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ble avoutry gotren; whereby it evidently appeareth, that no title can nor may in him, which fully intendeth to enter this realm, propofing a conqueft; and if he should atchieve his falfe intent and purpofe, every man's life, livelihood, and goods, fhall be in his hands, liberty, and difpofition; whereby fhould enfue the difheriting and deftruction of all the noble and worshipful blood of this realm for ever, and to the refiftance and withftanding whereof every true and natural Englishman born, must lay to his hands for his own furety and weal.
"And to the intent that the faid Henry Tyder might the ra ther atchieve his falfe intent and purpofe by the aid, fupport, and affiftance of the kings ancient enemy of France, (he) hath covenanted and bargained with him, and all the council of France, to give up and releafe in perpetuity all the right, title, and claim, that the king of England have had, and ought to have, to the crown and realm of France, together with the duchies of Normandy, Anjou, and Mayne, Gascoign and Guyfues, Caffell, and the towns of Calais, Guyfnes, Hammes, with the marches appertaining to the fame, and diffever and exclude the arms of France out of the arms of England for ever.
"And in more proof and fhewing, of his faid purpofe of conqueft, the faid Henry Tydder hath goven [given], as well to divers of the faid king's enemies, as to his faid rebels and traitors, archbifhopricks, bishopricks, and other dignities fpiritual; and alfo the duchies, earldoms, baronies, and other poffeffions and inheritances of knights, efquires, gentlemen,
and other the king's true fubjects within the realm; and intendeth alfo to change and fubvert the laws of the fame, and to enduce [introduce] and establish new laws and ordinances amongst the king's faid fubjects.
And over this, and befides the alienations of all the premises into the poffeffion of the king's faid an cient enemies, to the greatest anyn tifhment [annihilation,] fhame, and rebuke, that ever might fall to this faid land, the faid Henry Tydder and others, the king's rebels and traitors aforefaid, have extended [intended] at their coming, if they may be of power, to do the molt cruel murders, flaughters, and robberies, and difherifons, that ever were seen in any christian realm.
"For the which, and other ineftimable dangers to be efchewed, and to the intent that the king's faid rebels, traitors and enemies, may be utterly put from their faid malicious and falfe purpose and foon difcomforted, if they enforce [endeavour] to land.
"The king our fovereign lord willeth, chargeth, and commandeth, all and every of the natural and true fubjects of this his realm, to call the premises to their minds, and like good and true Englishmen to endower [furnish] themselves with all their powers for the defence of them, their wives, children, and goods, and hereditaments, against the faid malicious purposes and confpirations, which the faid ancient enemies have made with the king's faid rebels and traitors, for the final destruction of this land, as is aforefaid.
"And our faid fovereign lord, as a well willed, diligent, and courageous prince, will put his most royal perfon to all labour and pain
LETTERS on the BREEDING and TREATMENT of SILK WORMS.
[From the Fifth Volume of the Tranfactions of the Society for the. Encouragement of Arts, Mannfactures, and Commerce.]
Mifs RHODES'S LETTER.
"EQUALLY influenced by
your request, and the recollection of my own promife, I again renew the task on which the fociety has bestowed fuch an high degree of attention, and approbation and although in the profecution of my fcheme, I have experienced difappointments which effectually exclude me from the prize my ambition led to, I cannot think myfelf totally unfortunate, fince thofe very difappointments may fupply the moft ufeful hints to others, and, however paradoxical it may appear, are fo many new procfs of the practicability of my plan.
"I congratulate myfelf on your having feen my manufactory laft fummer, as you can witnefs the. number of filk worms I fed. I had calculated that thirty thoufand would produce me about five pounds of filk, and at the time you faw them, I had many more than that number. They were extremely healthy, and fupplied plentifully with food by the generous exertions of my friends, who, with unexampled kindness, fent me fresh leaves daily, although some of them
refided at the diftance of fifteen, and twenty miles from me.
"About the beginning of July, the worms had attained their full growth, and arrived at that state of beautiful tranfparency, which predicts their difpofition to fpin: but at this crifis, a chilling north eaft wind fet in, and we felt a degree of cold little fhort of fome of the fevere winter months. an uncommon feafon had never been remembered here, and its baneful effects were vitibly difplayed on my little family. All thofe that were ready to fpin became of fuch an icy coldnefs, that it was fcarcely poffible to bear them on the hand: they made fome feeble efforts to eject the thread from their mouths, but in vain, for they fhrunk into their chryfalis ftate, without being able to form even the web, which inclofes the cone. This was equally new and alarming to me, and I watched them with the moft anxious attention. The principle of life was vifible in them as in the chryfalis's which bad fpun. That this change was the effect of cold, I had no doubt; but I wished to discover how that effect was produced, and this I could only do by opening fome of them. On examination I
found that the glutinous matter which forms the filk, was become fo highly congealed by the cold, that it refembled a strong tendon, both in appearance, and tenacity; whereas I had ever found it to be perfectly fluid in thofe worms which were employed in spinning.
