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minister of foreign affairs, until the Emperor should make the annunciation in the Moniteur in the following April. At the solicitation of Marshal Niel, however, who, when he was advised of the arrangement, declared it to be unsafe to try to evacuate Mexico in separate detachments, and insisted that the whole army must be removed at once, the Emperor subsequently gave us notice that he would retire from Mexico in March, 1867, sixteen months from the time of our arrangement, instead of twelve, eighteen, and twenty-four months, and this he did in good faith. — (Letter of General J. W. Webb, in Moore's International Law Digest, vol VI, p. 504.)

NOTE. - It appears that President Johnson declined to purchase French Guiana, and the Emperor declined to sell instead the island of Martinique or the island of St Pierre. This part of the bargain, therefore, fell through.

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7. Intervention to put down Revolution

THE HOLY ALLIANCE TREATY OF 1815 Their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, the King of Prussia and the Emperor of Russia, as a consequence of the great events which have signalized, in Europe, the course of the last three years, and principally of the benefits which it has pleased Divine Providence to spread over the States whose governments have placed their trust and hope in Him alone, having acquired the complete conviction that it is necessary to base the system to be adopted by the States in their mutual relations upon the sublime truths taught by the eternal religion of the Holy Saviour;

Declare solemnly, that the present instrument has only for its object to manifest before all the world their invincible determination to take for their rule of conduct, whether in the administration of their respective States, or in their political relations with other governments, none but the precepts of that holy religion, precepts of justice, of charity, and of peace; which, far from being applicable only to private life, ought, on the contrary, to have a direct influence on the resolves of princes, and to guide all their steps, as being the sole method of strengthening human institutions and remedying their imperfections. In consequence, their majesties have agreed to the following articles:

Article I. Conformably to the words of the Holy Scriptures, which command all men to look upon each other as brethren, the three contracting monarchs will remain united by the bonds of a real and indissoluble brotherhood; and considering themselves as members of one country, they will afford each other, on every occasion and in every place, assistance, aid, and succour: looking upon themselves with regard to their subjects and their armies, as fathers of a family, they will govern them in that spirit of brotherhood with which they are animated for the protection of religion, peace, and justice.

Article II. In consequence, the only principles in force, whether between the said sovereigns or between their subjects, shall be that of reciprocally doing each other good; of testifying, by unalterable good-will, the mutual affection with which they ought to be animated; of considering all men only as members of the same Christian nation, the three allied princes only regarding themselves as delegated by Providence to govern three branches of the same family, namely, Austria, Prussia, and Russia: confessing thus that the Christian nation, of which they and their people are a part, has in reality, no other Sovereign than He to whom power properly belongs, because in Him alone are found the treasures of love, of knowledge, and of infinite wisdom, that is to say, God, our Divine Saviour Jesus Christ, the Word of the most High, the Word of Life. Their majesties recommend in consequence to their people, with the most tender solicitude, as the sole method of enjoying that peace which arises from a good conscience, and which alone is durable, to strengthen themselves more and more each day in those principles, and in the exercise of those duties which the Divine Saviour has taught mankind.

Article III. All those powers that may desire to make a solemn avowal of the sacred principles which have dictated the present act, and that will acknowledge how important it is to the happiness of nations, too long disturbed, that these

truths shall henceforth exercise on human destiny all the influence which is their due, shall be received with equal earnestness and affection into this Holy Alliance.

NOTE. — The general terms of this treaty were soon interpreted as a condemnation of all popular movements in favour of political freedom. At the Congress of Troppau in 1820 the Ministers of Russia and Prussia put forth a joint circular, explaining that, while the Holy Alliance was not hostile to reforms proceeding from the voluntary action of Sovereigns, it was determined to put down violence and revolution. Next year the Sovereigns assembled at the Congress of Laybach proclaimed in a circular despatch that they would regard as null and disallowed by the public law of Europe any pretended reform effected by revolt and open force. In pursuance of these ideas the Alliance interfered in Spain, Naples and other States, and would have extended its operations to Central and South America, had it not been checked by the concerted opposition of George Canning, the brilliant Foreign Minister of Great Britain, and James Monroe, the President of the United States.

