication, upon payment of the fees required by law and other due proceedings had.
Every patent contains a grant to the patentee, his heirs or assigns, for the term of seventeen years, ex