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ing stroke to the distresses under neylenders, and shopkeepers, have which the agricultural classes have of late years been constantly acquiso long been labouring, and throw. ring over the cultivators and manu. ing upwards of four millions of rural facturers, that is, over the working labourers into penury and want. It classes, which has produced all the is as clear, therefore, as the sun at false measures into which the Tories noonday, that the interest of the were seduced in the last ten years of producers, of the cultivators, and of their administration, and has at last the working classes, is not the inte. precipitated the nation, bound hand rest which is predominant in the and foot, into the bonds of the shopReform Parliament; that it is some ocracy and moneyocracy, riveted other and adverse faction which has round their necks by the Reform in contrived, amidst the public trans- Parliament. ports, to possess itself of political That this has been the cbief cause power; and that the labouring poor of all the public distress; that it has are farther now from obtaining sub. been the remote but certain parent stantial relief than ever.

of the Free Trade system, the change What, then, is the body which has in the Currency, and the abandon, really succeeded in appropriating to ment of the Navigation Laws, the itself the political influence which hideous infant factories, and, last of was once yested in the heads and all, of the fatal Reform in Parliarepresentatives of the great interests ment, which has at once prostrated of the State, which was once divided the whole working and producing among the agricultural, manufactu- classes at the feet of the buying and ring, and commercial classes, and consuming,-we apprehend to be as secured to each that due attention clear as any proposition in Euclid. to their wants which is essential We are preparing and collecting mato any system of good govern- terials for this great subject, which ment? We shall give the answer in will be fully developed in our next the words of our bitterest enemy; Number, and would have appeared of one who knew us in many re- in this, were it not that the instant spects better than we did ourselves; approach of the great strike on the who was equal to Alexander in Ist March, imperatively calls for the military genius, and second only to consideration of the Trades' Unions, Bacon in political sagacity.

which are in fact only a conse“ The English,” says Napoleon, quence and corollary from the s are a nation of SHOPKEEPERS.” In dreadful political errors into which this single expression is to be found the people, under the guidance of a the true secret of the pecuniary political faction, whose interests difficulties in which all classes have were adverse to their own, have been involved for the last fifteen been led, and the ruinous ascendyears, and of the total failure of the ency given to that faction by the Reform Parliament to administer Reform Bill. * any, even the slightest relief to the The real interests of the Conserreal necessities of the nation. It is the vative Party, and of the workingundue, the overwhelming, ascendo classes, both agricultural and manuency which the class of traders, mo- facturing, are, and ever must be, the

The above view coincides with what has been recently and powerfully advanced in a most able and original work, entitled Theory of the Constitution, by J. B. Bernard, Esq., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. With many opinions of that gentleman we by no means concur; and, in particular, his speculations about the approaching discovery of moral evil and regeneration of society, are totally unworthy of an author of so much information. But his book is truly a work of genius : his views of the historical changes of the Constitution, though sometimes exaggerated, are always original, generally just and profound; and his clear insight into the intimate connexion between democracy and monied ascendency, is not only historically true, but in the highest degree important at this time.

Mr Bernard and Sir D. Sandford will soon become good Conservatives. Men of original thought, as they are, will never receive the law from Holland and Lansdowne House, as the Whigs do on every subject of politics, literature, philosophy, and taste. We shall take an early opportunity of making Mr Bernard's work known to our readers.

same. The great bulk of the Con- ultimately thrown out by the demoservatives live, and ever must live, cratic party in the Legislature. They upon the surplus produce of labour; steadily uphold the Established and it is on the magnitude of this Church, the great instrument for the surplus that their prosperity is en. gratuitous instruction of the poor, tirely dependent. What is the rent in the most important of all knowof land, but the surplus produce ledge, that of their religious duties, of agricultural labour above the ex- and as steadily resist those selfish penses of cultivation? The Con- politicians, the pretended friends of servatives, accordingly, are and the people, who would lay the mainalways have been the strongest ad- tenance of their religious teachers, vocates for such a protecting duty not, as at present, on a portion of the as shall secure remunerating prices landed proprietors, but on the hardto the farmers, because they know earned wages of the poor. Every that it is on the existence of such county in Great Britain knows and remunerating prices that their own can testify, that the Conservatives prosperity is entirely dependent; are uniformly the most indulgent and that this surplus produce was landlords, the most beneficent pa. in former times, before the fatal trons of every useful institution, the changes in the currency, fairly divi- warmest supporters of every benefided between the landlord and far- cent charity. We are confident we mer, is proved by the fact that they are within the mark when we assert, were both thriving, and in many that nine-tenths of the charity of the cases becoming rich; that the pro. kingdom flows from Conservative duce obtained by the farmer was hands. about equal to that drawn by the On the other hand, what have landlord; and that the growth and been the practical measures of the extension of the farm-steadings even liberal or democratic party for the outstripped in cost the more splen- relief or support of those working did edifices constructed by the land- classes for whose interests they prolords.

