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on the revenues which ought to have not to be satisfied with this cheap fed Christian pastors and their flocks; contract. She required a spectacle; the Reformation was left to struggle she must dress up the characters in with poverty; and instead of making a new costume, and put extravagant its progress a perpetual triumph, language into their lips; she must and riding forth, like the apocalyptic have a melodramatic stage, and vision, a magnificent figure of truth melodramatic actors, fierce declaand holiness, with the emblems of mation, distorted nature, glaring cohonour on its brow, and of power in lours, the struggle of dethroned kings, its hands, the crown and the bow, the blaze of camps and castles, and “ conquering, and to conquer,” it the grand finale of a universal exwas sent forth to wander in naked- plosion. By eleven years of this ness and beggary through the land, theatrical frenzy, she gained infinite to live on the alms of the people, and public nuisery, concluding in rebe the mendicant, where it was not morseless public slavery. By eleven the martyr.

years more of this slavery, she gain. The constant principle of the Re. ed universal overthrow; the degravolutionists in our country, is that dation of the only prize won through no price can be too great for Revo- her slavery, military name; the conlution. Their constant answer to quest of her country; the capture of the argument from the miseries of her metropolis ; the exile of her soveFrance is, that she achieved liberty reign, and the abscission of her whole at last. Burke, in 1790, shewed the revolutionary empire. Yet, did she fallacy of the principle. France her- . achieve her freedom, such as it is, by self, in 1833, proclaims the fraud of her own hands at last ? No. Even to the practice. No man can doubt the the last hour she was still a slave, and value of a free constitution, the mag- more a slave than ever. France was nanimity of struggling against op- never in a lower state of servility pression, or the wisdom of securing than at the close of her eleven years for our children the inheritance of of despotism. It was neither her freedom gained by our struggles. own love for liberty, nor her national But the whole question is, whether courage, nor that inevitable working subversion and massacre are the na- of the principle of recovery, of which tural price of liberty ; whether we her theorists have talked so much, cannot approach to the shrine of that that gave her a constitution-it was propitious genius of nations, with- the sword of the Duke of Wellingont binding the nation as a victim to ton. If Napoleon had not been driven the horns of the altar; whether all from the throne by the day of Wa. the comforts and securities of the terloo, she would still have been in highest practical freedom are not to the dungeon; and Napoleon, or his be obtained in the securest way by successor, would have been the the avoidance of all injustice, public keeper of the keys. It was no naand private, by reverencing the sa- tive energy of human kind-no natucred maxims of truth and virtue, and ral return of that stream of vigour to especially by taking Religion in every the heart of France, which had been step of our journey through the rug- so long wasted and chilled in the exgedness and difficulty of change, as tremities-no great inevitable cycle our permanent guide. The argu- of popular magnanimity coming to ment for a violent and revolutionary rectify the errors and delays of the freedom, is totally overthrown by the reckoning of Revolution, that gave evidence of revolutionized France. France even such liberty as she posIn 1789, that great and powerful sesses at this hour. It was even a country possessed, without a free thing to be so little calculated upon, constitution, nearly all the enjoy- as the chance of battle; perhaps the ments of personal freedom and na- life of an individual. If the English tional influence, that freedom could General bad left his gallant corpse give. The only deficiency in this upon that field, instead of the guards prosperous state, a free constitution, that surrounded and established the was on the point of being conceded despotism of France, she would have to her by the throne, without the been at this hour as much trampled, loss of a drop of blood. But she re- shamed, and scourged as ever. jected the concession on those simple Thus, France, while she was offerterms. Her theatrical passion was ed every thing on the terms of a

