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"In the ruins of caftles however, other countries may compare with ours. But in the remains of abbeys no country certainly can. "Where popery prevails, the abbey is ftill intire and inhabited; and of courfe lefs adapted to landfcape.
But it is the mode of architecture, which gives fuch excellence to these ruins. The Gothic style, in which they are generally compofed, is, I apprehend, unri valled among foreign nations; and may be called a peculiar feature in English landscape.
"Many of our ruins have been built in what is often called the Saxon ftyle. This is a coarse, heavy mode of architecture; and feldom affords a beautiful ruin. In general, the Saxon prevails moft in the northern counties; and the Gothic in the fouthern: though each divifion of the kingdom affords fome inftances of both: and in many we find them mixed.
"What we call Saxon architecture feems to have been the awkward imitation of Greek, and Roman models. What buildings of Roman origin were left in England, were probably deftroyed by the ruthlefs Saxon in his early ravages. Afterwards, when Alfred the Great, having established government, and religion, turned his view to arts, we are told he was obliged to fend to the continent for architects. In what fpecies of architecture the buildings of this prince were compofed, we know not: but probably in a purer ftyle, than what we now call Saxon; as Alfred lived nearer Roman times; and perhaps poffeffed in his own country fome of those beautiful models, which might have efcaped the rage of his ancellors. Even now, amidst all that heavinefs, and barbarifm, which
trace fome features of Roman oriwe call Saxon, it is not difficult to gin. Among the ruins of Brinkburn abbey, between Rothbury, and Warkworth, in Northumber land, we difcover in fome parts even Roman elegance.
fuppofed to have continued till the "This fpecies of architecture is time of the Crufades; when a new ftyle of ornament at least, fantastic in the highest degree, began to ap fite with the Saxon; and hath been pear. It forms a kind of compocalled by fome antiquarians the Sathe term, Many ruins of this kind racenic though others difallow are ftill exifting.
"The English architect however began, by degrees, to frike himfelf; without fearching the out a new mode of architecture for continent for models. This is called the Gothic; but for what reafon, it is hard to fay: for the Goths, who were never in England, had been even forgotten, when it was invented; which was about fides found no where, I believe, the reign of Henry II. It is bebut in England; except in fuch parts of France, as were in poffeflion, of the English.
chitecture the antiquarian points "In this beautiful fpecies of arout three periods.
round Saxon arch began to change When it first appeared, the into the pointed one; and the fort, clumfy pillar began to clufter; but ftill the Saxen heavinefs in part prevailed. Salisbury cathedral, which was finished about the year 1250, pure fpecimen of the Gothic, in is generally confidered as a very it's first, and ruder form.
architecture were introduced. The
work; while the clustered-pillar began to increase in height, and elegance; and to arch, and ramify along the roof. In fhort, an intire new mode of architecture, purely British, was introduced. The grandeur of the Roman - the heavinefs of the Saxon-and the gro teique ornament of the Saracenic, were all equally relinquished. An airy lightnefs pervaded the whole; and ornaments of a new invention took place. The cathedral of York, and part of Canterbury, among many others, are beautiful examples of this period of Gothic archi
"About the time of the later Henries, the last period began to obtain; in the architecture of which the flat, ftone roof, and a variety of different ornaments were the chief characteristics. Of this inriched ftyle King's college chapel in Cambridge, and Henry VII.'s at Westminster, are two of the most elegant examples. The flat, ftone roof is generally, even at this day, confidered, as a wonderful effort of art. It is faid, that Sir Chrifto. pher Wren himself could not conceive it. He would fay, "Tell
me where to place the first stone;
and I will follow it with a fe "cond."
This ftyle is generally con fidered as the perfection of Gothic architecture. I own, it rather appears to me the decline of the art, The ornaments fo affectedly intro, duced, and patched on; as the rofe and portcullis in King's college chapel, have not, in my eye, the beauty of the middle ftyle; in which every ornament arifes naturally from the feveral members of the building; and makes a part of the pile itself. Nor has the flat roof, with all it's ornaments, in my opinion, the fimplicity and beauty of the ribbed, and pointed
"Abbeys formerly abounded fo much in England, that a deli cious valley could fcarce be found, in which one of them was not stationed. The very fites of many of thefe ancient edifices are now obli terated by the plough; yet fill so many elegant ruins of this kind are left, that they may be called, not only one of the peculiar features of English landscape; but may be ranked alfo among it's most pictus refque beauties."