fessed such uncommon solicitude ? In like manner, and for the same They have abandoned the Navigareason, the Conservatives have ever tion Laws, thereby exposing to a been the steady supporters of manu- ruinous foreign competition the nufacturing and operative industry in merous and important classes of all its branches. Who but they car- shipwrights and carpenters;—they ried through the Navigation Laws, * have abandoned or lowered many which, as Adam Smith observes, of the protecting duties on manuwere the great bulwark of our ship- factures, and exposed our operaping interest, and the foundation of tives to a flood of foreign manufacour maritime power? Who but they tures, which have entirely swamped imposed the protecting duties on many important branches of indusevery branch of manufacture, under try ;-they have forced upon the the shelter of which they have risen Conservative administration, by inup to their present unexampled cessant clamour and delusion, the height? They have also in every monetary system of 1819, and the age been the steady friends of the suppression of small notes in 1826, poor. They originally framed, and measures which at once doubled the have since steadily supported the weight of all debts public and priPoor's Laws, amidst all the obloquy vate, and inflicted a blow on the thrown on them by the combined industrious classes, greater than all influence of liberalism, selfishness, the power of Napoleon had been and infidelity; and if that relief is able to effect; they have obstinatenot as yet afforded to the Irish men- ly adhered to the reciprocity system, dicants, it is because the Reform in the face of the clear evidence afParliament and the popular party forded by the conduct of other have steadily resisted the extension. states, that it was all on one side ;They strongly advocated Mr Sadler's they threw out Mr Sadler's Factory factory bill last session, and it was Bill;--they resist all extension of the

* They were passed by Cromwell, when Lord Protector, that is, by as great a Conservative as Napoleon when Emperor.

Poor's Laws to Ireland ;-and they speedily disappear. Misled by this are now preparing, at the bidding dazzling, phantom, they generally of the shopkeepers of London, and and cordially supported the demothe great towns, to overwhelm the cratic leaders, and submitted paticultivators with a deluge of foreign ently for a tract of years to the most grain, that is, to reduce to beggary acute suffering, inflicted by the meaand ruin four millions of persons sures of their demagogues, in the dependent upon rural labour. En firm belief, which was sedulously quire in any county of the

kingdom, inculcated, that it was the resistance from the Land's End to Caithness, of the Conservatives which was the what sort of landlords the democrats cause of all the evil. We have to are ?-how much they contribute to thank the Reform Bill for having at public institutions ?-how much they length put an end to this extraordibestow on private charity ? You will nary delusion, and by seating the hear in general that they are the Movement party in complete sovemost grasping and niggardly of the reignty, for the time at least, in the community ; that they exact every Legislature, brought at once to the thing from their tenants, and give test the sincerity of their professions nothing to the poor ; that their to relieve the people, and their abinames are to be seen at few sub- lity to do any thing efficient for the scriptions—their assistance felt at public welfare. few undertakings; that their gene- That the evils under which the ral characteristic is that of being labouring classes now suffer, and alieni appetens, without the single which have produced the formidaredeeming point in Catiline's cha- ble organization of the Trades' racter, sui profusus. We speak of Unions, are in no respect likely to the general character of the demo- be removed, but, on the contrary, cratic party. Doubtless there are greatly increased by the greater asmany honourable exceptions to these cendency of the democratic party, is remarks.

farther illustrated by the fact, that The manner in which the demo- they exist to fully a greater extent cratic party who have uniformly in North America, notwithstanding advocated these measures, destruc- the drain of the back settlements tive and ruinous though they were and a boundless soil, than in the to the whole productive industry of densely peopled realm of Britain. the people, have nevertheless contri

