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so public part of Pifa; but his to fubfift on all the year but fish, imperial highnefs countermanded fluxes and various other diforders the order for his execution, and the carry off numbers. criminal was fentenced to a more excruciating and lafting punishment, that of being immured between four walls, where, al roft unable to move, he must end his life in the utmost mifery. As a more flagrant offence can fçarcely be committed, puuifh. ments by death are not expected to be revived in this country.
Lond. Gaz. 2. Advices from Mentz, mention, that the prince cletior has made a new criminal regulation refpecting prifoners, in which, the chaining them down or ufing fetters is totally forbidden. His electoral highnefs has alfo regulated the culprits as to air, diet, and exercife; in which he has adopted the plan drawn up by Mr. Howard. All delinquents, by the above ordonnance, are to be tried within eight days after their commitment. See p. 14.
Edinburgh, Jan. 4. A few days ago arrived in this city from his Northern tour, the truly patriotic Mr. Knox.
The accounts he brings of the fituation of the people in the Highlands are extremely diftreffing, fome thou fands of whom are quite impatient to quit their native country and embark for the defarts of North America. He reprefen's fome of the reafons of thefe poor peop'e wanting to fhift the fcene to be, the almoft general failure of their crops; the high duty on coals, in many parts, there being fuch a fearcity of wood or peat, that the people pare the furface of the earth for fuel, (which nature meant to produce the means of their fubfiftence), and the want of falt, a fad fource of calamity to thofe unhappy people, as it renders their fifherics unprofitable, and their lives miferable; for, having nothing
On Saturday the 6th inftant, between ten and eleven in the forenoon, a fhock of an earthquake was felt in the parishes of Campfie and Strathblane, about ten miles north of Glafgow. At Woodhead, in Campfie, a burn on which there is a mill, became dry in feveral plices for a fhort fpace. At Let trick Green, in the parish of Strathblane, a gentleman who was in the fields, and who had refided many years in Jamaica, heard a rufhing noife precede the fhock, which he thought came in a direction from the fouth caft. He likewife obferved the hedges to be agitated, as if a fudden gutt of wind had affected them, though it was then fill. At Nethertown, in the fame parif, the flock was more fenfibly felt, and the people were fo alarmed as to rufh out to the fields, their houfes fhook fo. Many other people felt the flock; and, in different houses, doors that had been locked were thrown open; china dishes and bottles j ngled by ftriking against one another. The hortes in a plough that was at work ftood fill with fear. The fhock was likewife felt in the parishes of New Kilpatrick, Killearn, and Fintray.
13. Accounts from Williamsburgh, in Virginia, mention, that Mr. Maddifon, a young member of the Affembly there, a fhort time ago had the fpirit and humanity to propofe a general emancipation of the neuro flaves in that province, to commence at the beginning of this year. Mr. Jefferfon's abfence at Paris, and the fituation of Mr. Whythee, as one of the judges of the ftate, which prevented them from lending their powerful fup. port, occationed it to mifcarry for
the moment, but there is every reafon to fuppofe that the propolition will be fuccefsfully renewe: as it is, the affembly have paffed a law, declaring that there fhall be no more flaves in the republic, but thofe exifting the first day of the feffion of 1785-, and the defcendants of female flaves.
14. The order of St. Patrick is in future, by an additional ftatute just made by order of his majefty, to confit of fixteen knights companions, besides fuch of the royal family as may be members thereof. Drefden, Dec. 20. Loffes by fire having been very frequent in this country, and the fufferers hitherto indemnitied in part out of the public revenues, a new regulation is enacted, to take place from the 1ft of January next, by which every proprietor of a houfe throughout this electorate is to enter it in a public regifter, at a valuation fixed by himfelf. The loffes by fire are to be computed every tix months, and an equivalent fum collected from the whole of the proprietors, in proportion to their property as regittered, which is to be app ied to the individual fufferers, according to the valuation contained in the register. This rule will naturally induce the proprietors to deliver in a fair valuation of their property.
Lond. Gaz. Paris, Jan. 1. The experiment of the incombuftible paiteboards was made the 4th ult. at Eerlin, in the prefence of duke Frederick of Brunfwick, and feveral perfons of diftinction. The inventor of this compofition is Dr. Arfird, a native of Saxony. A final building, which had been conftructed of wood for the purpose, was lined with this pafteboard, and filled with combuftible matter. Notwithstanding a fire that burned most violently, the
houfe was not in the leaft damaged. This board refifls likewife the dampnefs of the air. It is publickly fold for a fhilling and a half, Swed th money, every fquare ell fheet.
