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It was a recognition of the principle that the higher education is necessary to the existence of the lower, and that the State has a right, and owes it as a duty to the people, to provide such when necessary for the same.

The seminaries and academies of Pennsylvania established at this period (prior to 1838) cannot be strictly classified under the head of higher education. The majority of those established fall under a classification of secondary instruction, while a few may be classified with institutions of higher learning. Yet they are worthy of notice in the State structure of education, on account of the relation which they bear to the State policy and to institutions of higher education. The order of development of the State system was, university, college, academy, seminary, and common school.

Before the firm establishment of the last, common schools, the State policy in regard to the other classes of institutions mentioned had changed.

From 1784 to 1829, sixty academies and seminaries were chartered, each receiving, with two or three exceptions, an endowment by the State either in money or land, or in both. The aggregate amount of the appropriations by the Legislature to these institutions during the period was $118,900 and over 37,480 acres of land.

Dr. Burrowes, Secretary of the State, reports in 1837 to the constitutional convention as follows:

66 Academies from forty-five counties have from time to time received aid from the State, sometimes in money, generally in the proportion of two thousand dollars to each county, amounting to $106,900, and sometimes in land, whose value it is difficult to estimate, but supposed to be worth at least $135,000, making a gross amount of $241,900.” 2

The law of 1838 ' caused a rapid increase in the amount expended in endowments and appropriations for academies and seminaries.

Within a short time after its passage, many institutions were chartered, seven of which received the regular two thousand dollar endowment, and others received land. The regular appropriations to academies and female seminaries for the six years following its passage were as follows:4

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1 Wickersham, 379–80.
? Quoted by Wickersham.

3 See School Legislation.
Wickersham, 386-7.

The total amount appropriated during this period was, by general law, $171,170.85, and by special appropriation, $14,000. Prior to this there had been granted $241,900, making a total grant to academies and seminaries of $427,070.85.

PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE.

At a meeting of the State Agricultural Society of Pennsylvania, held at Harrisburg, in January, 1853, measures were adopted for the establishment of an agricultural school. As a result of these measures the Farmers' High School was incorporated by an act approved April 13, 1854. In July of the following yearl the executive committee of the State Society donated the sum of ten thousand dollars, and two hundred acres of land in Centre County, to the school. Centre County also gave ten thousand dollars for the purchase of two hundred acres of land joining the site, for the benefit of the school.

Private donations followed, and in the year 1857 the Legislature granted the sum of fifty thousand dollars for the support of the school, on condition that a like sum be obtained by private donation. In 1859 the school was formally opened, there being in this year one hundred and twenty-three pupils in attendance. By reason of this successful showing the Legislature was prevailed upon to appropriate an additional fifty thousand dollars in the year 1861. The following year the name of the school was changed to that of "Agricultural College of Pennsylvania.3

Subsequently the college received the United States grant of seven hundred and eighty thousand acres of land, and the scrip yielded from sale the sum of $439,186.80.4 Of this sum, $43,886.50 were used to purchase an experimental farm and the remainder was placed to the credit of the college, as a permanent endowment. The latter sum had increased by investment to the amount of $410,290.50 in 1872, when the Legislature raised the endowment fund, by a special act, to an even

alf-million. The name of the college was changed again, in 1874, to "Pennsylvania State College. Subsequently the Legislature granted to the college, at different times, the total amount of $154,285. The entire amount granted is as follows: From the Legislature to Farmers' High School....

$100,000.00 From the Legislature to State College

274, 609.00 From United States land scrip..

451, 187.00 From other sources

164, 285.00 Estimated value of property (1885)

451, 615. 17

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1 Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1868, 259.
' Ibid., 260.
3 Laws of 1861.
4 Wickersham, 434.
6 Laws of 1872, 39.
6 Wickersham, 434.
?Ibid.

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In New Jersey, as in Delaware, education was, in early times, closely connected with religion. "The school-house was the general attendant of the place of worship.” The basis for a settled school-fund was laid in 1683 by setting apart for educational purposes the proceeds of the sale or lease of a valuable island in the Delaware. In 1693 the General Assembly of East New Jersey passed an “ Act for the establishment of school-masters in the province;” the election of three school commissioners in each town was authorized and compulsory taxation provided for.1

Higher education was first made possible by the establishment of the College of New Jersey in 1746. While the attitude of the colony and the State toward this institution has been friendly, aid has been granted only in the form of a liberal charter, amended from time to time on the petition of the trustees. “ The Legislature of New Jersey never contributed any funds for sustaining its oldest college." 2

New Jersey's share in the land granted for agricultural colleges (forty thousand acres) was accepted by an act of March 21, 1863, and in the following year the proceeds of the sales of scrip were granted to the scientific department of Rutgers College. The annual income from this source is $6,960.5

New Jersey's position, with reference to higher education, has been passive, though not unfriendly.

DELAWARE.

EARLY EDUCATION.

