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made, which was to be devoted to the support of the institute, ten thousand dollars to be paid in 1860 and ten thousand dollars in the year following. A bronze statue of Washington was placed in the campus of the Military Institute by the Assembly at a cost of ten thousand dollars.

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HAMPDEN-SIDNEY COLLEGE.

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Hampden-Sidney College was incorporated in May, 1783, although the institution had existed prior to this in the form of an academy, which was founded in 1775 and opened in 1776. An act was passed by the Assembly in May, 1777, permitting Hampden-Sidney to raise funds by means of a lottery, to erect additional buildings. The academy had been founded by subscription in Prince Edward's County.”

The trustees were appointed to hold successive power; they were , granted authority to make rules for governing themselves and the school, and to elect professors. , "And that in order to preserve in the minds of the students that sacred love and attachment which they should ever bear to the principles of the present glorious revolution, the greatest care and caution shall be used in electing such professors and masters, to the end that no person shall be so elected unless the uniform tenor of his conduct manifest to the world his sincere affection for the liberty and independence of the United States of America.”

Hampden-Sidney received but little aid from the State. There is re. corded but one land grant, that of 412 acres of escheated lands, formerly belonging to British subjects in America, or Tories, and located in Prince Edward's County. This grant was made to the college in May, 1784.4

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HAMPTON NORMAL AND AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTE.

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This institution was first incorporated by the circuit court of the county of Elizabeth, on September 21, 1868, and afterward formally incorporated by the Legislature, June 4, 1870.

The purpose of the institution was to instruct youth 6 in the various common school, academic, and collegiate branches, the best method of teaching the same, and the best method of practical industry in its ap. plication to agriculture and the mechanic arts. 5

The institute was established especially for the benefit of the colored citizens of the State of Virginia. It is under the control of five curators, of whom at least three are to be colored, and all are to be appointed by the Governor of the State. On condition that the institute receives the benefit of one-third of the Congressional grant, one hundred colored

1 Campbell's History of Virginia, 677. 2 Hening's Statutes, Vol. IX, chap. 22, p. 321. 3 Ibid., Vol. XI, chap. 28, p. 274. *Ibid., chap. 25, p. 392. 5Acts of the Assembly, 1869–70, chap. 123, p. 166.

students are to have the advantage of free tuition, said students to be selected from the best schools in the State. For the fiscal year ending September 30, 1888, the State appropriated ten thousand dollars for buildings and ten thousand dollars for the support of the school.'

VIRGINIA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE

In 1870 the Board of Education of Virginia was empowered by the Legislature to sell the land scrip of the Congressional grant and invest the proceeds in State bonds for the support of one or more schools, in accordance with the provisions of the United States act of 1862.2

By an act of the Assembly approved March 19, 1872, the interest on the land-scrip fund was devoted, one-third to the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, and two-thirds to the Preston and Olin Institute. The grant to the latter was made on the following conditions: (1) That the name of the institute be changed to the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College; (2) that all property belonging to the institute be transferred to the new corporation; (3) that the new college give free tuition to as many students as there are members of the House of Delegates, and (4) that Montgomery County contribute the sum of twenty thousand dollars for farm and buildings.3

These conditions were complied with, and the college was organized at Blacksburg, Montgomery County, in 1872. The number of visitors who were to have control of the college was fixed at eight, to be appointed by the Governor. This number was, however, changed to nine in 1878, and then reduced again to eight in 1880.

It seems that the State was tardy in making appropriations for the the new college, as there were other State institutions having prior claims. The first State appropriation was made in 1877, when the Legislature voted for repairs and improvements the sum of $16,250, of which one-third was to be paid in July, 1877, one-third in January, 1878, and the remainder in July of the same year (1878).*

In March, 1878, an act was passed admitting to the college twice as many free students as there were members of the House of Delegates.5 For the fiscal year ending September 30, 1888, the Legislature appropriated twelve thousand dollars to the Agricultural College, ten thousand dollars for barracks, and two thousand dollars for repairs.

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1 Letter from the Secretary of the State Board of Education. 2 Acts of the Assembly, 1870–71, chap. 69, p. 48. 3Ibid., 1871-72, chap. 234, p. 312. *Ibid., 1876–77, chap. 303, p. 304. Ibid., 1877–78, p. 238. 6 Letter from the Secretary of the State Board of Education.

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SUMMARY OF GRANTS AND APPROPRIATIONS,

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William and Mary College. Royal grants : 1693—Quitrents and money 1693–Tax on tobacco exported, one penny per pound. 1693—All profits arising from fees in surveyor-general's office. 1693—Twenty thousand acres of land.

