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predecessors by the vastly greater number of facts which he has contrived to pack into the same number of pages. This appears even with regard to the many very excellent diagrams he has employed. Not one of them is of the type so dear to the heart of the average economist-namely, pure geometrical structures designed to illustrate pure economic reasoning. All are based upon statistics obtained from the latest and most reliable sources. Besides the diagrams and cartograms numerous tables are included in the text. In the discussion of such matters as density, concentration and distribution of population Professor Seligman also evinces a tendency to go into the statistical field somewhat beyond the usual treatment of population in economic treatises. A separate chapter on insurance (Chapter XXXII.) represents another innovation, the timeliness of which can hardly be questioned.
In dealing with matters of theory, the new text-book may be described as at once conservative and eclectic. The statement of the law of population (pages 60-65) will serve as an example, the author's apparent purpose be
ing to formulate and reconcile all divergent opinions from Malthus to the present time. Another example may be found in the various discussions of land and rent, capital and interest. At first, Professor Seligman goes so far with the more recent critics of the old theories on these subjects (pages 15, 204), that his final insistence upon the original categories (pages 371, 392) is rather surprising. The elaborate and not easily comprehensible system of division and subdivision of the text results in a rather disjointed treatment of many topics, as in the case of those just mentioned. Nevertheless, Professor Seligman's clearness and conciseness of style has enabled him to handle his great store of materials with conspicuous effect. Particularly noteworthy in this way are his discussions of even such hackneyed topics as the modern [economic] problems of America (page 106), division of labour (page 290), justification of land rent (page 388), protection and free trade (page 505) and luxury (page 580).
EDUCATIONAL BOOK NOTES
Two volumes have recently been added to this series. These are not simply historical narratives, but the author of each has seized upon some underlying principle which explains the origin and development of the respective commonwealth, and their significance in our national life. With the volume on Rhode Island, by Irving B. Richman, the explanatory principle is the tendency towards separation. Through religious separation the colony had its origin; the extreme individualistic character of the people explains its commercial, industrial, social, educational, religious and political development and distinguishes the inhabitants of this little colony from those of its more powerful neighbours. Such, of course, was the feature of the Revolutionary and the Dorr Rebellion period, and such, according to the author. is the explanation of the more recent political life of the State. In the case of Louisiana, by Albert Phelps, the key of exposition is expansion. The acquisition and development of the territory from
*Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Boston.
R. C. B.
which his unique commonwealth has grown is treated as the climax of the long struggle between the Anglo-Saxon and the Latin races for the mastery of the continent. The Civil War constitutes a struggle for economic and social expansion, while the Reconstruction period forms but an obstacle to the natural expansion which should have come after a cheerful acceptance of the result of that struggle-an expansion which is just now being attained. The lamentable errors of the postrebellion period are handled in no mincing words, and the present-day social, racial and political problems, so far as distinctive. receive treatment. The volume is among the most scholarly of the extensive literature called forth by the recent centennial anniversary of the acquisition of this vast territory.
THE AMERICAN JUDICIARY.*
The American Judiciary, by Simeon E. Baldwin, is a volume of the "American Citizens' Library," and a worthy companion piece to the preceding numbers. It sets
*The Century Company, New York.
forth not only the origin, nature, organisation and operative processes of American courts, but discusses as well such topics as the law's delays, the character of the bench and bar, and the relation of the people towards the judiciary.
THE BUSINESS OF LIFE INSURANCE.*
The Business of Life Insurance, by Miles M. Dawson, is an excellent book on a timely subject. Among the illusions dissipated by the current legislative examination of the insurance. business is that of the occult power of the actuary. Yet the very committee conducting the investigation has an official actuary-who is the author of this book. And the service performed in this clear exposition of the business of life insurance is a worthy one. At any other time this volume could hardly be included under educational works, but at present the entire people is going to school on this subject, and is being educated and enlightened very rapidly. So there is a need of text-books: many are being produced. This is one of the best. Any person intending to take out a policy who fails to read this or some similar work is certainly very shortsighted.
