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the lands south of Tennessee, Congress reserved a township of land for Jefferson College. Federal assistance did not here, as was so often the case elsewhere, put a stop to local effort. In 1811 the Legislature granted for the use and benefit of the college the property of all intestates dying without heirs in the United States. This act remained in force ten years. The State loaned the college six thousand dollars in 1816,3 and four thousand dollars in 1820.4
The college is now extinct.
In 1830 Mississippi Academy, in Hinds County, became Mississippi College. A loan of five thousand dollars for a year and a half had been made by the State in 1829,6 and in 1833 this was revived for five years.?
UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI.
In addition to the township of land granted to Jefferson College, Congress in 1819 gave another township for the support of a seminary of learning. The lands were judiciously located and leased until 1833. In that year commissioners were appointed to sell them and invest the money in bank stock.9 “ Nearly all the proceeds of the Congressional land grant were lost on account of the wild and ruinous financial policy of the State which followed.” 10 The whole matter is much confused.
The first legislative movement toward establishing the University of Mississippi was in 1840. It was then directed that a university should be established and that it should have the income of the seminary fund, as the fund arising from the land sales was called.11 A site was selected, and in 1844 the university was incorporated. In 1846 it was granted fifty thousand dollars “out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated.912 Two years later the institution was formally opened.13 The State treasurer was directed to pay the university $6,226.75 a year, besides 6 per cent. interest on the amount then in the treasury.14 In 1850 we find an annual appropriation of a “further sum” of six thousand dollars, one-half from the revenue in the treasury and one-half from further sales of seminary land.15 On the establishment of a new professorship in 1854,16 and on a similar occasion in 1860,47 a salary of two thousand dollars a year was paid by the State. In his message of 1856 Governor McRae found the sum due from the State to the university to be $1,077,790.07. The appropriations made from time to time, with
1U. S. Statutes at Large, II, 234.
10 Address by Chancellor Waddell.
their proper interest, being deducted, there was left $874,324.49 as the actual amount due in 1856. A bill was introduced acknowledging this indebtedness, but the only result was an appropriation of twenty thousand dollars annually for five years, extended for two years longer in 1860.1 In 1860 a commissioner was appointed to investigate the seminary fund and give the status of the account with the university, but we find no record of his report.
After the War the twenty thousand dollar appropriation was renewed.3 In the same year, 1867, commissioners were appointed to carry on a lottery; they were to pay five thousand dollars to the university before commencing business. In 1871 fifty thousand dollars was granted annually for ten years. The warrants of the State sold for but seventyfour per cent., however, and in 1875 this appropriation was replaced by one of thirty-five thousand dollars and one-half of the interest on the agricultural college land scrip. Since then the appropriations have varied in amount. " In 1874 a careful calculation showed that the fund belonging to the university in the hands of the State amounted to over one million five hundred thousand dollars."? In 1880, " whereas the State of Mississippi did collect the proceeds arising from the sale of said lands and has never accounted for the same to the University of Mississippi,” we find the Legislature engaging to pay interest on $544,061.23 at six per cent. and appropriating $32,643 annually as such in terest.8
Up to 1888, the University of Mississippi has received from the State, exclusive of the land-scrip fund, nearly one million dollars. How much of this was appropriated as interest on the seminary fund and how much as direct gift it is impossible to determine.
AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE.
The Constitution of 1868 directed that the Legislature should provide for the establishment of an agricultural college or colleges, and should take charge of the two hundred and ten thousand acres of land granted for that purpose. The lands, which amounted to but 207,920 acres, yielded a net sum of $227,500.1 In 1873 it was directed that all moneys from the sale of land scrip should be used only for the construction of
1 Chancellor Waddell's address. Laws of 1856, 76. Laws of 1859–60, 238.
6 Annual catalogue for 1871. The State also gave, in scholarships, one hundre: dollars to one student from each county.
7 Chancellor Waddell's address. 8 Laws of 1880, 192.
9 Art. VIII, sec. 8, Poore, 1090. Report of U. S. Commissioner of Education for 1867, 130*. 10 Catalogue of Alcorn University for 1866–67.
the Vicksburg and Nashville Railroad.' This was virtually repealed by an act of 1876, which provided that this road should deposit in the treasury State bonds to the full amount of the land-scrip fund before any of the latter could be drawn out, and in case the road failed to comply within sixty days the fund was to remain in the treasury.? From 1875 to 1878 one-half of the interest on the fund went to the State university. In 1878 the fund was divided equally between the State Agricultural and Mechanical College at Starkville, for white students, and Alcorn University, for colored students.3
In addition to its share in this fund, $5,678.75 annually, the college at Starkville has received from the State $330,650.
Alcorn University at Rodney was establised in 1871, and given fifty thousand dollars a year for ten years. In 1875 this was changed to fifteen thousand dollars and one-half of the interest on the land scrip fund. Appropriations have since varied. The total amount set aside by the Legislature, exclusive of interest on the fund, is $275,865. The share of this institution in the land scrip fund is $113,575, invested at five per cent.