“ The North Americans distinctly ad. ved to obtain the almost entire ma- mit, that ever since the Revolution which nagement of their thoughts, and separated them from the mother country, succeeded in wielding at pleasure and conferred upon them the blessings of their vast energies, is one of the self-government, magisterial and even pamost startling and extraordinary of rental authority has been upon the decline, the many extraordinary phenomena and that now, at last, combinations exist these times exhibit, and affords a amongst working men, to such a fearful signal instance of the facility with extent, for overthrowing the institution of which men may be led, by skilful property, that a subversion of all authoflattery and alluring expressions, to rity is apparently at band, there being support the leaders who are really absolutely nothing left in that country to pursuing measures the most destruc- preserve its social system from being torn tive to their welfare. They were in pieces, but education only."* incessantly told that public happi- What security education is calcuness was their great object; that the lated to afford against these enorpeople never could be sufficiently mous evils in an old and corrupted instructed, enlightened, and free; state like Great Britain, has already that self-government was the true been fully considered in the former panacea for all the evils of humani- number of this series." ty; and that if political power was “ There are, in our own country,” only vested to a sufficient extent in says the North American Review, comthe people, all the ills of life would binations of the employed to procure

• North American Review, Jan. 1833, p. 81.
f The Schoolmaster, Feb. 1834, Blackwood's Magazines

higher wages, political working-men's receive the same degree of education, and parties, and fearful signs of resistance to start fair in the competition for the ho. the highest authority in the Federal nours and the offices of the State. As it is Union. Nor is this change passing only of course impossible and these men know upon a large scale, where we can survey it to be so—to educate the labouring class it, or much of it, at least, as a mere mat- to the standard of the richer, it is their ter of speculation. It is coming home to professed object to reduce the latter to the our cities and villages, and very dwellings. same mental condition with the former ; Aristocratical influence, and magisterial to prohibit all supererogatory knowledge ; power, and parental authority, too, have to have a maximum of acquirement, bebeen declining among us ever since the yond which it shall be punishable to go. Revolution. There are abolitions of But those who limit their views to the peerages in our towns; there are reform mental degradation of their country are, bills in our families; and our children are in fact, the moderates of the party. There educated so freely, as to threaten rebellions, are others, who go still further, and boldly if not combinations, for securing their rights. advocate the introduction of an Agrarian There are, indeed, tendencies of this sort, Law, and a periodical division of property. which must be controlled and regulated. These unquestionably constitute the eror society cannot exist; tendencies to a trême gauche of the Worky Parliament, radical reform, so radical, indeed, that if but still they only follow out the princinot restrained it will tear up every social ples of their less violent neighbours, and institution by the roots, and leave nothing eloquently dilate on the justice and probehind but disorder, waste, and ruin." priety of every individual being equally

The same truths are forcibly il- supplied with food and clothing.” lustrated in Mr Hamilton's recent We give the operatives due warnand admirable work on North Ame- ing; they have no relief to expect rica.

from the democratic party, and as

little from the frantic anarchical “ In the city of New York," he observes, a separation is rapidly ta

course they are now pursuing. That king place between the different orders

their sufferings are great, we lament of society. The operative class have

to hear; that they neither can, nor already formed themselves into a society

will be relieved by the party to under the name of the Workies, in whose guidance they have hitherto direct opposition to those who, more

and blindly surrendered themselves, favoured by nature or fortune, enjoy the is capable of demonstration. luxuries of life without the necessity for

The Reform Parliament is governmanual labour. These people make no ed by an adverse interest to that of secret of their demands, which, to do the producers. It is entirely ruled them justice, are few and emphatic. They by the monied interests and Traare published in the newspapers, and may DERS. This class has by the bill be read on half the walls of New York. acquired a monstrous—an jrresistThe first postulate is, ' Equal and Univer- ible preponderance in the Legislasal Education.' It is false, they say, to maintain that there is at present no pri- is self-evident; and the supporters of

ture. We grieve to say this; but it vileged order, no practical Aristocracy, in the Reform Bill have themselves to a country where distinctions of educa- thank for having riveted the fetters tion are permitted. There does exist, of an adverse interest about their they argue, an Aristocracy of the most

necks. odious kind, -an Aristocracy of knowledge, education, and refinement, which