peaceful Revolution, lost every thing trict of the kingdom, were filled with by a furious one; lost a quarter of projects for the reformation of the a century of European progress, mil- government, without the remotest sug. lions of lives, millions of treasure, gestion of a design to destroy it! Had and more than millions, in personal such a design been even insinuated, I suffering, moral degradation, politi- believe there would have been but cal impurity, and national shame. If one voice, and that voice for rejecting she now has liberty, or the semblance it with scorn and horror. * of liberty, it was not the work of “ To hear some men speak of the glory, but of humiliation-not the late monarchy of France, you would purchase of revolution, but the boon imagine that they were talking of of conquest. For what can national Persia bleeding under the ferocious outrage produce but national evil? sword of Tahmas Kouli Khan, or at What, by the course of nature, must least describing the barbarous, anbe his crop who sows the wind? What archic despotism of Turkey, where must be the natural result of letting the finest countries in the most geloose all the furious and bitter pas- nial climates of the world are wasted sions of the multitude, or rather of by peace, more than any other counsummoning them to a banquet ex- tries have been worried by war; pressly laid out to dazzle and inflame, where arts are unknown, where mato pamper meagre iniquity into nufactures languish, where science is feverish strength and boldness, for extinguished, where agriculture dethe hour, to extinguish all scruples, cays, where the human race itself to stimulate all vengeances, to give melts away and perishes under the new fires to the burning heart of eye of the observer. Was this the jealousy, cupidity, envy, and licen- case of France ? Facts do not suptiousness—and when the intoxication port the resemblance. * is at its height, to send the whole "Among the standards upon which wild array, torch in hand, to wrap the effects of government on any the noblest monuments and labours country are to be estimated, I must of empire, whether temple or palace, consider the state of its population in unsparing flame? If we have as not the least certain. No country, men in England who still dream over in which population flourishes, and the felicities of Revolution, let them is in progressive improvement, can awake to its profits in France, and be under a very mischievous governcompare the pacific constitution of. ment. About sixty years ago, the fered to his people forty years ago Intendants of the Generalities of by the unfortunate and virtuous France made a report of the popu. Louis, with the constitution which lation of their several districts. I they at this hour possess, at the rate am obliged to speak from memory; of a street campaign and massacre but I think the population was by every two years.

them, even at that period, estimated Burke's Exposé of the state of at twenty-two millions of souls. At France under the monarchy, is one the end of the century before, it had of the celebrated passages of his been calculated at eighteen. Oneither volume; and for its wisdom, re- of those estimations, France was not search, and practical views, is worthy ill peopled. M. Neckar, who is an of more than all its celebrity. Com- authority for his own time, at least mencing with the solid observation, equal to the Intendants for theirs, that the honestest partisans of change reckons, and upon apparently sure never know how far they are to go, principles, the people of France in nerer think of the peril of the first the year 1780, at twenty-four mil. step down a declivity, and are often lions, six hundred and seventy thouplunged into irreparable evil, before sand. But was this the probable they are aware that they have gone ultimate term under the old estaa single step beyond the natural blishment ? Dr Price is of opinion, boundaries of improvement; hewarns that the growth of population in his country, that the opinion of all France was by no means at its acmé France in 1789, was for, what is call- in that year. "I certainly defer to Dr ed, merely a qualified Reform—"The Price's authority a good deal more instructions to the representatives to in these speculations than I do in the States-General, from every dis- his general politics. In the year 1789, he will not consent to rate the people money! a great accumulation of of that kingdom at a lower number wealth for one country, large as that than thirty millions. But, supposing country is. Some adequate cause it increased to nothing more than must have originally introduced all will be sufficient to complete the the money coined at its Mint into twenty-four millions to twenty-five, that kingdom. And some cause as still, a population of twenty-five mil- operative must have kept at home, lions, and that in an increasing pro- or returned into its bosom, such a gress, on a space of about twenty- vast flood of treasure. Causes, thus seven thousand square leagues, is powerful to acquire, and to retain, immense. It is, for instance, a good cannot be found in discouraged indeal more than the proportion of dustry, insecure property, and a pothis island, or even of England, the sitively destructive government. Inbest peopled part of the kingdom. deed, when I consider the face of

“ Ii is not universally true, that the kingdom of France; the multiFrance is a fertile country. Consi- tude and opulence of her cities, the derable tracts of it are barren, and useful magnificence of her spacious labour under other natural disadvan- highroads and bridges, her artificial tages. In the portions of that terri- canals and navigations, opening the tory, where things are more favour- conveniences of maritime communiable, as far as I am able to discover, cation through a solid continent of the numbers of the people corres, so immense an extent; when I turn pond to the indulgence of nature. I my eyes to the stupendous works of do not attribute this population to her ports and harbours, and to her the deposed government; because I whole naval apparatus, whether for do not like to compliment the con- war or trade; when I bring before trivances of men with what is due my view the number of her fortifiin a great degree to the bounty of cations, constructed with so bold Providence. But that decried go- and masterly a skill, and made and vernment could not have obstructed, maintained at so prodigious a charge, most probably it favoured, the ope- presenting an armed front and imperation of those causes, whether of netrable barrier to her enemies upon nature in the soil, or habits of indus- every side; when I recollect how try in the people, which have pro- very small a part of that extensive duced so large a number of the spe- region is without cultivation, and to cies throughout the whole kingdom. what complete perfection the culture

