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rights of others and a certain disrespect for the dogmas of Christianity. Hence arose his admiration for secular philanthropists like Robert Owen and his indignation against so-called Christian governments-the English which professes the brotherhood of man and oppresses the Irish; the American which starts with the Declaration of Independence and rules the Filipinos against As a relief from these strenuous passages are passages are the author's delightful descriptions of his rural excursions in English shires and Welsh valleys. Engaged with his elder brother in surveying trips, at the time of the mania for railway building, the two managed to have a deal of fun in the midst of hard work. The accounts of the old inns and the farmer's club form a sort of genuine Pickwick Papers, while the characters found in the remoter parts of Wales are worthy of George Borrow. Thus he met a young Welshman who "prided himself on being a kind of champion smoker and assured us that he had once, for a wager, smoked a good-sized china teapot full of tobacco through the spout." Although the young surveyor found it delightful to be cutting all over the country, following the chain and admiring the beauties of nature, he was nevertheless oppressed by the all-embracing system of land robbery exhibited in the immense holdings of the church and the many useless estates of the nobility. This ultimately led him to advocate the theories of Henry George, to aid in forming the Land Nationalisation Society, of which he was the first president, and to deplore the colossal land speculations of the Western States, the wealth from which "gained by individuals, initiates that process which culminates in railroad and mining kings, in oil and beef trusts, and in the thousand millionaires and multi-millionaires whose vast accumulated incomes are, every penny of them, paid by the toiling workers."
ALFRED RUSSELL WALLACE'S
This is the story of a living paradox:
a discoverer with Darwin of natural selection, yet "more desirous of discovering new truths than of gaining credit for himself;" an agnostic as regards religion, yet a believer in spiritualism; a scientific reasoner, yet an opponent of vaccination; a man of strong feelings and prejudices, yet, like one of his disembodied spirits, able to get outside of himself and write an autobiography as interesting as it is disinterested.
As an evolutionist Wallace naturally begins with an account of his ancestry and environment. Coming from rather long-lived families, from the paternal side he thinks that he inherited a certain amount of constitutional inactivity or laziness, while the necessity for work that resulted from his father's loss of property was perhaps a blessing in disguise, beneficial for developing whatever powers were latent in him. Thus his early life on the river Usk and his boyish explorations with his brother brought out that love of nature, with its mystery and charm, which made him one of the most famous travellers of his day. So the simplicity and kindliness of home life contrasted with the days at the Hertford school, where the rod was not spared, accounted for his later belief that the only way to teach and to civilise, whether children or savages, is through the influence of love and sympathy. Remembering how his father treated him with the tolerant courtesy of a gentleman of the old school, while his masters crammed down his throat the "degrading and horrible religion" of future rewards and punishments, Wallace came to have the most absolute respect for the
*My Life. A Record of Events and Opinions by Alfred Russell Wallace Author of "Man's Place in the Universe," "The Malay Archipelago," "Darwinism." "Geographical Distribution of Animals," "Natural Selection and Tropical Nature," etc. With facsimile letters, illustrations and portraits. Vol. I., pp. vi. and 435; Vol. II., pp. vi. and 464. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1905.
But perhaps Wallace the socialist is not as interesting as Wallace the naturalist, for he does not appear so strong in