The first settlement in Delaware was made by the Swedes in 1638. In Sweden, at this time, the elements of learning were probably more widely diffused than in any other country of Europe, and it is not surprising to meet with provisions for education in the early documents

1 Raum: History of New Jersey, II, 285. Report of the United States Commissioner of Education for 1876, 262.

> Maclean: History of the College of New Jersey, I, 67. 3 Laws of 1863, 441. * Laws of 1864, 650. Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1867–68, 187. • Reports of Rutgers Scientific School.

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relating to the colony. Thus, in 1640, in the grant to Henry Hockhammer and others to establish a settlement in New Sweden, we find that “the patrons of this colony shall be obliged to support, at all times, as many ministers and school-masters as the number of inhabitants shall seem to require, and to choose, moreover, for this purpose, persons who have at heart the conversion of the pagan inhabitants to Christianity."i Similar directions are contained in the instructions to Governor Printz in 1642.2

After the colony passed into the hands of the Dutch, in 1655, provisions for education continued to be made. In the conditions offered by the city of Amsterdam to settlers in its colony at Newcastle, 1656, we read: “Said city shall cause to be erected,” a house for public wor. ship, “ also house for a school.

The city shall provisionally provide and pay the salary of a minister and school-master.93 We have no evidence, however, that the school was built. Indeed, “there is no record showing the existence of a school-house in the colonies on the Delaware up to the year 1682.94 This does not mean that there was no education; the churches served as school-houses and the clergymen as teachers, as was frequently the case in Europe at that time. Much instruction was also given at home, as the scattered character of the settlements made necessary. There also seem to have been schoolmasters, for we find Andreas Hudde applying to the director-general and council for appoinment as school-master in 1654, and in 1663 the inhabitants of Tinnekonk desired to engage Abelius Zetscoven for a similar service, but those of New Amstel would not dismiss him."

For sometime after the English gained control of the colony the Swedes on the Delaware maintained schools of their own, in which Swedish teachers were employed and the Swedish language taught, but in the eighteenth century these schools quietly disappeared. The preamble of an act of the Assembly in 1744 is interesting, as showing the continuance of the close connection of religion with education. It reads thus: “Whereas, Sundry Religious Societies of People within this Government

have * * purchased small Pieces of Land within this Government, and thereon have erected Churches and other Houses of religious Worship, School-Houses."9 The educational condition of Delaware, or the Territories, as it was then called, in 1758 is thus described by a contemporary writer: “In almost every ridge of

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1 Hazard: Annals of Pennsylvania, 53.
2 Narrative and Critical History of America, IV, 453.
3 New York Colonial Documents, I, 620.
*Ibid., 11.
Ibid., 15.
6 Hazard, 173.
"Ibid., 353.
8 Ibid., 79.

' Laws of the Governinentof New Castle, Kent, and Sussex upon Delaware: Wilmington, 1763, I, 272. The act confirmed the titles of the religious bodies to the lands.

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woods there is a school-house.

None, whether boys or girls, are now growing up who cannot read English, write, and cipher. 1

So far education and religion had gone hand in hand. In 1796 the Legislature directed that the receipts from marriage and tavern licenses between February 9, 1796, and January 1, 1806, should be set aside to establish schools for the purpose of giving the inhabitants a good English education. It was distinctly provided that the same should not be applied to the erecting or supporting any academy, college, or university in the State.”2 With one exception this is the first instance of State aid to education in Delaware.

The exception referred to was the grant of a lot of land in New Cas. tle in 1772 for the support of a school. The land was vested in trustees for the use of a school, with directions that a school house or houses be built thereon:3

DELAWARE COLLEGE.

teen years

of age,

We find the germ of Delaware College in an act of 1818, which permitted a lottery for the purpose of raising fifty thousand dollars to establish a college at Newark. In 1821 the college was granted the proceeds of certain taxes on stage lines and on steam-boats plying between Philadelphia and points on the Delaware. The tax on stage lines was to be eight per cent. on all fares received from persons over four

and four per cent. from those between four and fourteen. Each steam-boat was to pay twenty-five cents for each passenger over fourteen, and twelve-and-a-half cents for every one between four and fourteen. This act was repealed the next year. In 1824 it was ordered that the money raised by the above methods should be invested in some productive stock, and that this stock, the dividends on it, and further donations should form the “College Fund.” In 1833 Newark College was incorporated. The money for its erection and maintenance was to be supplied by the College Fund.” 8 In 1835 another lottery was authorized to raise fifty thousand dollars for the college.

By the act of Congress granting land for agricultural colleges, Delaware received ninety thousand acres. The grant was accepted in 1867, and it was directed that the proceeds of the sales of land scrip should

9

Acrelius: History of New Sweden, translated by Wm. M. Reynolds, D. D., as Vol. XI of the Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, pp. 351, 352.

2 Laws of Delaware, I, 1296. Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1876, 55. 3 Laws of New Castle, Kent, and Sussex, II, 268.

4 Laws, V, 278. A lottery had been authorized in 1811 to raise ten thousand dollars for the use of the collega of Wilmington (Laws, IV, 465), and similar instances occur in the case of academies.

6 Laws, VI, 61.
6 Ibid., 265.
7 Ibid., 380.
8 Ibid., VIII, 249.
9 Ibid., 355.

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