Business Law. by Ernest W. Huffcut, Dean of the Cornell College of Law. is a text-book for commercial courses in high schools and colleges that follows the regular text-book method of exposition rather than the case method, which would hardly be possible in a brief course. Each point, however, is abundantly illustrated by examples, which in most instances consist in cases decided in court. The text covers the entire scope of business law, including law pertaining to general industrial conditions, though provision is made for the omission of certain portions for briefer courses.
tional rather than an analytical or merely logical presentation of the subject. Of this type, one each in grammar, rhetoric and literature, come to hand this month. The first is A Brief English Grammar,* by Professor F. N. Scott and Miss Gertrude Buck. The text designs, in giving the structure of the native tongue, to emphasise the meaning of the form, to make these forms vital and living to the child by connecting the word on the page with the thought which is expressed and the experience that created it. Language form throughout is presented through language function. In the Rhetoric in Practice.t by Professors A. T. Newcomer and S. S. Seward of Leland Stanford. the same working conception is adopted. The text in rhetoric becomes but a guide to the creative task of giving forceful and effective expression to one's thought, not the discretion of lifeless material to suit certain formal classificatory norms. The English Literature, also by Professor Newcomer, applies the same general conception again to the study of literature. From this point of view the purpose of the teaching of literature is to develop an æsthetic appreciation for literature, while the more rational analytical element is desirable only as a necessary basis for the cultivation of this æsthetic sense. In the text. then, biographical and historical material throughout is given a wholly subordinate place. and logical analysis and criticism but a means to the ultimate end.
A wholly different kind of text is Professor J. H. Gilmore's Outlines of English and American Literature. In reality but a syllabus of a course of lectures, it aims merely to give the essential facts, biographical and historical. This it does in a most excellent fashion, with discriminating analysis, brevity and scholarly acumen. A Short History of England's Literature.§ bv Eva March Tappan, is a high-school text, which again emphasises literary appreciation rather than information or even scholarship as the object of study, but seeks as its chief means to develop this. to arouse the interest of the pupil by a rather extensive use of biographical. social and his torical material, and even technical criticism
Another book which aims to give at the sam time knowledge of the facts of English literature and an appreciation of the artistic qualities of great authors. is the First View of English Literature. by W. V. Moody and R. M. Lovett. Besides the text, there are illustrations superior to those commonly found, tables of reference. a reading guide to each chapter and questions for review. Reference may be made to it later in this department.
ETHICAL GAINS THROUGH LEGISLATION**
Because of the facts presented, the situations discussed, the arguments advanced, and *Scott, Forseman and Company, Chicago. +Henry Holt and Company, New York. 1Scranton, Wetmore and Company, Rochester. &Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Boston. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. **The Macmillan Company, New York.
the conclusions reached, Ethical Gains through Legislation, by Florence Kelly, is a most valuable book to students of social conditions and of the general welfare. Legislation and judicial decision concerning the rights of the child, the rights of women, the rights of all labourers to leisure through restricted hours of labour, and the rights of the purchaser to knowledge of conditions of production and distribution of goods, are clearly presented and interpreted. The author is prepared for her work, and by long experience in social, economic investigation as government and State official, as special investigator, as a settlement resident, and as a member of the Illinois bar. The volume forms the latest addition to the American Citizens Library.
GOETHE'S IPHIGENIE AUF TAURIS*
This scholarly edition, with introduction and notes by Max Winkler, is intended for students who are mature enough and who possess sufficient knowledge of German to study Iphigenie as literature. It is accordingly supplied with a very thorough and many-sided discussion of matter necessary to the student's understanding of the drama. Professor Winkler's experience has taught him that the average college student possesses little knowledge of Greek mythology and literature, so essential in any comparative treatment of Goethe's Iphigenie. He has accordingly given a rather extended account of the legends upon which the drama is based and their use in ancient literature. This, with the detailed account, the genesis of the work, critical discussion of characters and plot, full notes, etc., occupies over 200 pages and seems rather disproportionate to the slightly less than 100 pages of text. The introduction reads well, the notes are scholarly and well chosen. A good biography is at the end of the volume. It seems an excellent piece of editing.
