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But the "Letter to a Member of Parlament, on the Cafe of the Proteftant Differters," and "An Addrefs to the Proteftant Diffenter, &c. by the reverend of ph Berigton, are of a very different complexion from any of the pamphle s, the title of which we have announced. They contend for the exped ency of a general repeal of all penal fatutes that regard religious opinions and plead, unanfwerably, that the only telt of "a good citizen fhould be an obligation to be a peace ble fubject, and an honest man.' In this fentiment we per eftly agree with them; and think it the only one that can be fupported with any confiftency. And we think, that their frictures on the cafe of the diffenters, if not all equally well found d and libetal, are, nevertheless, many of them, deferving of the ferious confideration of the gentlemen by whom it was publickly circulated.
Of the other Political Publications, during the year, which do hot fall under the heads we have fpecified, thofe which we apprehend to be most worthy of notice are, A fhort Review of the Political State of Great Britain, at the Commencement of the Year 1787;" "A Retrospect of the Portraits lately delineated in a Short Review, &c."; "Polit cal Sketches, by a Citizen of America;" "Obfervations on the Corn Bill, wherein the propofed Alteration in the Laws for regulating the Exportation and Importati in of Corn, is fairly examined;" "A general View of the Bill preferred to Parliament, during the aft Sethion, for preventing the 11licit Exportation of Wool, and live Sheep, by Mr. John Anftie, Chairman of the General Meeting;" "A Letter to the Duke of Grafton, on the Bill now depending in Parlia
ment, for preventing the Exportation of live Sheep, Wool, &c.' "Reflections on a late Refolution of the Houfe of Peers, respecting the Peerage of Scotland; addrefied to the Chancellor, and C. J. of the Common Pleas ;" and "The State of Alterations which may be prepofed in the Laws for regulating the Elections of Members of Parliament for Shires in Scotland, by Sir John Sinclair, Bart."
Under the head of critical, claffical, and polite literature, the first work which claims our notice is, "The Heetopades of VeefhnooSarma; in a Series of connected Fables, interfperfed with Moral, Prudential, and Political Maxims; tranflared from an Ancient Manufeript, in the Sanfkret Language, with explanatory Notes, by Charles Wilkins." Thefe fables are arranged under four heads; the acquifition of a friend; the feparation of a favourite; of difputing; and of making peace. They have, undoubtedly, a claim to very confiderable antiquity. According to the account given of them by fir William Jones, the fame of them had reached Perfia fo early as the latter end of the fixth century; when the fovereign of that country fent his chief phyficiam into India, for the fole purpose of obtaining a copy of what was deemed to contain the choicest treasures of morality and policy. After much dìfficulty, occafioned by the jealousy of the rajahs, who preferved it aniong the moft fecret arcana of government, he obtained a Perfian tranflation of this celebrated work, with which he returned to his own coun try. From this verfion, various tranflations have, at different times, been made into most European languages. Many of these fables, confidered feparately, are fimple and
perfpicuous; and convey maxims the imagination and ear of the claffi
of morality in elegant and beautiful language. But the fame imperfection attends them, which is obfervable in all compofitions of a fimilar kind; that which arifes from attributing human faculties and paffions to the brute creation. And we think that their connection with each other is frequently confufed; and that, fometimes, the relation which they bear to the fubject which they are intended to illuftrate, is not very eafy to be difcerned. Still, however, they are a curious monument of antiquity; and Mr. Wilkins is entitled to our thanks, for the neat nefs and elegance of his verfion, and the useful explanatory notes which accompany it.
The "Lectures on the Sacred Poetry of the Hebrews, tranflated from the Latin of the Right Reverend Robert South, D. D. &c. by G. Gregory, F. A. S. in two vo lumes," form a work which the English reader will receive with much pleafure and gratitude, as a fource of elegant amufement, and ufeful inftruction. Few publications have attained to higher celebrity in the learned world, than the original lectures, of which thefe volumes are a tranflation. And one peculiar proof of their excellence is, that though intended to illuftrate the Hebrew poetry, their utility is by no means confined to that object. "They embrace all the great principles of general criticilin as delivered by the ancients, improved by the keen judgment, and polished taste of their author." And "though the learning and genius difplayed in them, must even excite our warmest admiration; though they abound in curious researches, and in refined and exquifite obfervation; though the fplendor of the fentiments and elegance of the ftyle will captivate
cal reader, they are calculated for perfons of taste and general reading, as well as for what is commonly called the learned world.” Much praife is due to Mr. Gregory, for the accuracy and fidelity with which he has tranflated this excellent work. Sometimes, indeed, he may appear to be deficient in expreffing the fenfe of his author, according to the animation and fpirit of the original. But thefe inftances occur fo rarely, that they are loft in the general merits of his verfion. To this tranflation Mr. Gregory has fubjoined the excellent criti cifms of profeffor Michaelis, taken from the Gottingen edition; and many valuable notes of his own, and of his friend Mr. Henley, which are a learned and acceptable addition to thefe Lectures.