MISSISSIPPI INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE.
Tbis institution, for the education of white girls of the State of Mississippi in the arts and sciences," was founded at Columbus in 1884, receiving an annual appropriation of twenty-thousand dollars. The total amount received is $107,857.50.
The Constitution of 1832 declares that “ schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged in this State. Besides the provision regarding the Congressional land grant, the Constitution of 1868 orders the establishment of a uniform school system and directs that the Legislature shall, “ as soon as practicable, establish schools of higher grade.”.
APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1887.10
Agricultural and Mechanical College at Starkville, in addition to amount derived from land-scrip fund
$25,000.00 Industrial Institute at Columbus.
29, 928.75 Alcorn University, including interest on land-scrip fund
11,000.00 University of Mississippi..
32, 643.00 Total...
$98,571.75 1 Laws of 1873, 516.
7 Laws of 1884, 50. 2 Laws of 1876, 64.
8 Art. VII, sec. 14, Poore, 1077. Report of Com3 Laws of 1878, 118.
missioner of Education for 1867, 107. 4 Laws of 1871, 716.
"Art. VIII, sec. 1, Poore, 1089. Report of Com. 5 Laws of 1875, 36.
missioner of Education for 1867, 130.* 6 ( ne of 1886–87.
10 Laws of 1886, 7.
Public aid has been of great importance in Mississippi education. The beginning of three of the most important institutions of learning came from the Federal Government, but the State has taken these germs and developed them into a vigorous life. The following is a summary of the donations of the State: Agricultural and Mechanical College.
$330, 650,00 Alcorn University ....
275, 865. 00 Mississippi Industrial Institute..
$714, 372.50 University of Mississippi, including income from seminary fund, about..$1,000,000.00
While Louisiana was yet under Territorial government the respective parishes were authorized in 18081 to establish elementary schools. The first State Constitution, adopted in 1812, made no mention of education, but the Legislature enacted laws providing for the establishment of parish schools. In 1814 the elementary parish schools were placed under the care and supervision of the police juries, and at the same time the sum of six hundred dollars annually was granted to each parish for the maintenance of said school or schools.
This sum was increased to eight hundred dollars by an act of 1821, and finally fixed at $1,350 by an act of 1827.3
But free schools were not established; these appropriations were made to institutions which were limited by a law to receive each only eight indigent pupils for instruction. Plans for a public school system had not yet been entertained.
The schools of the State in early times were usually meagre affairs. Although the State passed numerous acts for the assistance of schools and the endowments of academies and colleges, she did not make a decided attempt to establish a system of public education until 1845. The Constitution adopted at this time provided for free public schools throughout the State, for the protection of land grants, and for a State university.
The public school system did not go into effect until 1847, and the university was established in 1855.
1 Report of Commissioner of Education, 1867–68, 102. 2 Ibid., 1876, 146. 3 E. H. Farrar; Address, 1880, 5. 4 Title VII, Constitution, 1845.
A step toward higher education was made by the act of the Legislature of 1833, which provided for an academy in each parish, and appropriated fifty thousand dollars for their annual support. The Legis. lature likewise, at various times, incorporated and endowed numerous colleges and academies, most of which passed out of existence before they entered the realm of higher education.
Concerning these institutions Mr. Farrar says in an address before the University of Louisiana in 1880 : “ After considerable labor given to find out exactly the sums expended by the State in the endowment and maintenance of these organizations, I have found it next to impossible to obtain full and accurate data; however, it is safe to assert that the sums thus expended will reach two millions of dollars." 1
Having enumerated many (33) of the institutions thus created, Mr. Farrar says: “From the enumerations thus given it is obvious that if the interest taken by our people in public education should be measured by the liberality with which they have created and endowed institutions for that purpose, the measurement to be awarded them would be far from insignificant. But the important factor to be considered in this measurement is : What has become of these institutions ? What is their history? What have we done towards elevating the standard of education in Louisiana ? Melancholy, indeed, is the answer that comes to this questioning. With very few exceptions that answer is, They have perished, utterly.?” The exceptions are: Centenary College, Jefferson College, and the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College. These three institutions are the sole living remnants of all those just mentioned." Since this address was made there has been a decided quickening of higher education in Louisiana. The State, as heretofore, is endeavoring to aid education, and with good effect.
THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA (TULANE).
This institution had its origin in certain land grants made by the United States for the use of a seminary of learning." By an act of the General Government passed in 1806 one township of land was granted for the above named purpose, and in 1811 another township was added to this and both were confirmed by an act * (of 1824) which also authorized their location. 5
1 E. H. Farrar: Address, 4.
* By the reading of the act of 1811 three townships are granted, but this was probably not so intended, for by the act of 1827 only two townships are confirmed.