TO BUY CHEAP is the grand object is inconsistent with the true Democratic of all the measures which now emaprinciples of absolute equality. They

nate from the Legislature, and have pledge themselves, therefore, to exert

emanated for many years past. This every effort, mental and physical, for the is the foundation of the repeal of abolition of this flagrant injustice. They the Navigation Laws-of the dimiproclaim it to the world as a nuisance nution of the protecting duties—of which must be abated, before the freedom

the contraction of the currency-of of an American be something more than the Free Trade system of the a mere empty boast. They solemnly de- incessant and ruinous repeal of clare that they will not rest satisfied, till indirect taxes of the threatened every citizen in the United States shall repeal of the Corn Laws. For

• Hamilton's America, vol. i. pp. 300, 301.

whose behoof is the incessant prose- the race of consumers over that of cution of this object undertaken ? producers, which has gradually obIs it for the interest of the producers, tained for them the dominion of the whether agricultural or manufactu- Legislature, and precipitated the ring, whether rural or urban? nation into that abandopment of No! It is for the interest of the Conservative principles and the probuyers,--of the traders who hope to tection of producers, and that subget their sales augmented by a mission to the dictates of towns, diminution of the price of their which distinguished the concluding articles, and their profits increased years of the Tory Administration. by the reduction of the prime cost By an infatuation which has few of the goods in which they deal, - parallels even in the wide-spread of the holders of money, and other annals of human folly, the manu. classes in town who have_fixed facturing classes, the urban proincomes, derived from the Funds, ducers, were led, when the final mortgage, or other unchanging sour- struggle arose, to join their forces ces, and therefore benefit

immense- with those of their worst enemies, the ly by every reduction which takes urban consumers, and under the place. But this class have no inte- guidance of the democracy, and the rest in common with, or sympathy banners of Reform, fought and gainfor, the producers of any descrip- ed the great battle against the remtion,-that is, the great bulk of the nant of the producers, reduced, by labouring classes, rural or urban, in this unnatural union, and the deluevery department; on the contrary, sion of republican principles, to a their interest is just the reverse. To third of their natural forces. sell cheap, and buy still cheaper, is This truth, the real secret of all the great object of the monied and the distresses and disasters of the trading class; and it is the point, ac- present times, and the clear and gecordingly, to which all their efforts neral perception of which is indisare directed. If they can only get pensable towards any thing like a corn cheap, they care not though half righting of the national vessel, is put the agricultural labourers—that is, in a very clear light by Mr Bernard, two millions of souls—are reduced to to whose able and original work we beggary; if they can only get cottons have already alluded. cheap, they care not though a million Mr Ricardo, a great fundholder of operative weavers are forced to and dealer in loans and stockjoblive in garrets on a shilling a-day; bing, was one of the chief authors if whisky and gin are cheap, they of the change in the currency in care not though crime triples under 1819. its influence, and millions of human beings are precipitated into profli- “ This gentleman,” says Mr Bernard, gacy by the spread of the fiery poi- “ had obtained considerable celebrity son. If silks and ribbons are cheap, amongst his brethren of the Stock Exthey care not though the weavers of change, as well as amongst all that Spitalfields and Macclesfield are re

class of Reformer 3, whose rcal object is, duced by the free (comparatively) not so much to benefit their country, trade in French silks to ruin; if they as to enbance the value of money, by only get freights cheap, they care

various publications on Political Econot though, by the repeal of the Na nomy; the leading principle of which is vigation Laws, the whole class of to exhibit landowners and farmers in the ship owners and builders are brought

most odious light possible to their fellow“ wooden walls of old 'England” in which case their prosperity would to the verge of insolvency, and the countrymen, by representing their inter

ests as adverse to those of all other people, sent to the bottom.

alone depend on the degree of injury they This single observation furnishes could indict upon others. The doctrine the key to the Free Trade system, the would indeed be true, were all working change of the Currency, the aban- people, the public as they are called, condonment of the Navigation Laws, sumers in a greater degree than they are and all the disastrous measures of producers, and were production chiefly the last fifteen years. It is the pro- confined to landowners and farmers only ; gressive increase of the monied and but, fortunately for these latter classes, trading interest, the ascendency of as working people, whether in agricul. VOL. XXXV, NO. CCXIX,


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