Dr. HERSCHEL's ACCOUNT of the DISCOVERY of TWO SATELLITES revolving round the GEORGIAN PLANET. [From the Seventy-feventh Volume of the Philofophical Transactions.] HE great diftance of the led to the Georgian planet; and, Georgian planet, and its while it paffed the meridian, I perprefent fituation in a part of the ceived near its disk, and within a zodiac which is fcattered over with few of its diameters, fome very a multitude of fmall stars, has ren- faint ftars whofe places I noted dered it uncommonly difficult to down with great care. determine whether, like Jupiter and Saturn, it be attended by fatellites. In purfuit of this inquiry, having frequently directed large telescopes to this remote planet, and finding myfelf continually difappointed, I afcribed my failure to the want of fufficient light in the inftruments I ufed; and, for a while, gave over the attempt.
"In the beginning of laft month, however, I was often furprifed when I reviewed nebule that had been feen in former fweeps, to find how much brighter they appeared, and with how much greater facility I faw them. The caufe of it could be no other than the quantity of light that was gained by laying afide the fmall fpeculum, and introducing the front view; an account of which has been inferted, by way of note, to the catalogue of nebula contained in the Philo-, fophical Tranfactions, vol. lxxvi. P. 499.
"It would not have been pardonable to neglect fuch an advantage, when there was a particular object in view, where an acceffion of light was of the utmost confequence; and I wondered why it had not ftruck me fooner. The 1th of January, therefore, in the courfe of my general review of the heavens, 1 felected a fweep which
"The next day, when the planet returned to the meridian, I looked with a moft fcrutinizing eye for my fmali ftars, and perceived that two of them were miffing. Had I been lefs acquainted with optical deceptions, I fhould immediately have announced the exilence of one or more fatellites to our new planet but it was neceffary, that I fhould have no doubts. The leaft hazines, otherwife impercep tible, may often obfcure small stars; and I judged, therefore, that nothing lefs than a feries of obferva tions ought to fatisfy me, in a cafe of this importance. To this end I noticed all the fmall stars that were near the planet the 14th, 17th, 18th, and 24th of January, and the 4th and th of February; and though, at the end of this time, I had no longer any doubt of the exilence of at least one fatellite, I thought it right to defer this communication till I could have an opportunity of feeing it actually in motion. Accordingly I began to purfue this fatellite on Feb. the 7th, about fix o'clock in the evening, and kept it in view till three in the morning on Feb. the 8th; at which time, on account of the fituation of my houfe, which intercepts a view of part of the ecliptic, I was obliged to give over the chace: and
during thofe nine hours I faw this fatellite faithfully attend its primary planet, and at the fame time keep on, in its own courie, by defcribing a confiderable arch of its proper orbit.
"While I was chicfly attending to the motion of this fatellite, I did not forget to follow another fmall ftar, which I was pretty well af fured was alfo a fatellite, especially as I had, on the night of the 14th of January, obferved two fmall flars which were wanting the 17th, and again miffed other two the 24th which had been noticed the 18th; but, whether owing to my great attention to the former fatellite, or to the clofenefs of this latter, which was nearly hidden in the rays of the planet, I could not be well affured of its motion. Indeed, towards morning, when a change of place, in fo confiderable an interval as nine hours, would have been moft confpicuous, the moon interfered with the faint light of this fatellite, fo that I could no longer perceive it.
"The first moment that offered for continuing thefe obfervations was on Friday the 9th, when I faw my first difcovered fatellite nearly in the place where I expected to find it. I perceived alfo, that the next fuppofed fatellite was not in the fituation where I had let it on the 7th, and could now distinguish very plainly that it had advanced in is orbit, fince that day, in the fame direction with the other fatellite, but at a quicker rate. Hence it is evident, that it moves in a more contracted orbit; and I fhall therefore call it in future the first fatellite, though laft difcovered, or rather last ascertained; fince I do not doubt but that I faw them both, for the first time, on the fame day, which was January the 11th, 1787.
