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United States, and to renounce forever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince or state, and particu. larly to the one of which he may be at the time a citizen or subject.

Oath on Application for Admission.—He must at the time of his application to be admitted declare on oath, before some one of the courts above specified, “that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and that he absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to every foreign prince, potentate, state or sovereignty, and particularly, by name, to the prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of which he was before a citizen or subject,” which proceedings must be recorded by the clerk of the court.

Conditions for Citizenship.-If it shall appear to the satisfaction of the court to which the alien has applied that he has made a declaration to become a citizen two years before applying for final papers, and has resided continuously within the United States for at least five years, and within the state or territory where such court is at the time held one year at least; and that during that time "he has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same," he will be admitted to citizenship. If the applicant has borne any hereditary title or order of obili he must make an express renunciation of the same at the time of his application.

Soldiers.-Any alien of the age of twenty-one years and upward who has been in the armies of the United States, and has been honorably discharged therefrom, may become a citizen on his petition, without any previous declaration of intention, provided that he has resided in the United States at least one year previous to his application, and is of good moral character. (It is judicially decided that residence of one year in a particular state is not requisite.)

Minors.—Any alien under the age of twenty-one years who has resided in the United States three years next preceding his arriving at that age, and who has continued to reside therein to the time he may make appli. cation to be admitted a citizen thereof, may, after he arrives at the age of twenty-one years, and after he has resided five years within the United States, including the three years of his minority, be admitted a citizen; but he must make a declaration on oath and prove to the satisfaction of the court that for two years next preceding it has been his bona fide intention to become a citizen,

Children of Naturalized Citizens.—The children of persons who have been duly naturalized, being under the age of twenty-one years at the time of the naturalization of their parents, shall, if dwelling in the United States, be considered as citizens thereof.

Citizens Children Who Are Born Abroad.—The children of persons who now are or have been citizens of the United States are, though born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, considered as citizens thereof.

Chinese.—The naturalization of Chinamen is expressly prohibited by section 14; chapter 126, laws of 1882.

Protection Abroad to Naturalized Citizens.-Section 2,000 of the Revised Statutes of the United States declares that “all naturalized citizens of the United States while in foreign countries are entitled to and shall receive from this government the same protection of persons and property which is accorded to native-born citizens."

The Right of Suffrage.—The right to vote comes from the state, and is a state gift. Naturalization is a Federal right and is a gift of the Union, not of any one state. In nearly one-half of the Union aliens (who have declared intentions) vote and have the right to vote equally with naturalized or native-born citizens. In the other half only actual citizens may vote. (See Table of Qualifications for Voting in each State, on another page.) The Federal naturalization laws apply to the whole Union alike, and provide that no alien may be naturalized until after five years' residence. Even after five years' residence and due naturalization he is not entitled to vote unless the laws of the state confer the privilege upon him, and he may vote in sev. eral states six months after landing, if he has declared his intention, under United States law, to become a citizen.

Inhabitants of the New Insular Possessions.—The inhabitants of Hawaii were declared to be citizens of the United States under the act of 1900 creating Hawaii a territory. Under the United States supreme court decision in the insular cases, in May, 1901, the inhabitants of the Philippines and Porto Rico are entitled to full protection under the Constitution, but not to the privileges of United States citizenship until congress so decrees, by admitting the countries as states or organizing them as territories.

DOMESTIC RATES OF POSTAGE All mailable matter for transmission by the United States mails within the United States is divided into four classes, under the following regulations. (Domestic rates apply to Canada, Mexico, Cuba, Tutuila, Porto Kico, Guam, Hawaii, the Philippines, and certain places in China served through the United States postal agency at Shanghai.)

First-Class Matter.-This class includes letters, postal cards, “post cards,” and anything sealed or otherwise closed against inspection, or anything containing writing not allowed as an accompaniment to printed matter under class three.

Rates of letter postage to any part of the United States, two cents per ounce or fraction thereof.

Rates on local or drop letters at free delivery offices, two cents per ounce or fraction thereof.

Rates on postal cards, one cent (double or “reply" cards, two cents). Nothing must be added or attached to a postal card, except that a printed address slip' not larger than 2 inches by 34 of an inch may be pasted on the address or message side. The addition of any. thing else subjects the card to letter postage. A card containing any threat, offensive dun, or any scurrilous or indecent communication will not be forwarded. Words on a postal card indicating the occupation of the addressee, used to better identify him, are regarded as a part of the address; anything moreas the repetition of the words on a postal card, etc., business or the several capacities in which the addressee serves, the various kinds of goods dealt in, and similar attempts at advertising on the address side of the postal card is not regarded as a "proper description of the person," and will subject the postal card to the letter rate. Cards that have been spoiled in printing or otherwise will be redeemed from the original purchasers at 75 per cent of their face value, if unmutilated.

“Private Mailing Cards,” “Post Cards,” bearing written messages may be transmitted in the domestic mails at the rate of a cent apiece, stamps to be affixed by the sender; such cards to be sent openly in the mails.

Rates on specially delivered letters, ten cents on each letter in addition to the regular postage. This entitles the letter to immediate delivery by special mes. senger. Special delivery stamps are sold at postoffices, and must be affixed to such letters. An ordinary ten. cent stamp affixed to a letter will not entitle it to special delivery. The delivery, at carrier offices, extends to the limits of the carrier routes. At non-carrier offices it extends to one mile from the postoffice. Postmasters are not obliged to deliver beyond these limits, and letters addressed to places beyond must await delivery in the usual way, notwithstanding the special delivery stamp.

Prepayment by stamps invariably required. Postage on all letters should be fully prepaid, but if prepaid one full rate and no more they will be forwarded, and the amount of deficient postage collected on delivery; if wholy unpaid, or prepaid with less than one full rate and deposited at a postoffice, the addressee will be notified to remit postage; and if he fails to do so, they will be sent to the dead letter office; but they will be returned to the sender if he is located at the place of mailing, and if his address be printed or written upon them.

Letter rates are charged on all productions by the typewriter or manifold process, and on all printed imitations of typewriting or manuscript, unless such reproductions are presented at postoffice windows in the minimum number of twenty identical copies separately addressed,

Letters (but no other class of mail matter) will be returned to the sender free, if a request to that effect is printed or written on the envelope. There is no limit of wight for first-class matter fully

id. Prepaid letters will be reforwarded from one postoffice to another upon the written request of the person addressed, without additional charge for postage. The direction on forwarded letters may be changed as many times as may be necessary to reach the person addressed.

Second-Class Matter.-This class includes all newspapers and periodicals exclusively in print that have been “Entered as second-class matter” and are regularly issued at stated intervals as frequently as four times a year, from a known office of publication or news agency, to actual subscribers or news agents, and transient newspapers and publications of this class mailed by persons other than publishers. Publications having the characteristics of books and such as are not subscribed for on account of their literary merits, but because of other inducements, are not eligible to second-class privileges. Also periodical publications of benevolent and fraternal societies, organized under the lodge system and having a membership of a thousand persons, and of the bulletins and proceedings of strictly professional, literary, historical, and scientific associations and institutions, trade unions, etc., provided only that these be published at stated intervals not less than four times a year, and that they be printed on and be bound in paper. Publishers who wish to avail themselves of the privileges of the act are required to make formal application to the department through the postmaster at the place of publication, producing satisfactory evidence that the organizations represented come within the purview of the law, and that the object of the publications is to further the objects and purposes of the organizations.

Rates of postage to publishers, one cent a pound or fractional part thereof, prepaid in currency.

Publications designed primarily for advertising or free circu.

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