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tis with effervescence; in muriatic External Characters.---Color, brown, acid, without .

yellowish, or blackish brown; on the Distinctive Characters.--Its chemical outside resembling black glazed earthcharacters.

Occurs stalactical, tuberous, Composition.--Copper, from 88.5 to nodular, and amosphous. Structure, 91, oxygen, from 11.5 to 9.

fibrous. Lustre, silky and resinous ; yields to the knife. In a variety of

this ore the structure is compact; lusis found in primary and secondary tre, none; streak, yellowish brown; mountains.

fracture, conchoidal or eartby. External Characters. --Color, blue. Occurs massive, stalactical, incrusting, disseminated, and crystallized. Frac

Chiefly in the primary, often in lead turc, imperfectly foliated, usually pre- mines. It yields the best of iron for senting broad fibres.

drawing and rolling. Chemical Characters. -Infusible with

External Characters.--Colors, bloodout.a flux; with borax gives a green

red and dark steel-gray. Occurs masglass. Dissolves in aquafortis with

sive, and in plates; also, reniform, effervesence.

globular, and pulverulent. Fraeuure, Distinctive Characters.—Insoluble in water; does not become magnetic un- the knife. Adheres to the tongue.

uneven and earthy. Yields easily to der the blowpipe.

Composition.–Oxyd of Copper, 70; Specific gravity, 4.75. carbonic acid. 24; water, 6.

Chemical Characters.--Infusible, but Tests for Copper.—To a solution of becomes magnetic. this metal present a plate of iron-re- Composition.-Oxyd of iron, 90; silsult, metallic copper; potash-result, ver, 2; lime, 1; water, 3. green precipitate; ammonia (harts

OF IRON-(IRON horn,)-result, blue color.

GLANCE Copper smelts at 1996°; it is ductile, malleable, and tenacious; it is hard,

Occurs chiefly in primary mounelastic, and sonorous.

tains, associated with magnetic iron, red hematite, quartz, etc.; also in sec

ondary rocks. Affords good malleaIs found in primary and second- ble iron. ary rocks. The ores from which the Easternal Characters.--Color, steeliron of commerce is extracted are : gray, with a highly polished surface;

often tarnished. Streak, cherry-red.

Occurs crystallized in pyramidal doOccurs abundantly in primary dis- decahedrons, hexahedral tables; also tricts, and sometimes in secondary. massive, disseminated, in concretions. It yields the finest kind of iron. Structure, lamellar. Lustre, brilliant,

The Kansas Pacific Railway has no rival in speed and equipments.




slightly attracted by the magnet. ing--the black variety affording the Specific gravity, 5.52.

best. Chemical Characters.--Infusible; in

External Characters. - Colors, yelsoluble in acids.

low, white, brown, and black. Occurs Distinctive Characters.—Yields a red massive, disseminated, with pyramipowder when heated, and becomes dal impressions; also in granular dismagnetic.

tinct concretions-nodula, and crysComposition.-Iron, 69; oxygen, 31. tallized. Structure, foliated or lamel

ler. Lustre, shining vitreous. Streak, MAGNETIC OXYD OF IRON-(IRON SAND.) | white or yellowish brown. Yields to

the knife; easily broken. Crystals Occurs imbedded in trap rocks, and called mountain ore. Furnishes best usually small, and found in groups.

Specific gravity, about 4. bar iron, and yields fifty to ninety per

Chemical Characters.-Are infusible, cent of the metal.

blackens, and becomes magnetic. EfExternal Characters. - Color, iron

fervesces with muriatic acid. Heated black. Occurs in minute grains; also

with borax, it makes an olive-green in octahedral crystals. Fracture, con

glass. choidal. Strongly magnetic. Pow

Distinctive Characters. — From the der, black, Chemical Character. — Infusible by earthy minerals it is distinguished by

its weight. From other iron ores, by blowpipe.

crystalline, foliated cleavage ; and Composition.Oxyd of iron, 85.50 ;

blende, by its yielding magnetic iron. oxyd of titanium, 14; oxyd of man

Composition.-Oxyd of iron, 58; car

bonic acid, 35 ; oxyd of manganese, SPATHIC IRON-(CLAY IRON ORE.)

4.25; magnesia, 0.75; lime, 0.5.