"I now directed all my atten
tion to the first fatellite, and had an opportunity to fee it for about three hours and a quarter; during which time, as far as one might judge, it preferved its courfe. The interval which the cloudy weather had afforded was, however rather too fhort for feeing its motion fufficiently, fo that I deferred a final judgment till the 10th; and, in order to put my theory of these two fatellites to a trial, I made a fketch on paper, to point out before-hand their fituation with efpect to the planet, and its parallel of declination.
"The long expected evening came on, and, notwithstanding the mott unfavourable appearance of dark weather, it cleared up at last. And the heavens now difplayed the original of my drawing, by fhewing, in the fituation I had delineated them, the Georgian planet attended by two fatellites.
"I confefs that this fcene appeared to me with additional beauty, as the little fecondary planets feemed to give a dignity to the primary one, which raifes it into a more confpicuous fituation among the great bodies of our folar fytiem.
"I have not feen them long enough to affign their periodical times with great accuracy; but fuppofe that the first performs a fynodical revolution in about eight days and three-quarters, and the fecond in nearly thirteen days and an half.
"Their orbits make a confiderable angle with the ecliptic; but to align the real quantity of this inclination, with many other par ticulars, will require a great deal of attention, and much contrivance : for, as estimations by the eye cannot but be extremely fallacious, I do not expect to give a good account of their orcits till I can bring fome of my micrometers to bear upon them; which, thefe laft nights, I
have in vain attempted, their light being fo feeble as not to fuffer the leaft illumination, and that of the planet not being strong enough to render the small filk-worm's threads
of my delicate micrometers vifible. I have, nevertheless, feveral refources in view, and do not despair of fucceeding pretty well in the end."
Dr. HERSCHEL'S ACCOUNT of THREE VOLCANOS in the
[From the fame Work.]
T will be neceffary to fay a few words by way of introduction to the account I have to give of fome appearances upon the moon, which I perceived the 16th and zoth of this month. The phænomena of nature, efpecially thofe that fall under the infpection of the astronomer, are to be viewed, not only with the ufual attention to facts as they occur, but with the eye of reafon and experience. In this we are however not allowed to depart from plain appearances; though their origin and fignification fhould be indicated by the most characterising features. Thus, when we fee, on the furface of the moon, a great number of elevations, from half a mile to a mile and an half in height, we are ftria. ly intitled to call them mountains ; but, when we attend to their particular fhape, in which many of
them refemble the craters of our
volcanos, and then e argue, that they owe their origin to the fame caufe which has modelled many of thefe, we may be faid to fee by analogy, or with the eye of reafon. Now, in this latter cafe, though it may be convenient, in fpeaking of phænomena, to ufe expreffions that can only be juftified by reafoning upon the facts themfelves, it will certainly be the fafest way not to neglect a full defcription of them, that it may appear to others how far we have been authorized to use the mental eye. This being premifed, I may fafely proceed to give my obfervations.
April 19, 1787, 10 h. 36′ fidereal time.
"I perceive three volcanos in different places of the dark part of the new moon. Two of them are either already nearly extinct, or otherwife in a fate of going to break out: which perhaps may be decided next lunation. The third fhews an actual eruption of fire, or luminous matter. I measured the distance of the crater from the northern limb of the moon, and found it 3′ 57′′.3. brighter than the nucleus of the it 3' 57". Its light is much
comet which M. Méchain difcovered at Paris the 10th of this month.
April 20, 1787, 10 h. 2′ fidereal time.
"The volcano burns with greater violence than last night. I believe its diameter cannot be lefs than 3", by comparing it with that of the Georgian planet; as Jupiter was near at hand, I turned the telefcope to his third fatellite, and eftimated the diameter of the burning part of the volcano to be equal to at least twice that of the fatellite. Hence we may compute that the fhining or burning matter must be above three miles in diameter. It is of an irregular round figure, and very harply defined on the edges. The other two volcanos are much farther towards the center of the moon, and refemble large, pretty faint nebulæ, that are gradually much brighter in the middle; but no well defined luminous fpot can