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In Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow, conceding this wise and wholesome prinPaisley, Bolton, and almost every other ciple, the Unions must not be surprised manufacturing town, there is hardly a if disinterested persons should see much manufacturer who is allowed to say what to blame in some of their avowed objects, he will pay for the work done for him; and in the means of attaining them, which and there is hardly a manufactory to be they openly or tacilly countenance. I Sound into which a workman can dare esteem it, for example, a most unreasonenter, who has not previously become a able object to propose a universal reducmember of the Combination. The state tion of the time of labour to eight hours of things is a frightful one, and it is ren- a-day. This is a portion of time decidedly dered doubly bideous from the fact, that below the physical powers of man, and it has arisen out of the vile misconduct of the period of his daily toil in the freest the faction now nominally holding the regions of the earth; it is below the ave. reins of Government. Lord Grey, Lord rage of the exhausting labours of the Althorp, and Lord Brougham, the core learned professions; and it is inadequate respondents of the Birmingham Political to maintain the manufactures and comUnions, can have no right to find fault merce of the country. I call it an atwith Regenerators of their Country. John tempt equally illegal and immoral, when Fielden and Robert Owen, and their col- force or insult is employed to swell the leagues, are only acting precisely upon the ranks of the Unions, by the coercion of plan laid down by Lord Brougham and those who do not already belong to them. the Society for the Diffusion of Useful The Liberator will not deny, that in some Knowledge. The Crisis and Penny Ma quarters frightful acts of violence have gazine are of a family; and the London been committed ; and I have looked in University, as originally conceived, desti- vain for any strong mark of disapprobatute of Christianity, is a fit precursor of tion of these acts on the part of the the doctrines of the Social Reformers." united workmen. Far from perceiving Stirling Journal, Jan, 17, 1834.

such evidence of true manly feeling, I The enormous danger and peril

find in the Liberator itself, (a great ous consequences of these Trades' organ of the Unions,) bitter expressions Unions, have now attracted the at

of scorn and resentment levelled at those tention of the steadiest advocates of

who, in the exercise of an undoubted the Movement; of those who were

privilege, have abstained from joining loudest in their outcry against the

them, or have thought fit to leave them. former system of government, and

This I cannot avoid designating as the

tyranny of the multitude; and that man is the most vebement supporters of the

ill versed in bistory and in morals, who Reform Bill. Sir Daniel Sandford, whose eloquent declamations in fa- be equally hateful with the lyranny of the vour of the Bill are still ringing in few. our ears-whose name is indelibly associated in our minds with the

Let us not deceive ourselves; the words“ Oligarchy-Oligarchy--Oli- great contest between the working garchy," which he so liberally pour.

classes and their employers, between ed forth to an admiring operative capital and numbers, which Sir Da. audience two years ago, has address

niel now so eloquently deplores, is ed the following admirable observa approaching, and cannot be averted. tions to the Liberator Journal of His darling Reform Bill has renderGlasgow, the great organ of the ed it inevitable. The operative workTrades' Unions in the West of Scot- men feel that they have been decei. land: and thus illustrates the effect ved; that the Whigs have merely of the Constitutional Revolution used them as a ladder to raise them. which he so warmly advocated.

selves, and that, having gained, by

their aid, the command of the Legis. “I do not presume to condemn the general principle of combinations among

lature, they are now quite willing to workmen for the sake of mutual protec

let their valued associates grovel in tion. No liberal man will assert that

the dust. It is the sense, the bitter they should not, on the contrary, be en

and universal sense of this deception couraged to consult together for their own of which they have been the victims, interest, and to maintain associations for which has produced the present gethe promotion of their common welfare. neral spread of Trades' Unions ; in I approved of the repeal of the law for other words, of immense associations merly directed against such combinations, of working men, to obtain, by a siand would oppose its re-enactment. But, multaneous strike over all parts of the country, and the terror which to have risen in rebellion against the the display of physical strength can Duke of Wellington if he had rehardly fail to produce, those extraor- tained the seals of office, after the dinary practical advantages which resignation of Earl Grey, and were the general condition of the labour on the point of shaking society to market will not permit them to ob- atoms by a run, got up for political tain, but which were falsely held purposes, on the Bank? Was it to out to them as the immense boon elevate the Whig Aristocracy at the which they would certainly obtain expense of the Tory ; to create by the change in the Constitution of close boroughs in the North, while Parliament.