"My ditrefs encreafed hourly, for thousands went off thus every day. It was fufficiently obvious that the making of fires would remedy the evil; but they were unfortunately fituated over a range of warehouses, which rendered that, not only dangerous, but impoffible. To remove fuch numbers into the houfe was equally impracticable; but alas! they were foon fufficiently reduced for me to adopt that plan, and in one of the coldest days I almost ever felt, with the affiftance of feveral of my friends, I removed them to their former apartment. Here I kept large and constant fires, and the worms as they arrived at maturity, purfued their induftrious Occupations with alacrity.
From this you will perceive fir, that cold, though it impedes their growth, does not effentially injure the worms, until they arrive at the ftate for fpinning; and that then, a certain degree of heat is requifite to render the filk fufficiently fluid, for them to eject it with eafe. If I could have made fires at first, I am perfuaded that the dreadful havoc would have been prevented; and those who rear them for profit, may readily conftruct places, where an artificial heat may counteract the effects of an uncommon feafon, and prevent fuch a calamity.
66 Although the whole fummer was with us, unufually cold, I lost none until the time I have mentioned: but those which I preferved, by a removal into the houfe, were
comparatively few indeed! more than five or fix thousand.
"I well know that the generality of the world, form their opinions of the expediency of fuch an attempt as this by its eventual fuc cefs: but furely my failure may be compared to that of the poor farmer, who beholds with delight, a plenteous crop bending for the fickle, which by a fad reverfe, a fucceffion of defcending torrents destroys; and who nevertheless renews his toil of culture, with better hopes from the fucceeding year. True it is that in one inftance we differ materially, for he has no fe curity against another bad feason, whilft an artificial arrangement can to me, diftribute a fufficient degree of warmth. The effort I made this year, if fuccessful, would have been final: I must now perfevere two or three years longer, for I have refolved not to relinquifh my defign until I have obtained the quantity of filk neceffary for a drefs. This was originally my fole motive, but I have the pleasure of thinking, that I have abundantly established the following facts.
“First, That the management of the filk worm, is by no means difficult, the principle objection hav. ing been obviated, by the difcovery, that they may be fupported fo long a time, on an indigenous plant, which may be procured in all fituations.
"Second, That our climate fupplies a fufficient degree of warmth to bring the filk to the highest perfection, unless in very extraordinary feafons, which may be guarded against by the construction of fire. places.
"Third, And that the profits which arife from the manufacturing of filk, are immenfely advantage. ous, one fourth part of the price
of filk being adjudged enough to defray the whole expences. I know of few circumstances which would gratify me fo much, as the Kaving been the means of promoting the establishment of a filk manufactory on a large scale.
"There was a patent granted by George the First, for the encouragement of one; and two thousand mulberry-trees, were actually plant ed at Chelfea for that purpose: how it mifcarried I have not learnt; but many of the trees must certainly remain, therefore that would be the fpot beft calculated for the trial. For this circumftance, I am in debted to a very ingenious Effay on the Silk Worm, published by Henry Barham, efq. in the year 1719, which abounds with the most useful information I have yet met with on the fubject; and in which, my opinion of the prodigious profits, and certain fuccefs, that would at tend the establishment of the filk manufactory in England, is most amply and inconteftibly fupported."
Mr. SWAIN'S LETTER.
HAVE just now perufed the fourth volume of the Tranf. actions of your patriotic fociety, and it is with inexpreffible fatisfaction, I obferve the rapid progrefs towards perfection which the arts and manufactures of this country are daily making under their aufpicious patronage. What I am particularly pleafed with in the volume I have just read, is, the attention ftill continued to, and the encreafing proofs of the practica bility of the railing of filk in this ifland. The elegant letters of mifs Henrietta Rhodes, inferted therein, have induced me to fend you the following remarks, together with the fpecimen of filk, inclofed in the fame cover; thefe however, are by
no means intended as candidates for a distinction fimilar to that wherewith the letters of that ingenious young lady have been moit defervedly honoured by the fociety, (as I am confcious they have no pre. tensions of this kind) or in the light of rivalfhip; but merely to corroborate the teftimony there adduced, that the production of merchant able filk from worms fed in this ifland, is not only practicable, but that there would be almost a certainty of a manufactory of that kind fucceeding, were there a fuffe ciency of proper food eafily procurable for the worms which produce it. That food I am confident will never be found in the leaves of any other tree, or plant, than thofe of the mulberry. though filk worms will feed on the leaves of lettuces, and will fometimes fpin their web, and go through their feveral metamorphofis without any other food, when they have been accustomed to that from their first exclufion from the eggs; yer they will never thrive fo well, become fo large, or ipin a web either fo good in quantity, or fo abundant in quality, as when they have been fed during their whole existence in the larva ftate, on their natural food mulberry-leaves. And fuppofing the leaves of lettuces to be an equally proper food for them, yet the great extent of land necef fary for the growth of lettuces fufficient for the confumption of any confiderable number of worms, must furely render ineffectual every attempt to raife filk upon that plan.
"In the fociety's fecond volume we have an account of a very ample reward bestowed on a Mrs. Williams, of Gravefend, for her communications on the fubject of filk worms, chiefly tending to fhew that a fubftitute for mulberry-leaves