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them at the same time of the date on which it received the notification.

Article 24 Non-Signatory Powers which have accepted the Geneva Convention of the 6th July, 1906, may accede to the present Convention.

A Power which desires to accede notifies its intention in writing to the Netherland Government, forwarding to it the act of accession, which shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government.

The said Government shall immediately forward to all the other Powers a duly certified copy of the notification, as well as of the act of accession, mentioning the date on which it received the notification.

Article 25 The present Convention, duly ratified, shall replace as between Contracting Powers, the Convention of the 29th July, 1899, for the adaptation to naval warfare of the principles of the Geneva Convention.

The Convention of 1899 remains in force as between the Powers which signed it but which do not also ratify the present Convention.

NOTE. Here follow the usual provisions as to ratification, denunciation, and accession, for which see Part III, No. 2, page 178.

7. Proclamation by the Commander of an Occupying Force

in the Boer War I, C. J. Wessels, Head Commandant of the Burgher Forces of the Orange Free State, on the borders of Griqualand West, having noticed the proclamation of His Honour the State President, dated Bloemfontein, the 14th October, 1899, by which the Commanders-in-Chief of the various divisions of the burgher forces of the Orange Free State are empowered to take measures against those communities, villages, and persons, who act contrary to the usages of war during the war which has been forced upon the people of the South African Republic and Orange Free State by the Government of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland;

Taking into consideration the success of the United Republican arms, which has resulted in the occupation of a portion of the British territory known as Griqualand West, comprising the Divisions of Herbert, Hay, Barkly, and Kimberley, excluding the town of Kimberley and its commonage with a radius of four miles beyond those limits;

And whereas it has become necessary to take steps against the communities, villages, and persons who act contrary to the usages of war in the said districts occupied by the burghers and troops of the Orange Free State and South African Republic; and also to take steps with regard to the requisitions (for supplies) which are considered necessary for the needs and maintenance of the burghers and troops of the Orange Free State and South African Republic in the said area;

Have decided, and hereby decree by virtue of the power vested in me by the above proclamation, and declare for general information, the following rules and regulations:

I. The Martial Law of the Orange Free State, No. 10, 1899, is hereby declared to be in force in the districts and their inhabitants extending over the area at present occupied by the officers, burghers, and troops of the Orange Free State under my command, or which may be occupied later on, with regard to any act which may tend to endanger the safety of the burghers and men, or harm them, or assist the enemy.

II. The said Martial Law is considered to be in force over the whole of a ward, district, or other administrative division, as soon as it is posted up or proclaimed in one of the communities forming a portion thereof.

III. All persons, not forming a portion of the British Army, and who

(a) Serve the enemy as spies;

(6) Mislead the burghers and men of the South African Republic or Orange Free State when acting as guides;

(c) Kill, murder, or plunder persons belonging to one of the Republics, or forming a portion of their following or train;

(d) Destroy bridges, or injure telegraph lines, heliographic instruments, railway lines or portions thereof, whereby the said Republics should be impeded, or injury inflicted on their people or property, or should try to repair or improve damage done by the Republican troops to property or institutions, or should burn or damage ammunition, munitions of war, or quarters or camps of the men of the said Republics;

(e) Or should take up arms against the men of the Republics, shall be punishable at the discretion of the Krijgsraad (i.e., War-Council) with death, or imprisonment not exceeding 15 years.

IV. The persons entrusted with the prosecution must see to the constitution of a Krijgsraad for enquiry into every case and the passing of sentence.

V. No sentence of death shall be carried out until it has been confirmed by the President of the Orange Free State.

VI. All commandants or commanding officers of divisions acting independently (of each other) have the right to make demands for things necessary for the support of the men and burghers. Other necessaries which may be considered indispensable for the army can only be demanded by the Head Commandant, or the officer acting as Head Commandant.

VII. I further hereby declare that life and property will be guaranteed to all who place themselves under the protection of the Government of the Orange Free State or South African Republic, and their duly appointed officers whose laws and orders they will carry out and obey.

VIII. Nobody who does not act in a hostile manner against the Government of the Orange Free State or South African Republic or their officials, officers, laws, or orders, will experience any harm.

IX. Those who refuse to submit are hereby granted permission to leave the territory occupied by the army within 14 days.

X. All persons who have been driven away from or have left their farms or homes, and who now submit to the regulations herein set forth, may return to their homes.

Given under my hand at Olifantsfontein, this 11th day of November, 1899.

(Signed) C. J. WESSELS,

Head Commandant. - (State Papers of Cape Colony, Magisterial Reports, pp. 69–71, August, 1900.)

8. Japanese Plan for the Military Occupation of the

Island of Sakhalin, 1905

1. The extent of the occupation shall comprise the whole of Sakhalin Island, adjacent islands, and territorial waters.

2. The position of army stations during the time of the occupation shall be decided according to circumstances; but the chief military administration offices shall be stationed at Alexandrovski, Zuikoff, and Korsakovski under the charge of the highest officer of the army to be stationed at each of them, their administrative boundaries following the old lines of district demarcation.

3. Any movable property which belongs to the enemy's state and which is useful in military operations, shall be seized as booty.

4. New plans shall not be inaugurated or existing laws and customs altered, save in case of necessity for administration or for military operations.

5. The services of the old administrative officials (those connected with civil suit, collection of taxes, post, telegraph, fisheries, forestry, and mining) may be made use of as they are required, so far as they do not affect the safety of our army; and in this case a certain remuneration shall be paid them. It depends upon circumstances whether these officials shall be employed as officials or as mere advisers. If they avail themselves of their authority for impeding our military operations, they shall be punished according to martial law.

6. Taxes and other imposts shall be collected as far as possible in accordance with the existing rules, and applied towards the expenses of administration. The business of the inhabitants (including neutrals) shall therefore not be prohibited; but if they fail to pay the taxes or imposts, or behave illegally, not only shall their business be prohibited, but a fine may be imposed upon them.

7. No one shall be allowed to keep arms or ammunition unless by special permit from our army.

8. Irregular combatants, individual opposers, and those who speak or behave against our army, shall be punished according to martial law.

9. Prisoners in jail and those recognized as harmful to our army may be sent away into the Maritime Province by certain reasonable means.

10. Those people who desire to return to their home country shall be sent to the Maritime Province.

11. The inhabitants shall not be allowed to hold communication or correspondence with any places outside the island. They shall also not be permitted to hold an assembly or to issue printed matter without permit.

12. The rate of exchange between our paper money and the Russian coins shall be fixed and published.

13. Until the time of completing the occupation, no vessels or persons, other than those useful in military operations, shall be allowed to enter the territorial waters of the island. This rule holds good even after the completion of the occupation for those without a special permit from the Minister of War or the Commander of the Occupation Army. If the Minister of War issues such a permit, the Commander of the Occupation Army shall be notified.

14. Fishing being harmful to military operations, it shall be prohibited, except for those with a special permit granted on account of necessity to the army.- (Takahashi, International Law Applied to the Russo-Japanese War, pp. 225, 227.)

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