"The wealth of a country is an- of many of the best productions of the other, and no contemptible standard, earth have been brought in France ; by which we may judge, whether, when I reflect on the excellence of on the whole, a government be pro- her manufactures and fabrics, second tecting or destructive. M. Neckar's to none but ours, and in some partibook published in 1785, contains an culars not second; when I contemaccurate and interesting collection plate the grand foundations of chaof facts relative to public economy, rity public and private, when I surand political arithmetic. In that vey the state of all the arts that work, he gives an idea of the state beautify and polish life; when I of France, very remote from the por- reckon the men that she has bred trait of a country whose government for extending her fame in war, her was a perfect grievance, an absolute able statesmen, the multitude of her evil, admitting no cure, but through profound lawyers and theologians, the violent and uncertain remedy of her philosophers, her critics, her hisa total revolution. He affirms, that torians and antiquaries, her poets from 1726 to 1784, there was coined and her orators, sacred and profane; at the Mint of France, in gold and I behold in all this, something which silver, to the amount of about one awes and commands the imaginahundred millions of pounds sterling! tion, which checks the mind on the In 1785, that is about four years be- brink of precipitate and indiscrimifore the deposition of the French nate censure, and which demands King, he calculates the numeraire, that we should very seriously exor what we call specie, then actually amine, what and how great are the existing in France, at about eighty- latent vices that could authorize us eight millions of the same English at once to level so spacious a fabric with the ground. I do not recog- not lead prosperity and plenty in her nise, in this view of things, the des. train.” potism of Turkey. Nor do I discern The first attempt of the Revolu. the character of a government that tionists had been, as it always is, to has been, on the whole, so oppres- destroy the Church; the second was, sive, or so corrupt, or so negligent, as it always will be, to destroy the as to be utterly unfit for all Refor- Nobility; the Throne is the last plunmation. I must think such a govern. der, but it is to the full as determined ment well deserved to have its ex- a purpose, and will always inevitably cellences heightened, its faults cor- follow the ruin of its great bulwarks rected, and its capacities improved in both. Burke powerfully exposes into a British Constitution." the false pretences under which the

With this fine and unquestionably constitutional character of the nationtrue statement of the general opera- al nobility was libelled. " Had your tion of the monarchy on the public nobility and gentry, who formed the force, wealth, and activity of France, great body of your landed men, and he contrasts the palpable evils the whole of your military officers, brought upon her by the very first resembled those of Germany, when movements of change. The disap- the Hanse Towns were necessitated pearance of coin, the loss of employ- to confederate in defence of their ment,-a hundred thousand people property; had they been like the being thrown out of work in Paris Orsini and Vitelli in Italy, who used alone,-the sudden, repulsive, and to sally from their fortified dens to ruinous overflow of mendicancy, de- rob the trader and traveller ; had manding, even in the last exhaustion they been such as the Mamalukes of of the treasury, an advance of fifty- Egypt, or the Nayres of Malabar, I one millions of livres, or upwards of do admit, that too critical an enquiry two millions sterling! the reduction might not be advisable into the of the population of the capital by a means of freeing the world from fifth; and pronounces, that these such a nuisance. The statues of evils, of themselves, show that there Equity and Mercy might be veiled is something hollow in the triumph for a moment. The tenderest minds, of their liberty. “In the meantime, confounded with the dreadful exithe leaders of your legislative clubs gence in which morality submits to and coffeehouses are intoxicated the suspension of its own rules in with admiration of their own wis- favour of its own principles, might dom. They speak with the most turn aside, while fraud and violence sovereign contempt of the rest of were accomplishing the destruction the world; they tell the people to of a pretended nobility which discomfort them in the rags in which graced, while it persecuted, human they have clothed them, that they are nature. The persons most abhorrent a nation of philosophers! and some- from blood, treason, and arbitrary times, by all the arts of quackish confiscation, might remain silent specparade, by show, tumult, and bustle; tators of the civil war between the sometimes by the alarms of plots vices !and invasions, they attempt to drown In all instances, Jacobinism is but the cries of indigence, and to divert a pretext for robbing the rich and the eyes of the observer from the pulling down the high. Its whole ruin and wretchedness of the state. fabric is built upon two passions, A brave people will certainly prefer the basest and bitterest of our naliberty, accompanied with poverty, ture;-Envy and Malignity. The to a depraved and wealthy servitude. Jacobin's whole creed is comprised But, before the price of comfort and in the two commandments of a reopulence is paid, one ought to be bellious heart—Exclude providence pretty sure it is real liberty which is from the conduct of its own world, purchased, and that she is to be pur- and hate your neighbour as you love chased at no other price. I shall yourself. Disown the one that you always, however, consider that liber- may be entitled to disobey him—and ty as very equivocal in her appear- libel the other, that you may be enance, which has not wisdom and jus- titled to plunder him. Thus, distice for her companions, and does burthening his conscience, that he