it extinguished them in the South; If any one doubts that this has to secure Calne and destroy Old been the real cause of the present Sarum; to create North Shields, frightful schism which has split 80. while it gave the death-blow to Gatciety asunder, let him take up any ton; to give an hundred thousand of the newspapers or periodical a year to the Greylings, and take it journals which advocated the cause from the partisans of the former adof Reform three years ago. He will ministration, that all this was done ? there find, that the whole evils of the No: it was the prospect of substancountry, theoretical and practical, tial relief from distress; the belief were constantly laid on the shoulders that the hidden cause of the univerof the Boroughmongers; that it was sal suffering, which every one felt, uniformly and invariably maintained, but no one could explain, was now that the resources of the nation were brought to light; the promises everyunbounded, and the career of pros. where repeated, the assurances conperity which opened before it unli- stantly given, the prospect invariably mited, if it could only shake off the held forth of a real and important monstrous load of the Aristocracy; amelioration of circumstances from that Relief from Taxation, Increase of the proposed measure, which proWages, Fall of Prices, and Diminution duced the general, the otherwise inof Poor's Rates, were held out as the explicable delusion in its favour. immediate and necessary effect of a Now that the experiment has been Reform in the Legislature, and that made, and the reality of the promi. all persons who presumed to doubt ses uniformly held forth put to the these exhilarating prospects were test, it is universally seen how deforth with stigmatized as the tools of plorably all classes have been duped the Boroughmongers, as influenced by their deceivers. The agricultuby no other feeling but a desire to rists, who were told, that all their disfatten on the spoils of the nation, tresses were owing to the Boroughand fit to be dealt with in no other mongers, and that high prices, low way, but with the brickbat and the rents, and plentiful employment bludgeon, to be plastered with mud, would to a certainty follow the passor ducked in horseponds. It was ing of the Bill, now find themselves this infernal cry, issuing from nine- plunged deeper than ever in distress, tenths of the Press, and re-echoed by with wheat down at 50s. the quarter, nineteen-twentieths of the popular and the prospect of a speedy Repeal orators, which procured the return of the Corn Laws, which will retain of the Parliament of May, 1831, which it permanently on an average even extinguished the British Constitu- below that ruinously low standard. tion. It was the same false and de- The manufacturers, who were unilusive cry which roused the labour. versally assured that high wages, ing classes in such multitudes to steady employment, and low prices, overawe the House of Peers, when would certainly follow the overthrow they nobly clung to the ark of their of the Boroughmongers, now find forefathers, in May, 1832. What else themselves worse off than ever; with enabled Mr Attwood to assemble low prices, indeed, but still lower 70,000 workmen in the neighbour wages, and with a less command of hood of Birmingham, when the Bill the necessaries and conveniences was under deliberation in the House of life than they had under any of Peers; and wrought them up to former period of their history. Hear such a pitch of exasperation, that it what the Editor of the Liberator, is now admitted they were ready and the organ of the Glasgow ope

ratives, says of their present condi. ers, after they bad experienced a tion, nearly two years after the pass- full year of the benefits of the Re. ing of Maxima Charta. We do not form Parliament. vouch for the accuracy of the state.

" I live in the neighbourhood of perment, we merely give it as we find it, to illustrate the sense entertained

haps 50,000 honest nailers. I have ascer.

tained from their own mouths, and from by the operatives of the working of

their masters' books, that during the war the great healing measure.

they could gain 16s. per week with the “ There are upwards of fifty thousand

same labour as it now took them to gain families in the West of Scotland, at this 8s. per week. But they still paid 3s. per moment, whose average income does not week rent for their cottage and shop, the exceed seven shillings weekly for each !

same as they did during the war. Now Parcel out that miserable pittance into take 3s. from 16s.. and it leaves 13s. food, clothing, and rent, without any pro- Take 3s. from 8s., and it leaves 58. Did vision for the contingencies of sickness

any one think that 5s. would go as far in and death ; and such is the fluctuation

supporting a working man's family now, experienced in the 'majority of trades' as 13s. did during the war? The thing

-the accidents that many are liable to, was absurd : 5s. would perhaps go as far and the insecurity of maintaining a place as 6s., or possibly as 7s. But here was

that there are few at the head of a a clear injury of one-half in the situation family who lay their heads on a pillow at of these honest, poor men." night, know whether or not the bread of their little ones will be baken on the When results such as these have morrow. With the extreme distress of followed the highly wrought up feel. thousands, and the insecurity of all the ings and extravagant expectations, working classes, can you, Sir Daniel - formed by the delusions univerdisinterested as you say you are_lay your sally and artfully spread to procure hand upon your heart and repeat, that the passing of the Reform Bill, it is workmen have no plea for taking some no wonder that the working classes decided steps in their own behalf?" have become generally and alarmAnswer to Sir Daniel Sandford, Jan. 8, ingly distrustful of all public men, 1834.

