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dedicated to public worship, art, science, or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals, and places where the sick or wounded are collected, provided that they are not used at the time for military purposes.

It is the duty of the inhabitants to indicate such monuments, edifices, or places by visible signs, which shall consist of large stiff rectangular panels divided diagonally into two painted triangular portions, the upper portion black, the lower portion white.

Article 6 Unless military exigencies render it impossible, the officer in command of an attacking naval force must, before commencing the bombardment, do all in his power to warn the authorities.

Article 7 The giving over to pillage of a town or place, even when taken by assault, is forbidden.

Chapter III — Final Provisions

Article VIII The provisions of the present Convention do not apply except between Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are parties to the Convention..

NOTE. Articles 9–13 which follow set forth the usual rules as to ratification, notification etc., which may be found at the end of No. 2 of Part III.

15. The Hague Declaration of 1907 prohibiting the Discharge

of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons The Undersigned, Plenipotentiaries of the Powers invited to the Second International Peace Conference at The Hague, duly authorized to that effect by their Governments, inspired by the sentiments which found expression in the Declaration of St. Petersburg of the 29th November (11th December), 1868, and being desirous of renewing the Declaration of The Hague of the 29th July, 1899, which has now expired,

Declare:

The Contracting Powers agree to prohibit, for a period extending to the close of the Third Peace Conference, the discharge of projectiles and explosives from balloons or by other new methods of a similar nature.

The present Declaration is only binding on the Contracting Powers in case of war between two or more of them.

It shall cease to be binding from the moment when, in a war between the Contracting Powers, one of the belligerents is joined by a non-Contracting Power.

The present Declaration shall be ratified as soon as possible. The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague.

A Protocol shall be drawn up recording the receipt of the ratifications of which a duly certified copy shall be sent, through the diplomatic channel, to all the Contracting Powers.

Non-Signatory Powers may accede to the present Declaration. To do so, they must make known their accession to the Contracting Powers by means of a written notification, addressed to the Netherland Government, and communicated by it to all the other Contracting Powers.

In the event of one of the High Contracting Parties denouncing the present Declaration, such denunciation shall only operate on the expiry of one year after the notification made in writing to the Netherland Government, and forthwith communicated by it to all the other Contracting Powers.

This denunciation shall only operate in respect of the denouncing Power.

NOTE. — Of the six Great Powers of Europe only two, Great Britain and Austria-Hungary, have signed this Declaration. Of the great military Powers of the world only one, Austria-Hungary, has signed it. Since it is not binding unless both sides in a war have accepted it, there will be few conflicts on land in which it has any chance of observance. Moreover the vast advances made in the art of aërial navigation since 1907, and their general adoption for military and naval purposes, have sensibly diminished whatever prospect there was of rescuing the air from the domain of destruction. The best that can be hoped for in present circumstances is the exemption of undefended places from a rain of projectiles coming out of the air-space above them.

16. The Declaration of St. Petersburg, 1868 Considering that the progress of civilization should have the effect of alleviating as much as possible the calamities of war;

That not only legitimate object which States should endeavour to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy;

That for this purpose it is sufficient to disable the greatest possible number of men;

That this object would be exceeded by the employment of arms which uselessly aggravate the sufferings of disabled men, or render their death inevitable;

That the employment of such arms would, therefore, be contrary to the laws of humanity;

The Contracting Parties engage mutually to renounce, in case of war among themselves, the employment by their military or naval troops of any projectile of a weight below 400 grammes (14 ounces) which is either explosive or charged with fulminating or inflammable substances.

They will invite all the States which have not taken part in the deliberations of the International Military Commission assembled at St. Petersburg, by sending Delegates thereto, to accede to the present engagement.

This engagement is obligatory only upon the Contracting or Acceding Parties thereto, in case of war between two or more of themselves; it is not applicable with regard to non-Contracting Parties or Parties who shall not have acceded to it.

It will also cease to be obligatory from the moment when, in a war between Contracting or Acceding Parties, a nonContracting Party or a non-Acceding Party shall join one of the belligerents.

The Contracting or Acceding Parties reserve to themselves to come hereafter to an understanding whenever a precise proposition shall be drawn up in view of future improvements which science may effect in the armament of troops, in order to

maintain the principles which they have established, and to conciliate the necessities of war with the laws of humanity.

17. Hague Convention of 1907 for the Pacific Settlement of

International Disputes

PART I- THE MAINTENANCE OF GENERAL PEACE

Article 1

With a view of obviating as far as possible recourse to force in the relations between States, the Contracting Powers agree to use their best efforts to ensure the pacific settlement of international differences.

PART II

Good OFFICES AND MEDIATION

Article 2 In case of serious disagreement or dispute, before an appeal to arms, the Contracting Powers agree to have recourse, as far as circumstances allow, to the good offices or mediation of one or more friendly Powers.

Article 3

Independently of this recourse, the Contracting Powers deem it expedient and desirable that one or more Powers, strangers to the dispute, should, on their own initiative and as far as circumstances may allow, offer their good offices or mediation to the States at variance.

Powers strangers to the dispute have the right to offer good offices or mediation even during the course of hostilities.

The exercise of this right can never be regarded by either of the contending parties as an unfriendly act.

Article 4 The part of the mediator consists in reconciling the opposing claims and appeasing the feelings of resentment which may have arisen between the States at variance.

Article 5 The duties of the mediator are at an end when once it is declared, either by one of the contending parties or by the mediator himself, that the means of reconciliation proposed by him are not accepted.

Article 6 Good offices and mediation undertaken either at the request of the contending parties or on the initiative of Powers strangers to the dispute have exclusively the character of advice, and never have binding force.

Article 7 The acceptance of mediation cannot, in default of agreement to the contrary, have the effect of interrupting, delaying, or hindering mobilization or other measures of preparation for war.

If mediation takes place after the commencement of hostilities, the military operations in progress are not interrupted, in default of agreement to the contrary.

Article 8 The Contracting Powers are agreed in recommending the application, when circumstances allow, of special mediation in the following form:

In case of a serious difference endangering peace, the States at variance choose respectively a Power, to which they entrust the mission of entering into direct communication with the Power chosen on the other side, with the object of preventing the rupture of pacific relations.

For the period of this mandate, the term of which, in default of agreement to the contrary, may not exceed thirty days, the contending States cease from all direct communication on the subject of the dispute, which is regarded as referred exclusively to the mediating Powers. These Powers shall use their best efforts to settle the dispute.

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