General Assembly grants: 1693—Tax on goods, wares, and merchandise imported. 1718-Money appropriations (about $3,333).... 1726_Tax of one penny per gallon on imported wines, rum, etc., per annum 1734–Tax of one penny per pound on tobacco exported into North Caro

lina from Virginia. 1759–Tax on license to peddlers, on each £3. 1784—Grant of “palace lands” in Williamsburg and James City. 1888—Special money appropriation ...,

£1,000

£200

$10,000

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Hampton Vormal and Agricultural Institute. Total special appropriations....

$30, 229

Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College.

Total special appropriations.

96, 183

Grand total....

3,558,512

It is necessary to state that the money value of all of the early grants to the several schools cannot be determined with exactness, and if it were possible to make an exact estimate the result would be only comparative, as the value of money in early times was really many times greater than at present.

It is believed that the above statement carries with it the force of an historic estimate, as it shows fully the attitude of Virginia towards higher education, and to what extent the State lent her support to advanced learning.

The following extract from Mr. J. A. Megilary, Secretary of the Board of Education of the State of Virginia, shows what the State is doing at the present time for education :

I have to say that the following statement shows the appropriations made at the last session of the General Assembly for the support of the several State educational institutions named, for the fiscal year ending September 3, 1888: Deaf, dumb, and blind institution 1

$35, 000 Medical College of Virginia ($3,500 for repairs, etc., $1,500 for support) 5,000 University of Virginia ($5,000 for repairs, $30,000 for support)..

35,000 Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute ($10,000 for buildings, $10,000 for support)

20,000 State Female Normal School1....

10,000 Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College (repairs, $2,000; barracks, $10,000)...

12,000 Virginia Military Institute

30,000 In addition to these appropriations the State pays interest on bonds of the State held by the several State educational institutions amounting to about fifty thousand dollars per annum; and to other than State educational institutions, interest on State bonds amounting to about forty thousand dollars per annum.

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WEST VIRGINIA.

WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY.

Public aid to higher education in West Virginia began with the Con. gressional land grant for agricultural coileges. In the act accepting this the Legislature provided that the proceeds of the land sales should be invested in bonds of the United States, bearing at least five per cent, interest, and directed that the college should be established within five years.?

In 1866 the trustees of Monongalia Academy tendered to the State all the property of the academy, estimated at fifty-one thousand dollars, on condition that the agricultural college should be located at or near Morgantown. To these terms the Legislature agreed, and a law was passed for the establishment of the college.3 In 1868 the name of the institution was changed from West Virginia Agricultural College to

1 Not within the scope of this paper. 2 Laws of 1863, 55. Laws of 1867, 12. - Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1867–68, 207.

West Virginia University. In addition to the fund arising from the land sales, now about ninety thousand dollars, ten thousand dollars were granted for an endowment in 1868, and an equal amount in 1871. Including the appropriation for 1887, twenty-one thousand dollars, the State has granted the university $278,926.90.

As these figures indicate, the attitude of West Virginia toward the higher education has been favorable and her support liberal.

MARYLAND.

EARLY HISTORY.

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There was a proposal in the Legislature of Maryland in the year 1671 to establish a school or college. A bill was framed and passed in the Upper House of the Assembly, entitled "An act for the founding and erecting of a school or college within this province for the education of youth in learning and virtue." 4 The Lower House returned the bill to the Upper with certain amendments attached, which were not accepted by that body, and hence the bill never became a law.

Nothing more was done by Maryland for the next twenty years toward the establishment of schools within her borders. At the expiration of this time Governor Nichols prepared a plan for a free school (i. e., a liberal or Latin school). He communicated his plan to the Assembly in his message of 1694. The proposed school was to be organized and controlled by the Legislature, but its financial support was to be derived from subscriptions. The Governor himself offered a liberal donation, and requested the members of the Assembly to give as they felt able. Thereupon, the members of the House of Burgesses subscribed forty-five thousand pounds of tobacco in behalf of the new enterprise.

In the same year (1694) the Assembly passed an act for the maintenance of free schools in the province by laying a tax on furs, beef, bacon, and other exports of the colony. From this time, for thirty years, nearly the entire support of the free schools was derived from the taxation of exports and imports.

A law was at this time also passed for the encouragement of learning, embodying in its sections provision for the support of schools, but it was repealed two years later, in 1696. At this date a petitionary act was passed by the General Assembly of Maryland, praying for the establishment of a free school or schools.5

Laws, extra session of 1868, 71.
2 Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1886–87,670.
3 Ibid., 661.
4 Archives of Maryland, edited by Dr. William Hand Browne. -
6 Laws of 1696, chap. 17.

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