may give a loose to his passions, he of evils, and come out into the open proceeds, under the banner of athe- air. There we see the sky and the ism and treason, to consummate his earth free from tempest, none of the work in the extinction of morals and congregated clouds and murky atthe overthrow of society. This con- mosphere of the Jacobin canvass; we summation is not yet ripe among see the old shapes of commerce, and ourselves, but the principles are manners, and legislation, the whole vigorously disseminated; and unless vigour of the civil state alive, the the providence which it scorns shall huge and healthy limbs of the body vindica itself by the timely extinc- itic in full movement. Still the tion of the scorners, the harvest will Jacobin is at work, fabricating disbe gathered in in due season. We content, and distorting his own inhave the whole progress of Jacobin- tellect, and that of every student of ism laid before us in France; the his school, into a hatred of the forms whole seven ages of public revolt, of truth and nature, into a love for almost in the graphic succession of the fantastic mingled with the furithe great Poet of life and nature, ous, into scenes of passion without the smiling infancy, the ingenuous feeling; of power without dignity, of boyhood, the fierce, abrupt, and fiery vengeance without justice; a wild, youth, the stern and martial man- yet deliberate, letting loose of all hood, the harsh and frowning matu- the crimes and fiercenesses of the rity, until the principle sinks down heart, for the purpose, grovelling into natural decay, and exhibits a and individual as it is, of exalting spectacle of emptiness, and feeble himself, and himself alone, into the senseless decrepitude to the world. means of exercising all the oppresBut Jacobinism is, like its parent, sions, corruptions, pampered epicuessentially a liar. It seeks no reform, rean selfishness, and long treasured, it desires no renovation; with the remorseless retribution, that he had good of mankind eternally on its lips, so contemptuously charged upon the it has a rankling hatred of human ruling orders of the country.“ Did prosperity in its heart; it has the the nobility,” exclaims Burke, with sagacity to know that its element is natural indignation, “who met under disorder, and this disorder it must the King's precept at Versailles in keep alive, let the means be wbat 1789, or their constituents, deserve to they will.

What man of common be looked on as the Nayres and Ma. sense but must be astonished and malukes of this age, or as the Orsini disgusted at the language which and Vitelli of ancient times? If I had takes the lead in all our popular then asked the question I should meetings at this moment?" If we have passed for a madman. What follow the democratic pencil in the have they since done that they were picture of our time, we see nothing to be driven into exile, that their but monsters; a parliament, even persons should be hunted about, after its fatal delivery into the hands mangled and tortured, their families of those new artists of governments dispersed, their houses laid in ashes, and nations to model according to their order abolished, and the metheir wisdom, teeming only with mory of it, if possible, extinguished, corruption; profligate and perni- by ordaining them to change the cious; suffered to exist only till tbe very names by which they were national justice shall have leisure to usually known. Read their instrucgrasp it and extinguish the national tions to their representatives, they nuisance; a clergy fit for nothing breathe the spirit of liberty as warmly, but exile or extermination ; a nobi- and they recommend reformation as lity of proud pensioners on the strongly as any other order. Their Crown, or insolent oppressors of the privileges relative to contribution people; commerce perishing in our were voluntarily surrendered, as the ports through the corruption of our King from the beginning surrendered Legislature ; manufactures shut out the right of taxation. ”Upon a free of every part of Europe by the vi- constitution there was but one opisions of our Ministry. Ruin in the nion in France-the absolute Mofour corners of the land, and the narchy was at an end. It had breathonly remedy, general combustion ! ed its last, without a groan, without We leave the painter and his gallery struggle, without convulsion. All

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