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commons were

that Mr. Pitt entertained of the importance and criminality of many of the charges, that he could not conceive how the greatest merits, that had ever been imputed in this cafe, could be fet in oppofition to them, as a pica, even against conviction and punishment, much lefs against enquiry and trial. Mr. Ilay Cainpbel had infifted upon the analogy between the proceedings of the house and thofe of a grand jury, and had quoted the opinion of Blackstone, that a grand jury ought to be thoroughly perfuaded of the truth of an indictment, fo far as the evidence goes, and not to reft fatisfied with remote probabilities, a doctrine, that might be applied to very oppreffive purpofes." Upon this Mr. Pitt obferved, that, if the houfe of to take the proceedings of a grand jury as their precedent, it would amount to a complete dereliction of the function of impeachment, a function, which had been the bulwark of the conftitution, and which had enabled the houfe to maintain the freedom of their country through the feve ral ftruggles they had made for that purpose. To illuftrate this he mentioned the circumstance, that the house was not competent to take depofitions upon oath. Mr. alderman Townshend had cenfured the language of the profecutors, as full of greifnefs and perfonal afperity. With regard to this Mr. Pitt confeffed, that he had once been of the fame opinion, but, when he difcovered the nature of the crimes that were alleged, and how ftrong was the prefumption that the allegations were true, he could not expect, that perfons, who were reciting what they thought of actions of treachery, violence and oppreffion, and demanding an invefligation into thofe actions, fhould

fpeak a language different from that, which would naturally arife from the contemplation of fuch actions. Mr. Pitt now came to Mr. Smith. He faid that, admitting the improper difpofitions and unreasonable expectations of the government at home, no arguments could be drawn from thence to fcreen Mr. Haftings from punishment. If he received improper orders from his employers, was it not his duty, to undeceive them, and by a proper reprefentation to excufe himself for the non performance of their commands? With respect to the prefents, Mr. Pitt could not accede to the opinion, either that Mr. Haflings had received thofe fums with an intention of applying them to the fervice of the company, or that he had actually applied them all in that way. Had that been his intention, he would have kept fuch accounts, and made fuch immediate communications of them, as fhould clearly prove that it was fo. Mr. Bur ges read a very respectful addrefs, fent to Mr. Haftings fix months. after his departure from Bengal, and figned by fix hundred officers of the British army. The fecond reading of the report was oppofed by lord Mulgrave, major Scott and Mr. Sumner, and fupported by Mr. Martin and fir Philip Jennings Clerke. Upon a divifion the numbers appeared, ayes 175, noes 89.

Upon the following day it was voted, that Mr. Haftings be impeached; and Mr. Burke was directed, in the name of the house of commons, and of all the commons of Great Britain, to go to the bar of the houfe of lords, and im peach Mr. Hatings of high crines and mifdemeanours; and to acquaint the lords, that the commons would with all convenient speed

exhibit articles against him, and make good the fame." The meffage was instantly delivered, and on the fourteenth of May the articles, which had already been prepared, were fent to the houfe of lords. On the fame day Mr. Burke moved an impeachment up n the fixteenth article of the charges of the former feffion, the title of which was misdemeanours in Oude. Major Scott and Mr. Dempster oppofed the article, but it was carried without a divifion. It was immediately referred to the fecret committee, and was digefted into twelve articles, being the concluding twelve of the twenty, which were prefented by the commons at the bar of the houfe of lords. Thefe twelve articles were reported on Thursday the twenty-fourth of May, and on Monday were car ried to the bar of the houfe of lords; major Scott at the fame time protesting againit the in 'ecency of the proceeding, as he was fure, that there were not ten members in the house who had read a line of them.

In the debate of the ninth of May Mr. Courtenay had dropped the expreffion, of lord Hood's having been a fpectator of the victory of the twelfth of April, for which he immediately apologized, but the mention of which was five days afterwards revived by that nobleman. Mr. Courtenay was defended by Mr. Windham and Mr. Burke, the latter of whom declared, that it was an accidental lapfe of fpeech, and that no man could appear more hurt, as foon as he found

the conftruction which a part of the house had put upon it. The circumstance drew forth confiderable encomiums upon Mr. Courtenay's general character from these fpeakers, and from Mr. Fox. Mr., Courtenay entered into a father explanation upon the following day. On the twenty-first of May Mr. Haltings was upon the motion of Mr. Burke taken into cutlody of the ferjeant at arms, and, being immediately conducted to the bar of the houfe of lords, was delivered to the gentleman usher of the black rod. Upon the motion of the lord chancellor he was admitted to bail, himself in 20,000l. and two fureties, Mr. Sullivan and Mr. Sumner in 10,000l. each, and was ordered to deliver in an answer to the articles of impeachment in one month from that time, or upon the fecond day of the next fellion of parliament.

On the thirtieth of May the king put an end to the fellion by a fpeech from the throne. He applauded the affiduity of parliament, and thanked them for their proofs of affection for him, his family and government. He fpoke of the general tranquility of Europe, and lamented the diffenfions which unhappily prevailed anong the Gates of the United Provinces. He reflected with peculiar pleasure on the measures they had taken, with regard to the reduction of the national debt, the treaty of navigation and commerce with the most chriftian king, and the fimplifying the accounts in the various branches of the revenue.




In the Year 1787.



In the Year 1787.



Homas Grenville, a blind man, has lately prefented to the Society for the encouragement of arts, manufactures, and commerce, the defcription of an apparatus for enabling blind perfons to perform operations in arithmetic with eafe and celerity. It is an improvement of Saunderfon's Nume rical Board; the board is perforated full of holes, in exact lines, horizontally and perpendicularly. The lines, confidered horizontally, denote units, tens, hundreds, thoufands, &c. reckoning from right to left, as ufual. And the perpendicular lines permit the figures to be placed below each other, as is ufual in every account. Pegs are made to fit thefe holes, on the head of each of which pegs is printed the figure (number) it reprefents, fo as that, to a perfon who has the ufe of fight the account can be feen at once. The figures are diftinguished by the blind perfon, by means of certain pins placed in the heads of thefe pegs. Between the rows of holes for thefe pegs are rows of fmaller holes adapted to receive the bent ends of fmall wires, which perform the part of lines, placed either horizontally or perpendicularly, as is neceffary for any arithmetical operation. The box is form ed into proper divifions for hold. ing the pegs and wires, and is doubt lefs a moft ufeful apparatus for thofe to whom it was intended to

affift; for there can be no doubt but that any blind perfon, with a little attention, by means of this fimple apparatus, may perform every arithmctical operation that could be performed by him, if he had the ufe of fight.

Florence, Dec. 16. The great duke of Tufcany has juft iffued a new code of criminal laws, which is ordered to be obferved in all his dominions. It confifts of 119 articles, by which capital punishments are abolished, as having been found to leave too flight an impreffion on the minds of the people for the prevention of crimes, and more visible and permanent fufferings ordained in their stead. Torture is prohibite ed. Confifcations are declared unjuft, as involving the innocent with the guilty. Proportionable penalties are inflicted for flight offences, and a more equitable mode of trial is established, particularly with regard to evidence.

Soon after the publication of this new code, a man condemned to the gallies for a most inhuman murder, endeavoured to perfuade the companion to whom he was chained, to efcape with him; but, upon his refufal, he took an opportunity of picking up a large ftone, with which, notwithstanding his chains, he maffacred his companion, in the prefence of the guard. So horrible a deed, under fuch circumftances, almost overcame the great duke's humane temper. He immediately or dered a gallows to be erected in the (A 2)


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