8. A Freehand for England in Egypt set off Against a

Freehand for France in Morocco

Article 1. The Government of his Britannic Majesty declares that it has not the intention of changing the political state of Egypt.

On its side, the Government of the French Republic declares that it will not impede the action of England in this country by demanding that a term should be fixed for the British occupation or in any other way, and that it gives its adhesion to the draft of the Khedivial Decree which is appended to the present document, and which contains the guarantees considered necessary for the safeguard of the interests of the holders of the Egyptian Debt, but on condition that after the enforcement of the Decree no modification will be allowed to be introduced without the assent of the signatory Powers to the Convention of London of 1885.

It is agreed that the general direction of Egyptian antiquities will continue to be, as in the past, entrusted to a French savant. The French schools in Egypt will continue to enjoy that same liberty as in the past.

Article 2. The Government of the French Republic declares that it has not the intention of changing the political state of Morocco.

On its side, the Government of his Britannic Majesty recognises that it appertains to France, notably as the Power co-terminous to Morocco over a vast area, to watch over the tranquillity of this country, and to lend it her assistance for all administrative, economic, financial, and Military reforms which it requires.

It declares that it will not impede the action of France in this respect, with the reservation that this action will leave intact the rights which, in virtue of Treaties, Conventions, and usage, Great Britain enjoys in Morocco, including the right to engage in coasting trade between Moorish ports from which British ships have benefited since 1901.

Article 3. The Government of his Britannic Majesty, on its side, will respect the rights which, by virtue of Treaties, Conventions and usage, France enjoys in Egypt, including the right of coasting trade accorded to French ships between Egyptian ports.

Article 4. The two Governments, equally attached to the principle of commercial liberty as much in Egypt as in Morocco, declare that they will lend themselves in neither country to any inequality, either in the establishment of Customs duties or other taxes, or in the establishment of railway rates.

The trade of both nations with Morocco and Egypt will enjoy the same treatment as regards transit through French and British Possessions in Africa. An Agreement between the two Governments will regulate the conditions of this transit and will determine the points of entry.

This reciprocal engagement holds good for a period of thirty years. Failing an express denunciation made at least a year in advance, this period will be prolonged for successive periods of

five years.

However, the Government of the French Republic in Morocco and the Government of his Britannic Majesty in Egypt reserve to themselves the right of seeing that road, railway, and harbour concessions, etc., are granted under conditions such that the

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authority of the State over these great enterprises of general interest remains entire.

Article 5. The Government of his Britannic Majesty declares that it will use its influence in such a way that French officials at present in the Egyptian service shall not be placed in less advantageous conditions than those applied to English Officials in the same service.

The Government of the French Republic, on its side, will not object to similar conditions being conceded to the British officials at present in the Moorish service.

Article 6. In order to insure the free passage of the Suez Canal, the Government of his Britannic Majesty declares its adherence to the stipulations of the Treaty concluded on Oct. 29, 1888, and to their enforcement. The free passage of the Canal being thus guaranteed, the execution of the last sentence of Paragraph 1 and that of Paragraph 2 of Article 8 of this Treaty will remain suspended.

Article 7. In order to insure the free passage of the Straits of Gibraltar, both Governments agree not to allow fortifications or any strategic works to be erected on that part of the Moorish coast between Melilla and the heights which dominate the right bank of the Sebu exclusively. Nevertheless, this arrangement does not apply to the points now occupied by Spain on the Moorish shore of the Mediterranean.

Article 8. The two Governments, animated by their sincerely friendly sentiments for Spain, take into particular consideration the interests she possesses owing to her geographical position, and to her territorial possessions on the Moorish shore of the Mediterranean; and in regard to which the French Government will make some arrangements with the Spanish Government.

The Agreement, which may be reached on this subject between France and Spain, will be communicated to the Government of his Britannic Majesty.

Article 9. The two Governments agree to lend each other the support of their Diplomacy for the execution of the clauses of the present Declaration relative to Egypt and Morocco.

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