Hawkins's edition of the celebrated comedy of "Ignoramus," is by far the most perfect and correct, of any which we have met with. The editor has bestowed great induftry and care in collating all the printed and manufcript copies which he could procure. He has alfo added a profufion of notes, and illustrations; many of which are curious and valuable, while a great part of them might have been omitted, without prejudice to the work, or to the critical abilities and taste of Mr. Hawkins. What is most interefting and amuting in this publi cation is, that part of the prolegomena which gives an account of King James's vifit to Cambridge, when this play was first performed, and of his reception and behaviour at the univerfity.
The new and elegant edition of "Bellendeni de Statu Libri tres,' is a work which will be read with peculiar pleasure by the poli tician, and the claffical fcholar. Bel
lendenus was mafter of the pleas in the reign of James the First; who, being a patron of literature, fupported him at Paris, in honourable and affluent circumstances, while he compofed the feveral a mirable treat fes which reflect fuch honour on his literary chara er. His three books de Statu were become fo exeedingly fearce, that very few of the learned world were acquainted with them. Thef treat fes abound with admirable inftructions for the political conduct of p inces and fub. jects; which are particularly applicable to mixed governments. And the language inwhich they are drawn up is truly Ciceronian. To these the editor has affixed two excellent Latin poems, by Bellendenus, which were found in the British Mufeum; one of which is an epithalamium on the marriage of king Charles the Firft; the other a panegyric on the embally to Spain. In the editor's pr fae to this volume, we meet with many judicious criticisms on the flyle of Bellendenus; and a detection of the plagiarism of Dr. Middleton, who, in his life of Cicero, has borrowed not only much of the matter, but even of the method and arrangement of our author, without the leat a knowledgement of his obligations. But what will be found particularly interefting in this preface are, the characters which the editor draws of our most famous modern politicians; especially those of Mr. Burke, lord North, and Mr. Fox. Thefe gentlemen, whom he'diftinguilhes by the epithet of the three English luminaries, are fpoken of by him in terms which convey the warmest and most ardent approbation; and in language that is elegant and fafcinating while the minifterial party are attacked by the Leeneft weapons of wit and faire. Without affenting to our author's
political opinions, we cannot but admire the numerous beauties of his compofition; and recommend it as a striking fpecimen of energetic, pure, and elegant Latinity.
Dalziel's Collectanea Græca Minora, ad ufum Tironum accommodata," contain a number of judicious felections from Efop. Hi crocles, Palæphatus de incredibili. bus Hiftoriis, Lucian, Plutarch's Apophthegmata, Xenophon's Inftitutio, Anacreon, Bion, Mofchus, and Tyrtæus, which appear to be well calculated to affift fuch as are but moderately advanced in Greek literature. To these felections are annexed a fhort account of each of the authors from whom they are taken; annotations illustrating the more obfcure paffages; and an ufeful lexion, explaining the different words which occur in the extracts.
From lord Monboddo's pen the public has received, during the prefent year, a fourth volume" Of the Origin and Progrefs of Language." This volume is divided by the author into two books. In the first, he enters into a comparison of the excellencies and defects of different languages, in which he treats of words, first, merely as articulate founds, capable of variety and me. lody; and then as fignificant, fingly and in compofition. Under each of thefe heads he lays down the characters of general excellence, by which he tries the merits of several languages, ancient and mo dern, and always decides in favour of the Greek. In the second book he explains the nature of ftyle in its different kinds, and points out the diftinct characters of the epiftolary, dialogue, and historical ftle. To these he adds, remarks on Xenophon, Plato, Cicero, lord Shaftesbury, and Harris, as dia logifts; and on Herodotus, on
whom he bestows the palm, as an historian. In the volume before us, as in the former productions of his lordship, the reader will perceive evidences of his extentive acquaintance with the objects of 1 terature; and may derive information from many of his juft and pertinet remarks. He will allo meet with many of thofe pec liar and extravagant notions which will call forth the fimile on the graveit counte nance. No one will ufpe that we are influenced by prejudice against the author, when he is found main taining, that men fing before they fpeak;" that the fe of language was first taught in Egypt by the god Teuth;" and the cuckow, who articulates his own name musically, railing the tone of the firt fyllable a third above the latt, comes nearer to the Greek pronunciation than any thing he knows."