The authors of Commercial Geography, Messrs. Gannett, Garrison and Houston, combine a wide experience along the various lines of scientific training, practical experience and previous authorship in the preparation of this text. It is devoted to a discussion of commercial conditions, commercial products and commercial countries, and will serve as an excellent text for a new type of course now being introduced into many schools and colleges. In his volume on Africa, in his series of Geographical Readers, F. G. Carpenter has added another very readable supplementary text, which combines the interest of travel with the study of a science.
This volume, by E. C. Marchant, is adapted from Wilamowitz's Griechisches Lesebuch. The fifty pages of Greek text include maxims
*Henry Holt and Company, New York. +American Book Company, New York. Greek Reader. Volume I. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
and anecdotes, and selections from Dion of Prusa, Arrian, Strabo and Thucydides. The book is meant to save students "from being set down at a too early stage in their learning of Greek to Euripides and Xenophon." "A course of parasangs," says Mr. Marchant, "inspired in me a hatred of Xenophon so intense that it took me twenty years to forgive. him." One feels extremely sorry for his teacher; there is so much more in Xenophon than parasangs! In our American school system there is little room for a Greek reader between the beginner's book and Xenophon. If there were such room, is Thucydides easier than Xenophon or Euripides?
HANDBOOK OF UNITED STATES POLITICAL HISTORY*
A book of reference by Malcolm Townsend, containing a mine of information, and valuable to teacher, student, publicist and general reader. The very greatest variety of important events, essential facts, curious bits of information, general statistics concerning almost every topic connected with our national history is included. The material is classified, but has no logical arrangement, and the use of fanciful titles, such as "The Going of the Nations," to indicate the facts relative to the exclusion of European colonisation efforts, are criticisms which might be offered. However, such a book is worth just the service it gives, and while of no value to the trained student, it will be of very great convenience to many others.
HOW TO TELL STORIES TO CHILDRENt.
In this volume, Sara Cone Bryant discusses the value of story-telling, offers practical advice concerning the art, and cites numerous examples of perfection in the art.
LUCIAN: SELECTED WRITINGS
Teachers of Greek will be prepared to give a hearty welcome to F. G. Allinson's Lucian. Despite Lucian's importance, only once before (1882) has an edition of any part of his works been published in America. The introduction contains very valuable matter on Lucian's life and times, his writings, and especially on the influence of Lucian both on painters and writers down to our own times. Unfortunately, however, this is in large measure spoiled by the style: there is a perpetual straining after effect: a lack of dignity and of clearness frequently results. One wishes the editor had taken to heart a sentence he wrote on Lucian, thus: "It is his clear and well-trimmed style that has done honour to him." The selections are interesting, and the notes, reinforced by the excellent account of Lucian's Greek in the introduction and by the brief discussions prefixed to each selection, are ample.
*Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Company, Bosto. +Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Boston.
Ginn and Company, Boston and New York.
A Manual of Laboratory Practice, by Edward Bradford Titchener. Volume II. Quantitative Experiments.
The long-awaited second volume of Professor Titchener's Experimental Psychology is now issued by the Macmillan Company. is a manual of "Quantitative Experiments," as was its predecessor of "Qualitative," and, like the latter, consists of two parts, an instructor's and a student's manual, sold separately. In the Instructor's Manual is to be especially noted the valuable historical introduction on "The Rise and Progress of Quantitative Psychology." The book will receive a more extended notice in a later issue.
LIVY: THE WAR WITH HANNIBALI
This volume, by Edward A. Bechtel, contains selections from each book of Livy's third decade and from Book XXXIX., which together give the whole story of Hannibal. Naturally, the selections from XXI., XII. are the longest; they cover 88 pages. Not only is the general plan excellent, but the individual selections, in these two books especially, are chosen with good judgment. The introduction and notes, however, seem somewhat meagre. It may be doubted whether they will afford assistance and guidance enough to the young student who comes for the first time to the study of Livy.
