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hundreds of thousands of dollars, and on the part of the State by the con. tribution of eight thousand dollars not obtained from the pockets of the tax-payers, but eight thousand dollars of other people's money."

On the other hand, the State appropriated in 1886 the sum of thirtyfive hundred dollars annually for an experiment station under the care of the university; in 1888 the sum of six thousand dollars per annum for chemistry for the next four years, two thousand four hundred dollars for tuition, and three thousand six hundred dollars for instruction in branches relating to the industrial arts.?

The following statement, together with what has already been given, will give a fair estimate of the financial condition of the university, ex.clusive of the Congressional grant:

SUMMARY.

Total value of property, exclusive of contingent fund

$520,000 Value of lands ....

130,000 Value of buildings.

200,000 Value of collections.

60,000 Value of trust fund.

120,000 The appropriations to Vermont University and State Agricultural College are as follows: Grant of “ town lots,” 29,000 acres; annual rental is $2,500; estimated value. $50,000 Annual appropriation for experiment station, $3,500 ; 1886–89

10,500 Annual appropriation for chemistry, $6,000; 1888–91, inclusive

24,000 For tuition, State students

2,400 For instruction

3,600 Total:

90,500

1 Pres. M. H. Bartlett: letter of December 20, 1888.

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STATE AID TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE MIDDLE

STATES.

The honor of planting the first schools in the territory about to be considered belongs to the Swedes and the Dutch. The colonists brought with them the institutions of their native land and endeavored to foster them in the settlements. For many years these schools were very meager affairs. They were elementary in their nature, embracing only two or three branches in their curricula. It was customary for the West India Company to send out a school-master with each party of emigrants departing for any of the colonies.

The schools in New Amsterdam were supported by the Reformed Dutch Church in connection with the authorities. The church was a state institution in the mother country, and all education was intrusted to its immediate care. The company made itself responsible for the appointment of school-masters, preachers, and tenders of the sick. These three offices frequently devolved upon the same individual, but more frequently the school-master was chorister of the church.1

The schools in New Amsterdam were licensed by civil authority. The first school-master regularly employed in the colony was Adam Rælanstein, who came to the settlement about the year 1633. It was not, however, until the year 1638 that any mention was made of taxation for the support of schools.3 This proposition received no definite action. In the year 1654 the burgomasters agreed to support at the expense of the city, one school-master, one minister, and one dogwhipper (sexton). This proposal was never put into practice. The first academy and classical school in New Amsterdam, taught by Alexander Carolus Curtius in 1659, was supported in part by tuition and in part by the Court through taxation of the people.

After the English obtained possession of the territory the same general plan of education was pursued in the New York colony as existed formerly. Thus we find that Johannes Van Eckkelen, in 1682, engaged with the “ Honorable magistrates” to “serve the Church and school" for a salary of two hundred and thirty-four guilders, in grain, in addition

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1 Pratt: Annals of Public Education in the State of New York.
2 Pratt's Annals, 4.

Ibid., 5.

4 Ibid., 6. 880 No. 1-9

129

to a tuition ranging from three to six guilders per quarter for each pupil. The school must be kept open nine months in the year.1

The General Assembly of the province took a more decided stand in 1702, and passed an act providing for a “free school in the city of New York,” to be supported by an annual tax of fifty pounds current money.

Thus gradually the schools developed from elementary to grammar grades, and by degrees the legislative authorities took more important steps toward the support of schools. But it was not until 1746 that the first movement was made toward the founding of a college. The first step was to organize a lottery to raise money to found a college. This was repeated several times, and the process of raising money by lot. teries for school purposes became a settled policy of the province. In fact, in this period it was considered a legitimate method of raising funds, and was practiced, more or less, by nearly all of the colonies.

It was not until the year 1754, one hundred and eighteen years after the founding of Harvard, that King's College was chartered. This marks the real beginning of higher education in New York. After the close of the Revolutionary War, King's College was reorganized under the name of Columbia College. The policy of the province and State toward higher education was exceedingly encouraging and liberal. All of the early colleges received valuable assistance by means of legislative endowments, grants, or appropriations.

The remarkable feature of the system of education in the Empire State is the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York. It represents centralized authority for the control of public education, particularly that usually called “higher.” In this capacity it has power to grant charters and regulate the laws pertaining to the same, though its work is seconded by legislative enactment. Through its instrumentality a property qualification has been instituted for the admission of colleges to chartered rights. This appears to be a wise measure, and would naturally have a tendency to prevent the establish. ment of institutions without financial support. If this policy had been pursued by other States fewer institutions would have been brought into existence merely to perish. The measure was not intended to check new non-State institutions. Indeed the State has ever been liberally disposed toward these institutions.