Walker's Melody of Speaking delineated; or Elocution taught like Mufic, by vifible Signs adapted to the Tones, Inflections, and Variations of the Voice, in Reading and Speaking, &c," is equally deferving of our praife and recoin mendation, with his former value able works, which have fallen under our notice. The rules which in this volume he delivers for nodulation, are proofs of the accuracy of his judgment, and the nicen-fs of his ear. His examples in profe and verse are well chofen; and given in one page without marks, and in the other with notes of in flections, breaks, and inftructions for the variation of tones. We think, however, that his remarks on circumflexes, one of which be gins with the rifing, and ends with the falling inflexion upon the fame fyllable. and the other begins with the falling and ends with the rifing inflexion, cannot be perfectly com
prehended without oral affiftance. Tǝ those who wish to attain a full, diftinct, and elegant elocution, we' recommend this production as an ingenious and useful g ide.
The "Concordance to Shakefpeare, fuited to all the Editions; in which he diftinguifled and pa rallel Paffages in the Plays of that juttly admired Wiiter are methodically arranged, &c." is the first at tempt, of which we have any knowledge, towards fupplying the public with what has long been a defideratum in li eratu e. The plan of the editor s, to make the poet fometimes fpeak in maxies and fentences; and at other times to give his defeription of one and the fame affection and paffion, as it is feen in different perfons, and at different feafons; or as it may be called forth by accidental, by fo reign and oppofed circumstances." A work that requires fo much labour and attention is, unquestionably deferving of our thanks: and we hope that our author will meet with fuch encouragement as shall engage him to enlarge his plan, and render it more perfect. But the principal excellence in this volume confifts of upward of three hundred notes and illustrations, which are intended to elucidate the obscurities of our immortal bard. These notes fufficiently evince the author's acquaintance with Shakespeare; and that he is poffeffed of that genius and attention which qualify him for this line of criticifin. Even his conjectures, in which he follows the impulfe of a bold imagination, and may feem, fom-times to betray too great a fondness for innovation, do well deferve the attention of fu ture commentators.
Grole's "Provincial Gloffary; with a Collection of Local Proverbs, and Popular Superftitions," is a
,work by which that ingenious gentleman has laid the public under fresh obligations to him, in facilitating their acquaintance with our ancient writers. Many partial collections, in the torm of glof faries, have already been made, and well received. Thefe are all here united under one alphabet, and augmented by many hundred words collected by the editor in the different places wherein they are ufed; the rotation of military quarters, and the recruiting fervice having occafioned him to refide, for fone time, in most of the counties of England." In this divifion of his work, our author has fo fatisfactorily explained the terms and phrafes which occur, that we could wish that it had been more full and complete. The local proverbs in this collection, are enlarged and corrected from Fuller, Ray, and other writers. With refpect to the concluding part, which treats of popular fuperftitions, it has been chiefly collected from the works of king James the First, Glanvil, Dr. Henry More, Beaumont, Aubrey, Mather, Baxter, &c. What is new in this divifion, captain Grofe received from the mouth of village hiftorians, as they were related to a clofing circle of attentive hearers, affembled in a winter evening, around the capacious chimney of an old hall or manfion-houfe." This laft part, as it exhibits the ftrange vagaries which still poffefs the minds of the vulgar in different parts of thefe kingdoms, is pecuiarly interesting. On the whole, we have received much pleasure and entertainment from the work before us, although we think that fome of the author's explanations
Mr. Cumberland has, during the prefent year, published a new edi
tion of the "Obferver," in three volumes. In the account which we gave of the first edition of this intructive and entertaining work, we beftowed on our author a due proportion of praife, for the learning, ingenuity, and excellent tendency of his writings; while, at the fame time, we freely cenfured him for his numerous inacurracies and imperfections. We are now happy in being able to inform our readers, that thefe blemishes are done away; and that they were principally, to be attributed to an incautiousnefs which attended the working off the former numbers at a country prefs. The style in which these volumes is writien is polished and refined: many of the mifcellaneous papers are inftructive and pleafing; the criticifins ingenious and juft ; and the numbers which are devoted to religious fubjects serious and ufeful, In his continuation, likewife, of the hiftory of Grecian literature, the author is entitled to our warmeft commendations. Much of the information which has been buried in the voluminous annotations of the fcholiafts, he has cleared from the rubbish, and delivered in the form of a regular and interefting narrative. But while we accompany him with pleasure in his learned refearches, and view with genuine fatisfaction the fuccefsful defence which he fets up for Aristophanes, we feel ourselves much hurt at the manner in which he involves Socrates in the deferved difgrace to which he configns the enemies of that Poet. We think that this recrimination was by no means neceffary to the vindication of his favourite; and that it is condemned by the general fenfe of his virtue and inte grity, which was entertained by his fellow citizens, the repentance uni verfally fhewn for the unjust sen