Tests for Iron.--Infusion of galls, It occurs in veins in granite, gneiss, when added to iron dissolved in an mica slate, clay.slate, and gray wacke, acid, gives a black precipitate, (black and in these it is associated with ores ink ;) prussiate of potash gives a blue of lead, cobalt, silver; but seldom with precipitate, (blue ink.) nickel and bismuth ; more frequently with galena, copper ore, iron pyrites, and antimony ore. In other veins it

The ore which is generally wrought, is accompanied with brown, red, and black iron ore, calcareous spear, and

and from which nearly all the lead of quartz. But the most extensive for- | commerce is procured, is the mations of this ore is in carbonifer...

SULPHURET OF LEAD-(GALENA.) ous limestone, in which it is arranged in thick beds. It is also found filling It occurs in veins, beds, and imbedup amygdaloidal cavities in trap rocks, ded masses, in primary and secondary It is excellently adapted for steel-mak- mountains, but most frequently in the

ganese, 0.50.


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latter, and particularly in limestone. Lustre, shining and adamantine. It is commonly associated with the Yields to the knife. Brittle. Strucores of zinc, copper and iron, and often ture, foliated. Specific gravity, 3, 7, with those of silver. When it is found to 4. in the primary rocks, it is generally in Chemical Characters.-When heated, granite. It is also found in alluvial decrepitates. When thrown into the deposits.

oil of vitroil, it gives the smell of rotExternal Characters.--Colors, bluish- ten eggs. gray, lead-gray, and on the outside, Distinctive Characters. Infusible. blackish-gray.

Occurs amorphous, Does not tinge borax green. reticulated, and crystallized in cubes Composition. -- Zinc, sulphur, iron, and octahedrons. Structure, lamella- and silex, ted. Lustre, metallic. Perfectly sectile; soft. Very brittle. Opaque.

Occurs in beds, nests, filling up or Chemical Characters.-- When heated,

lining hollows, in secondary limestone first decrepitates, then emits the smell

and conglomerate rock; also in veins, of sulphur, melting into a globule of

usually along with oxyd of iron, and lead.

sometimes with galena. Distinctive Characters.--Blende, mo

External Characters.-Colors, gray, lybdena, and graphite are infusible.

greenish, or brown-yellowish, and Composition.-Lead, sulphur, lime,

sometimes nearly white. Occurs crysand silver.

tallized, compact, amorphous, pseudoTests for Lead.--Glauber's salts, and an infusion of galls, give to a solution morphous, and cupriferous. Yields to

the knife. Specific gravity, 3, 35 to of this metal a white precipitate.

4, 41.

Chemical Characters.--Infusible; dis

solves with effervescence in muriatie is found in primary and secondary

acid or warm aquafortis. rocks.

Composition. Oxyd of zincand carBlende.Mock Lead, False Galena,

bonic acid. Black Jack.)

Occurs in veins in primary and secondary rocks, generally associated Found in Iron mines; also in limewith galena, with iron and copper. stone. This ore is commonly too widely dis- External, Characters. - Color, red. seminated in its gangue to make it Oecurs massive and disseminated. profitable. It is, however, used after Lustre, shining, by exposure becomes roasting in the preparation of brass. dull. Structure, foliated. Yields to

External Characters. - Colors, yel- the knife. Brittle. Specific gravity, low, brown, and black. Occurs mas- 6, 22. sive, lamelliform, disseminated, in Chemical Characters.--Infusible; solglanuiar concretions, and crystallized.uble with effervescence in acids. El Moro, two hundred and twenty miles from Silverton, reached via Kansas

Pacific Railway.



Distinctive Characters.--Infusibility metallic. Softer than copper. Tarand weight.

nishes. Melts at 476°. Specific gravComposition.---Oxyd of manganese ity, 9. and oxyd of zinc



Nearly all of them, as the sapphire, Geognostic Situation-- Primary rocks, emerald, spinel, chrysoberyl, chrysoand particularly in quartz, gneiss, and prase, topaz, iolite, garnet, tourmaline, mica-slate, generally associated with chalcedony, amethyst, etc., are always cobalt, arsenic, silver, iron pyrites and in the primary rocks. Quarts, in the galena. When found native and alone form of rock-crystal, cornelian cachothe metal is fit for use immediately. long, sardonyx, jasper, etc., is found

External Characters.--Color, silver- often in secondary strata, especially white, inclining to red. Occurs amor- in the trap rocks. The diamond is phous, plumose, reticulated and crys- generally found in drift. tallized. Structure, lamellar. Lustre,










The altitudes of different portions of the country is an interesting study, Mount Lizard, San Juan......