The University Convocation, called annually by the Regents of the University of the State of New York, brings together the chief educators of the State to discuss the most recent problems of education. This has a tendency to unify educational interests and create harmony in the entire system, besides keeping before the public the advanced views of the foremost men in the educational world.

The educational policy of the Swedes on the Delaware was similar to that pursued by the Dutch in New York. After the English domination the policy of Penn was decidedly in favor of founding sufficient

1 Pratt’s Annals, 6.

.

schools for the education of the people. The idea of State support developed very slowly. In Delaware the General Assembly has always encouraged all schools, and has lent a continuous support to higher education.

New Jersey has adopted an entirely independent policy in regard to higher education. Princeton College takes great pride in the fact that the State never gave any assistance to that institution.

In Pennsylvania the early schools were carried on chiefly by the Friends, the Legislature providing for the tuition of a class of indigent children. The school instituted by Benjamin Franklin was the natural successor of the school of Penn, and later developed into the Uni. versity of Pennsylvania. This institution received a new impulse in Revolutionary times under the provisions of the Constitution of 1776, which resulted in a liberal State endowment.

A remarkable feature of education in Pennsylvania appears after the war, in the numerous grants and endowments made to private and sectarian institutions. Academies, seminaries, and colleges sprang up rapidly through State encouragement and assistance. This process finally developed into a system whereby the State could easily provide teachers for primary and secondary schools by the support of colleges and academies. The system finally broke down with its own weight, and there has arisen in its place a complete normal system for the preparation of teachers. State aid for higher education, with the exception of appropriations to the State College and a recent donation for a hospital in Pennsylvania University, has entirely ceased.

NEW YORK.

THE DUTCH COLONY.

In the early history of the colony of New Netherlands there are frequent references to the schools which were established for the benefit of the colonists. Nearly all of these schools were of an elementary character, and were chiefly taught by teachers sent out from Holland in the employ of the Dutch West India Company. In 1659, at the earnest request of the “burgomasters" and "schepens” of New Am. sterdam, Alexander Curtius was sent out to form a school of higher grade, in which instruction could be given? " in the most useful languages, the chief of which is the Latin tongue.”2 It was desired that this Latin school should finally develop into an academy. This, the only school of higher grade recorded in the Dutch period, closed when the English took possession of New Amsterdam.

Historical Records, 26.

An earlier document has been found in reference to this same school, being a communication from the directors of the West India Company to the director-generalPratt's Annals, 21.

ENGLISH COLONY.

Under the English government that followed there were numerous attempts to establish and maintain Latin schools. The first was opened in 1688 by the Jesuit Fathers, under the direction of Governor Dongan. In 1702, when Viscount Cornbury was Governor, an act was passed which provided for a Latin free school, and appropriated fifty pounds sterling, annually for seven years, for its support. Under this act George Muirson was licensed, in 1704, to instruct “in the English, Latin, and Greek tongues or languages, and also in the arts of writing and arithmetic.” 2

The most important school of this kind was established by Mr. Mal. colm in 1732, to teach Greek, Latin, and mathematics. This school was established by an act of the General Assembly, which provided for its support by appropriation of all the revenues arising from licensing peddlers and hawkers about the city of New York. The assembly also voted 40 pounds per annum for five years, to be raised by taxation, for the support of the school.

After the expiration of this time, and during the unsettled period of the French and Indian wars, there is very little in the annals of the English colony to indicate any public aid to education. It is not supposable that the schools thus started were suddenly given up; but they were probably carried on by private parties, and therefore did not enter into the history of colonial affairs.

KING'S COLLEGE.

As early as the year 1702, we find references to the founding of a university on the “King's Farm "in New York City. The subject was broached again in 1729, but no action was taken until December 6, 1746, when the General Assembly of the colony passed an act for raising the sum of £2,250 by a public lot tery, for the encouragement of learning and for the founding of a college. Other acts followed, and at the close of 1751 the funds, amounting to £3,433 188, were vested in a board of trustees. Of these trustees two belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church, one to the Presbyterian, and the remaining seven to the Church of England.

The King granted a charter, donated land, and appropriated money for the founding of the college. The charter was granted in 1754, un. der the title of King's College. The General Assembly, by a subsequent act, provided for its support by granting an excise tax on liquors. A large amount of land had been given to Trinity Church by the King's grant for its support, and on the 13th of May, 1755, the corporation of

1 David Murray, in Historical Records, 26.
2 Annals of Education, 87.
• Historical Sketch of Columbia College, 6.
*F. B. Hough, Hist. Rec., 39.

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