Some blind children, educated and fupported by a philanthropic fociety at Paris, have lately been prefented to the king and queen at Verfailles, and exhibited, in the royal prefence great knowledge of feveral arts. Some of them difcovered the greatest facility in the various branches of priting and book-binding, &c. others gave the moft evident proofs of the fuccefs of their applications to geography, arithmetical, and mathematical cl culations. Their majekies exprefied the higheft fatisfaction at their efforts, and fpoke in very high terms of commendation of the gentleman, who, by exemplary diligence and induftry, has restored to many members to fociety.
16. On the 14th of November, prince William Henry arrived at St. Vincent's in the Pegafus, and the next day was waited on by the council and affembly, who prefented to him a congratulatory addrefs on his arrival. His royal highnicis received them very gracioully, and honoured them with his company to dinner at Carty's tavern. evening there was a ball, and a very numerous and fplendid appearance of ladies, at which his royal highnefs danced two country dances.
as many of thofe people as could be collected, failed from Gravefend on Tuesday laft, with a fair wind, for Sierra Leona, on the coast of Africa, where they are to be landed, in order to form the intended new fettlement. [See Vol. VII. p. 50.]
18. At the clofe of the feffions at the Old Bailey, which began on the 10th inftant, nineteen convicts received fentence of death. After which, Samuel Burt, convict ed fome months before of forgery, (Sec Vol. VII. p. 34) was put to the bar, and informed, that his majefty, in his royal clemency, had been graciously pleafed to extend his mercy to him, upon condition that he fhould be tranfported during his natural life. The prifoner bowed refpectfully to the court, and immediately addreffed the recorder with his most humble and unfeigned thanks for the kindness and humanity of the recorder, the feriffs, and the other gentlemen who had interested themselves in his favour, and had fo effectually reprefented his unhappy cafe to the throne, that his majefty, whofe humanity could only be equalled by his love of virtue, had extended his mercy; but however flattering the profpect of preferving life might Be to a man in a different fituation; yet he, now that he was funk and degraded in fociety, was totally infenfible of the bleifing. Life was no longer an object with him, as it was utterly impollible that he could be joined in union with the perfon that was dealer to him than life itfelf. Under fuch circumftances, although he was truly fenfible of his majelly's goodnefs and clemency, yet he must pofitively decline the terms offered to him; preferring death to the prolongation of a life which could not be otherwife than truly mifer
able." The whole court was afto'nithed at this addrefs; and after confultation, Mr. Recorder remanded the prifoner back to the gaol, to be brought up again the firit day of next feffion.
25. On Tuesday lord George Gordon appeared in the court of king's-bench, and flated to the judges, that he had received a fummons from the folicitor of the treafury to appear perfonally in court, on Tuesday next after the octave of St. Hilary, to answer to an information to be exhibited against him on the king's behalf, for certain crimes and mifdemeanours. His lordfhip faid, that he had looked into the popifh calendars, and those fort of books, to fee what an octave meant; and that he found it was eight days from the celebration of the feaft of the faint; that he had come himself, because he was defired perfonally to appear, and did not intend to be at any expence, or to employ any folicitor or counfel; his reafon for which was, that one learned gentleman, who had formerly afferted his innocence, fir Lloyd Kenyon, was raifed (he was glad to fee it) to a very high fitua tion; and of the affiftance of the other (Mr. Erfkine) he was depriv ed, he having been retained againft him fome time ago. The court informed lord George of the course he must purfue; namely, to plead in the crown office; and that then he would have regular notice to prepare for trial; upon which he retired. The information was at the fuit of the French ambassador, for a libellous publication againtt the court of France.
On Wednesday, at the rifing of the court, lord George appeared within the bar, with Blackitone's Commentaries tied up in a handkerchief. He faid, that the attorney.
general had filed an information against him, which blended the diflinct and different informations Qui Tam and by the matter of the crown office, as the judges would perceive, by recurring to the doctrines contained in their good and worthy brother Blackstone. [Here the bar was feized with a mufcular affection.] His lordship turned round, and told them, they were ignorant of this diftinction, because it had originated in bad times; and that the only apology which could be made for the attorney general was, that he was equally incompetent on the fubject. His lordhip continued, that he did not chufe to join iffue with the attorney general, until he had communed with the court, for that he was bonus et legalis homo, and entitled to all the privileges of other fubjects, notwithflanding he was ex communicated. The court told him, that the first step was to appear. He replied that he had appeared yesterday. The court then begged his attention; and told him, that the appearance must be filed; that then he might either move to quash, or might demur to the information, if it were defective on the face of it; or he might plead to it, and fo come to trial.
