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or contract to the contrary. This does not apply to farm or agricultural labor or service by the year, month or week.

Eight hours out of the twenty-four shall make and constitute a day's labor for all mechanics, workmen, and laborers in the employ of the state, or of any municipal corporation therein, or otherwise engaged on public works; this shall be deemed to apply to mechanics, workingmen, or laborers in the employ of persons contracting with the state or any municipal corporation therein, for the performance of public work.

Porto Rico.—No laborer may be compelled to work more than eight hours per day on public works.

Tennessee.-Eight hours shall be a day's work upon the highways.

Texas.-Eight hours constitute a day's work on public highways.

Utah.-Eight hours constitute a day's work upon all public works and in all underground mines or workings, smelters and all other institutions for the reduction or refining of ores.

Washington.-Eight hours in any calendar day shall constitute a day's work on any work done for the state, county or municipality. In cases of extraordinary emergency overtime may be worked for extra pay.

West Virginia.-Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen and mechanics who may be employed by or on behalf of the state.

Wisconsin.-In all engagements to labor in any manufacturing or mechanical business, where there is no express contract to the contrary, a day's work shall consist of eight hours; but the law does not apply to contracts for labor by the week, month or year. In all manufactories, workshops or other places used for me. chanical or manufacturing purposes, children under eighteen years of age and women may not be compelled to work over eight hours a day. Eight hours constitute a day's labor on public highways.

Wyoming.–Eight hours' actual work constitute a legal day's work in all mines, state and municipal works.

United States.-Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen, and mechanics who may be employed by or on behalf of the United States. PASSPORT REGULATIONS The rules governing the granting and issuing of passports in the United States are as follows:

By Whom Issued.-No one but the secretary of state may grant and issue passports in the United States.Revised Statutes, secs. 4075, 4078.

A person entitled to receive a passport if temporarily abroad should apply to the diplomatic representative of the United States in the country where he happens to be; or, in the absence of a diplomatic representative, to the consul-general of the United States; or, in the absence of both, to the consul of the United States. The necessary statement may be made before the nearest consular officer of the United States.

Application by a person in one of the insular possessions of the United States should be made to the chief executive of such possession.

To Whom Issued.—The law forbids the granting of a passport to any person who is not a citizen of the United States.--Revised Statutes, sec. 4076.

A person who has only made the declaration of intention to become a citizen of the United States cannot receive a passport.

Applications.-A person who is entitled to receive a passport must make a written application, in the form of an affidavit, to the secretary of state.

The affidavit must be attested by an officer authorized to administer oaths, and if he has an official seal it must be affixed. If he has no seal, his official character must be authenticated by certificate of the proper legal officer.

If the applicant signs by mark, two attesting witnesses to his signature are required.

The applicant is required to state the date and place of his birth, his occupation, and the place of his permanent residence, and to declare that he goes abroad for temporary sojourn and intends to return to the United States with the purpose of residing and performing the duties of citizenship therein.

The applicant must take the oath of allegiance to the government of the United States.

The application must be accompanied by a description of the person applying, and should state the following particulars, viz.: Age, - years; stature, feet - inches (English measure); forehead, - ; eyes, - ; nose, - ; mouth, - ; chin, — ; hair, - complexion, - ; face,

The application must be accompanied by a certificate from at least one credible witness that the applicant is the person he represents himself to be, and that the facts stated in the affidavit are true to the best of the witness's knowledge and belief.

Native Citizens.-An application containing the in. formation indicated by rule 3 will be sufficient evidence in the case of native citizens.

A Person Born Abroad Whose Father was a Native Citizen of the United States.-In addition to the statements required by rule 3, his application must show that his father was born in the United States, has resided therein, and was a citizen at the time of the applicant's birth. The department may require that this affidavit be supported by that of one other citizen acquainted with the facts.

Naturalized Citizens. In addition to the statements required by rule 3, a naturalized citizen must transmit his certificate of naturalization, or a duly certified copy of the court record thereof, with his application. It will be returned to him after inspection. He must state in his affidavit when and from what port he emigrated to this country, what ship he sailed in, where he has lived since his arrival in the United States, when and before what court he was naturalized, and that he is the identical person described in the certificate of naturalization. The signature to the application should conform in orthography to the applicant's name as written in the naturalization paper, which the department fol. lows.

Woman's Application.-If she is unmarried, in addition to the statements required by rule 3, she should state that she has never been married. If she is the wife of a native citizen of the United States the fact should be made to appear in her application. If she is the wife or widow of a naturalized citizen, in addition to the statements required by rule 3, she must transmit for inspection her husband's certificate of naturalization, must state that she is the wife (or widow) of the person described therein, and must set forth the facts of his emigration, naturalization, and residence, as required in the rule governing the application of a naturalized citizen.

The Child of a Naturalized Citizen Claiming Citizenship Through the Naturalization of the Parent.-In addition to the statements required by rule 3, the applicant must state that he or she is the son or daughter, as the case may be, of the person described in the certificate of naturalization, which must be submitted for inspection, and must set forth the facts of emigration, naturalization, and residence, as required in the rule governing the application of a naturalized citizen.

A Resident of an Insular Possession of the United States Who Owes Allegiance to the United States.-In addition to the statements required by rule 3, he must state that he owes allegiance to the United States and that he does not acknowledge allegiance to any other government; and must submit an affidavit from at least two credible witnesses having good means of knowledge in substantiation of his statements of birth, residence, and loyalty.

Expiration of Passport.-A passport expires two years from the date of its issuance. A new one will be issued upon a new application, and if the applicant be a naturalized citizen, the old passport will be accepted in lieu of a certificate of naturalization, if the application upon which it was issued is found to contain sufficient information as to the naturalization of the applicant.

Wife, Minor Children and Servants.—When the applicant is accompanied by his wife, minor children, or servant who would be entitled to receive a passport, it will be sufficient to state the fact, giving the respective ages of the children and the allegiance of the servant, when one passport will suffice for all. For any other person in the party a separate passport will be required. A woman's passport may include her minor children and servant under the above-named conditions.

Professional Titles. They will not be inserted in passports.

Fee.-By act of congress approved March 23, 1888, a fee of one dollar is required to be collected for every citizen's passport. That amount in currency or postal money order should accompany each application made by a citizen of the United States. Orders should be made payable to the disbursing clerk of the department of state. Drafts or checks will not be accepted.

Visas of Passports.-They will not be procured by the department of state from the representatives of foreign governments.

Blank Forms of Application.—They will be furnished by the department to persons who desire to apply for passports, but are not furnished, except as samples, to those who make a business of procuring passports.

Address.-Communications should be addressed to the department of state, passport bureau, and each communication should give the postoffice address of the person to whom the answer is to be directed.

Rejection of Application.-The secretary of State may refuse to issue a passport to any one who, he has reason to believe, desires it for an unlawful or im. proper purpose, or who is unable or unwilling to com. ply with the rules.

NATURALIZATION LAWS OF THE

UNITED STATES The conditions under and the manner in which an alien may be admitted to become a citizen of the United States are prescribed by sections 2165-74 of the Revised Statutes of the United States.

Declaration of Intentions.—The alien must declare upon oath before a circuit or district court of the United States or a district or supreme court of the territories, or a court of record of any of the states having common law jurisdiction and a seal and clerk, two years at least prior to his admission, that it is, bona fide, his intention to become a citizen of the

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