13,160 as it has much to do with climate,


14,280 Sneffels,

14,258 health, vegetation, physiological char

Uncom pahgre Pk “

14,235 acter and habits of the people, and in

Mount Engineer,

12,974 dicates, more or less, the location of Mount Canby,

13,274 the precious metals.

Pass east of Mount Sultan, San Juan... 10,460
Pass west of


Mineral Creek Pass, San Juan.. 11,098 PLACES, AS

Bear Creek Pass,


Lake Fork Pass,

12,540 Cunningham Pass,

12,500 COLORADO.

Silverton (Baker's Park) San Juan...... 9,400 Denver.... 5,196 Howardsville, San Juan ......

9,700 Pike's Peak.......

14,149 La Plata City (Animas Forks) San Juan 11,200 Mount Linco'n.............. 14 296 Mineral City, San Juan......

11,500 Sultan, San Juan 13,366 Del Norte....

7,900 Kendal, 13,380 Saguache......

7,747 Gelena, 13,292 | Los Pinos Agency.

9,280 Sanders' Peak, 13,994 Animas City (Elbert).






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San Cristoval Lake.......
9,000 Tarryall Creek, at Hamilton

9,543 Antelope Park ........

9,000 Arkansas River, at Tennessee Pass...... 10,176 Eureka, San Juan....... 9,000 Gunnison River, at bead

11,176 O aray, San Juan. 6,000 Roaring Fork, at head

11,676 Hot Springs, Middle Park.. 7,725 Frying-Pan Creek, at head

11.012 Sierra Blanca Peak .......

14,400 Jennison's Ranche (Carr's Cabin......... 9,600 Broad Mt., San Juan.

Pike's Peak, east face

11,721 Bear Creek Peak

Mt. Guyot, north face

11,811 Mount Babcock ......


Mt. Silverheels northeast face....... 11,549 Upper Twin Lakes.

Mt. Lincoln, east face..

12,051 Gray's Peak

Head of Buckskin Gulch

11,537 Argentine Pass, highest wagon road in

Park Range.......... the United States...

11,656 13,100

Mt. Harvard, east face... Ceorgetown

2,117 8,412 La Plata east face......

12,080 Sand dumps near Mosco Pass, in San

Mean elevation of timber-line...... Louis Park; height above Park...... 500

11,694 Mount King Solomon.. Colorado Springs



6,049 Manitou 6,357 Lake Ontario .......

449 Fairplay 10,048 Erie Canal, at Buffalo, N. Y...

568 Hamilton, South Park ...... 9,743 Lake Erie, at Buffalo...

573 Oro, Arkansas Valley 10,704 Harrisburgh, Pa.....

313 Dayton, Arkansas Valley 9,441 Pittsburg, Pa.......

738 Mining camp in Elk Mountains 11,404 Cleveland, Ohio

507 Cameron Cone, (Colorado Range) 11,460 Buffalo, N. Y.

578 Quandаry Peak (Park Range)........... 14,269 Lake Huron

590 Horse Shoe Mt. 13,842. Lake Michigan

588 Sheep Mountain 13,292 | Toronto, Canada

239 Holy Cross (Saguiache Range) 14,176 Detroit, Mich..

340 Massive Mt. 14,368 | Memphis, Tenn...

259 Mt. Elbert, 14,326 Chicago, Ill......

590 La Plata Mt., 14,302 Columbus, Ky..

320 Mt. Harvard, 14,302 | Cairo, Ill......

291 Mt. Yale, 14,151 Columbus, Ohio

743 Maroon Mt., (Elk Range) 14,100 Indianapolis, Ind.......

720 Castle Peak, 14,106 St. Louis, MO .....

423 Hayden's Summit Pass 8 882 Terre Haute, Ind .....

504 Tarryal Pass....... 12,176 Sioux City, Iowa....

534 Tennessee Pass (heal of Ark. river)..... 10,418 Omaha, Neb........

987 Main divide at Frying-Pan Creek ...... 12,017 Council Bluffs, Iowa,

1,001 St. Joseph, Mo.....

820 Kansas City, Mo

770 Hannibal, Mo

485 South Platte River, at Montgomery, ... 11,176 Cincinnati, Ohio


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