Vienna, Jan. 2. His Imperial majesty has forbidden to infert, in future, in any prayer or other church books, the grant of indulgences applicable to the delivery of fouls from purgatory. Other indulgences are not to be made public, without the grant of fuch pardons being previoutly approved by the bishop of the diocefe, certifying that the papal brief, granting the fame, hath been examined and acknowledged as legal.
Bruffels, Jan. 20. The emperor has abolished the court dreffes hitherto worn by the ladies of the
court; and alfo the custom of kiffing the hands of the fovereign and the royal family, and all kinds of bending of the knee and kneeling down, his majefty looking upon the latter as only due to the Deity.
Paris, Jan. 25. The king has published a circular letter, addreffed to fuch of his opulent fubjects as profefs themselves friends to their country and humanity, inviting them to contribute towards the expence of erecting four hofpitals in the city of Paris. Such as fubfcribe 10,000 livres, will have their names engraved upon a brass plate, as a teftimony to future generations that there were people of philanthropic minds, who delighted in establishing an afylum for the reception of the unfortunate. The fovereign, and his auguft family, propofe to contribute liberally towards the four hofpitals. There is doublefs great merit in imitating the conduct of the English, through whofe patriotic fubfcriptions great numbers of useful and benevolent establishments have been formed in all parts of the country of that philofophic people.
27. Yesterday lord George Gordon appeared in the court of king's bench, and informed the court, that he had an objection to state to a procefs which had been ferved upon him. Mr. juftice Buller informed him that he interrupted the bufinefs of the court. Lord George anfwered, he was counfel for himself, and was as much intitled to be heard as any king's counfel. Mr. juftice Buller replied, that the attorney general could not be heard out of his turn. Upon this information lord George ftepped within the bar, and took a feat between Mr. Bearcroft and Mr. Cooper. The court having heard the motions of the king's counfel, called on lord George, who arofe and faid, that (A) +
the nature of the business he had to state to their lordships would render an apology for the interruption he had given totally unneceffary. There was a mifnomer, or at least, a want of proper addition to the name inferted in a process ferved upon him, of which he did not intend to take advantage, either by moving in a batement, or availing himself of a dilatory plea; for he wished to accelerate his trial, and prove his innocence as foon as poffible. For this reafon he came forward to correct the court, by pointing out the error in their procefs. This procefs was directed to "George Gordon," without any addition what ever, which was an eror; the other names were properly defcribed, the chief juftice had his flyle of William earl Mansfield, and Richard Pepper Arden was denominated an efquire. He had as good a right to the additions to his name, as either of thefe, or even George Guelph himfelf. This procefs did not defcribe him; it ordered George Gordon to appear in court, but did not fay, whether the George Gordon fummoned was the right honourable lord George Gordon, George Gordon, knight, efquire, or yeoman. He knew four lord George Gordons, which of them did this procefs mean? He knew above a hundred gentlemen of the fame name, to which of them was this procefs directed? For these reafons he called upon the court to 'correct their procefs, which he knew was wrong, having as competent a knowledge in the bufinefs as any man in court. The court informed the noble lord, that in the prefent state of the bufinets, the addition was unneceflary, but that in cafe of process of outlawry, then the additions would be effential to the proceeding. Lord George rofe and faid, that unless the court called
upon him by his right name and additions, he would not anfwer, and bowing refpectfully to the bench and bar, retired.
29. On Tuesday laft came on to trial in the court of exchequer, at Edinburgh, a profecution of his majefty's advocate general, against a merchant in Leith, for attempting to give a bribe of 51. to Mr. Corbet, fupervifor of excife, and port furveyor of Borrowilounnefs, with a view to feduce him from the proper execution of his duty, and to fhew him favoor at the expence of the revenue. The facts being clearly proved, and the intention equally evident, the jury found a verdict for the plaintiff on the fecond count of the information, for the penalty of gol.
30. At a court of aldermen thanks were voted to fir James Sanderfon and Brook Watson, efq. late theriffs, for the great regularity preferved in the gaols of the city, and for the return of prifoners prefented to the court in October laft. The court recommended it to the fucceeding theriffs to make out a like return at the expiration of each theriffalty.
1. Lord George Gordon made another appearance in the court of king's bench, and took the fame exceptions to the fecond fummons as he had to the first. He was interrupted by Mr. Baldwin, who fubmitted to the court, that his lordship ought first to appear, before he could be heard. Lord George defired he would use his ryes, and judge whether he did not appear. The court then told him, that formally, it was neceflary that his appearance fhould be recorded; and his lordhip faying, that he meant to meet