and that throwing overboard altoIf any farther evidence were want gether the pilots whom they have ing, it would be found in the state- placed at the helm, they propose ment of Mr Attwood, as to the con- to take the management of the ves. dition of the Birmingham iron work- sel at once into their own hands.*

The following doggrel verses, taken from the Glasgow Trades' Union Gazette of September 14, 1833, will shew how bitterly the people feel the imposition which has been practised on them, and bow completely the present approach to aparchy is owing to the false and deceitful promises by which they were deluded into the support of that fatal measure, tbe Reform in Parliament:

" 'Tis twelve months past, just yesterday, since earth, and sky, and sea,
And rock, and glen, and horse, and men, rang loud the jubilee;
The beacons blazed-the cannons fired, and war'd each plain and hill,
With the Bill-the glorious Bill, you rogues, and nothing but the Bill.

Our Ministers, so pop'lar then, presided o'er the fray,
On whisky jugs, and cans and mngs, secure sat Earl Grey,
And then as o'er our gladdened throats the stuff we stout did swill,
Our toast was still the Bill, you rogues, and nothing but the Bill.

Lord Brougham the mig y Chancellor, who Eldon's chain did take,
With plans of nice economy, made all the windows shake;
Abuses vile, and such like things, that made our nerves to thrill,
Were all to fly with, ah, you rogues, the Bill, aye, just the Bill

Lord Althorp high, and Littlejohn, of all the Russels he,
Were then with us-at every fuss-prize gods of liberty ;
Like Sidney grave, or Hampden brave, whom despots dire did kill,
We lauded to the firmament- the drawers of the Bill.

Our taxes, by this glorious Bill, were all to sink or fade,
Our shipping was to prosper then, and think, oh, what a trade!
Our agriculture, and our looms, our pockets were to fill,
By, ah, you rogues, the Bill, the Bill, and nought but by the Bill.

But this is not all. Not only do gatory act in its stead; thereby per, the working classes see that they petuating, without intending it, in have gained nothing whatever by the heart of Britain, a system of inthe Bill, but the woeful fact is now fantine slavery, and sexual demobeginning to open to their eyes, that ralization, a bondage of body and they have been made a great deal prostitution of mind, unparalleled in worse than they were before; that the annals of Christian oppression, they have been placed at the mercy and unexampled in the history of of a body of men, who have little or Mahometan slavery. They have no sympathy with their industry; thrown out all attempts to restore and that the prevailing interest protection to British sbipowners and which now rules the determination manufacturers, adhered steadily to of Parliament, is not only not theirs, the reciprocity system, and the dogbut is actually an adverse interest. mas of free trade, when every na.

With all their professions of pa- tion on earth is loading with addi. triotism, liberality, and a regard for tional duties the import of our mathe poor, there is no Parliament in nufacturers. They have retained 'the memory of man, which has the assessed taxes, the most ruinous done so little for the interest of the tax on the industry of the poor, next working classes, as that which was to the income-tax, which ever was borne into St Stephen's on the trans- invented, because it is a direct burports of the Reform Bill. This is a den on the funds from which alone fact, the existence and universal labour can be maintained, and a perception of which is completely duty, not on the comforts or luxuries demonstrated by the votes of the of the working classes, but their neLegislature, and the simultaneous cessaries; not on their spirits and growth of Political Unions in all tobacco, but their bread and their parts of the country. They have beef. They have adhered to the low thrown out, by a majority of nearly duties on beer and spirits, thereby 200, the proposal of Mr Attwood perpetuating the growth of drunkfor an extension of the currency; enness and demoralization, multiply. the only measure which can put a ing, at a fearful rate, the progress stop to the incessant and increasing of vice and profligacy, and literally distress of the last ten years, and realizing a revenue out of the wages without a speedy adoption of which of prostitution, and the brutality of all attempts to revive industry, or intoxication. They have, at one avert ultimate national insolvency, blow, inflicted an irreparable wound will prove utterly nugatory. They on eight hundred thousand compahave done nothing towards extend. ratively happy and contented labouring the Poor's Laws to Ireland, a ers in the West Indies, deluding measure imperatively called for, not them by the name of a liberty which less by the wide-spread and heart- they are incapable of enjoying, and rending suffering of the working depriving them of a protection, and classes in that unhappy and deluded a state of rural comfort, which they country, but by the privations to have themselves confessed was “unwhich the British house-owners are precedented in any civilized state."'* exposed, by the enormous mass of They are now strongly urged by the Irish mendicity thrown upon them interest in the State which has obfor relief. They have resisted tained an ascendency in the Reand thrown out Mr Sadler's factory formed Parliament, to repeal the bill, and substituted a weak and nu. Corn Laws, thereby giving the finish.