THE NEW KNOWLEDGE‡
The New Knowledge, by Professor Robert K. Duncan, is a book on science for the layman that will rank among the best of its kind. It falls beween the technical treatise and the popular magazine article of more or less sensational character, yet gives an accurate presentation of those recent discoveries in chemistry and physics that are revolutionising many ideas of science accepted in the past, and bids fair to introduce inventions and processes quite as revolutionary as those resulting from the increased knowledge of electricity during the past few decades. Thus the new theories concerning gaseous ions, the various forms of radio-activity, the theory of atomic distintegration with the consequent reformulation of the fundamental ideas in physical science receive attention. A form of clear exposition essential to the successful teacher in so technical a subject, a grasp of entire subject treated, a knowledge of the work of the leading scientists of every country, are possessed by the author and render the treatise acceptable to the scientist, and helpful and sufficient for the layman.
PHYSICS: TWO TEXT-BOOKS
Physics.t by Charles R. Mann and George R. Twist, offers an excellent embodiment of most recent formulation of methods of teaching
*The Macmillan Company. New York. +Scott, Forseman and Company, Chicago. A. S. Barnes and Company, New York.
science. It aims to avoid the loose and desultory results that were occasioned by the introduction of laboratory methods for the pupil, but to combine with these methods the continuity and completeness of logical exposition. The application of mathematical formulæ to practical problems is constant, but subordinate. The use of illustrations and text problems from most recent practical applications of physical principles, together with the suggestion of the historical and biographical material, adds interest. Elementary Physical Science, by Professor J. H. Woodhull, is an excellent text and guide in experimental work for the use of the child in graded schools where courses in that science have been introduced.
In this helpful and suggestive volume Henry Churchill King, President of Oberlin, attempts to apply the results of modern psychological investigation to life. Few among modern psychologists apply the results of those investigations to the problems of practical life. In this case, the author shows as a result of the four great inferences from modern psychology that life consists in a multiplicity of intricate relations, that the essential unity of these relations is involved in our own nature, that this unity demands action, because will and action are of central importance in the mental life of the individual, and that nowhere can the individual rest in abstraction, but must find reality in the concrete. It abounds in illustration and is marked by lucidity of expression and exposition. Both in the broader and in the more technical sense, the work is educational.
preparatory schools or colleges, preferably the former. The introduction sketches briefly Sudermann's work as an author, after which follows some dozen pages dealing with the historical background of the play. The notes are often elementary in character, often containing needless ballast. This criticism holds particularly true with regard to the vocabulary, in which past and perfect participles of strong verbs are listed. One regrets to see American teachers encouraged by such editions to read plays like Teja too early in the school course.
TRADE UNIONISM AND LABOUR PROBLEMS*
A series of twenty-seven essays, edited by John R. Commons. They are mostly reprints from current scientific magazines on a great variety of aspects of the social and economic situation. These topics are widely representative, including the Teamsters' Union of Chicago, the Miners' Union, the sweating system, arbitration laws, introduction of labour-saving machinery, the negro artisan, woman's wages, hours of labour, workingmen's insurance and insurance against non-employment. Every topic is by a specialist, so that the data are technically accurate, and the analysis and conclusions scientifically tested. While the book possesses no unit of system or method and certainly does not present any system of principles, yet it is aimed as a text-book as well as a book of reference or for the technical student. At least, it will furnish the raw mate*Ginn and Company, Boston and New York.
rial for a course in descriptive economics, and as such is a serviceable volume.
BOOKS II. AND III.*
Professor W. A. Lamberton has long been known as a student of Thucydides by his edition of Books VI., VII. The present book by him would be welcome, if for no other reason, because no edition of Book II. has heretofore been published in this country. But the volume has other claims. The introduction discusses in an interesting way Thucydides's life, his relation to the culture and thought of the time, his work and his language. The notes, printed below the text, are copious. There are four good maps, an appendix on the MSS. and the editions, and an apparatus criticus. Good indexes close the book.
UNCLE SAM AND HIS CHILDREN†
This is a nondescript volume, by Justin Wade Shaw, on historical, geographical, economic and ethnographic aspects of our national life. It is a cross between a text-book on civil government and a sociological treatise of the type of Our Country, but a book which will be of interest and service to boy or girl, or those of older growth desiring to get in simple, concrete form some of the advantages that our country offers to its citizens, and at the same time some of the disadvantages arising from the too liberal acceptance of these advantages by people not prepared to appreciate the responsibilities that go with the privileges.
*American Book Company, New York. †A. S. Barnes and Company, New York.