But now, al mark the circumstance, attend, my friends the mob,
Our jubilee, like Sir John Key, has ended in a job;
Our Ministers, and patriots, have gilded each their pill,
And purged their friends, the Radicals, with nothing but the Bill.
Each one holds up his hands at last, in horror and disgust,
At this same time precious document, once termed the people's trust;
That last and first, was to bring grist to fill the nation's mill,
Ah, curse the Bill, ye rogues, the Bill, and nothing but the Bill.".

* Reform Ministry and Parliament, p. 6.

ing stroke to the distresses under neylenders, and shopkeepers, have which the agricultural classes have of late years been constantly acquiso long been labouring, and throw- ring over the cultivators and manu. ing upwards of four millions of rural facturers, that is, over the working labourers into penury and want. It classes, which has produced all the is as clear, therefore, as the sun at false measures into which the Tories noonday, that the interest of the were seduced in the last ten years of producers, of the cultivators, and of their administration, and has at last the working classes, is not the inte precipitated the nation, bound hand rest which is predominant in the and foot, into the bonds of the shopReform Parliament; that it is some ocracy and moneyocracy, riveted other and adverse faction which has round their necks by the Reform in contrived, amidst the public trans. Parliament. ports, to possess itself of political That this has been the chief cause power; and that the labouring poor of all the public distress; that it has are farther now from obtaining sub. been the remote but certain parent stantial relief than ever.

of the Free Trade system, the change What, then, is the body which has in the Currency, and the abandon really succeeded in appropriating to ment of the Navigation Laws, the itself the political influence which hideous ipfant factories, and, last of was once yested in the heads and all, of the fatal Reform in Parliarepresentatives of the great interests ment, which has at once prostrated of the State, which was once divided the whole working and producing among the agricultural, manufactu- classes at the feet of the buying and ring, and commercial classes, and consuming,-we apprebend to be as secured to each that due attention clear as any proposition in Euclid. to their wants which is essential We are preparing and collecting mato any system of good govern- terials for this great subject, which ment? We shall give the answer in will be fully developed in our next the words of our bitterest enemy; Number, and would have appeared of one who knew us in many re- in this, were it not that the instant spects better than we did ourselves; approach of the great strike on the who was equal to Alexander in 1st March, imperatively calls for the military genius, and second only to consideration of the Trades' Unions, Bacon in political sagacity.

which are in fact only a conse“ The English," says Napoleon, quence and corollary from the " are a nation of SHOPKEEPERS.” In dreadful political errors into which this single expression is to be found the people, under the guidance of a the true secret of the pecuniary political faction, whose interests difficulties in which all classes have were adverse to their own, have been involved for the last fifteen been led, and the ruinous ascendyears, and of the total failure of the ency given to that faction by the Reform Parliament to administer Reform Bill. * any, even the slightest relief to the The real interests of the Conser. real necessities of the nation. It is the vative Party, and of the workingundue, the overwhelming ascend classes, both agricultural and manuency which the class of traders, mo- facturing, are, and ever must be, the

• The above view coincides with what has been recently and powerfully advanced in a mosi able and original work, entitled Theory of the Constitution, by J. B. Bernard, Esq., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. With many opinions of that gentleman we by no means concur; and, in particular, his speculations about the approaching discovery of moral evil and regeneration of society, are totally unworthy of an author of so much information. But his book is truly a work of genius : his views of the historical changes of the Constitution, though sometimes exaggerated, are always original, generally just and profound ; and his clear insight into the intimate connexion between democracy and monied ascendency, is not only historically true, but in the highest degree important at this time. Mr Bernard and Sir

D. Sandford will soon become good Conservatives. Men of original thought, as they are, will never receive the law from Holland and Lansdowne House, as the Whigs do on every subject of politics, literature, philosophy, and taste. We shall take an early opportunity of making Mr Bernard's work known to our readers,

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