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sion to, and exercise of, all temporal magnificent, is one in which Churchrights and privileges, and a partici. men and Dissenters can or ought to pation of benefits attached by the co-operate. Any system of education will either of the founder or of the which has not Religion for its basis, State itself, to the profession of a is not only imperfect, but destitute particular creed in religion; nor is of the principle which alone entiiles it at all necessary to enquire what it to the name of a system, insomuch was the origin of the restriction, that we may as well speak of a sysprovided it be, in the opinion of the tem of religion without a God, as of governing body, essential to the a system of education without relimaintenance of the established re- gion. But, if religion be admitted ligion. The battle between “ the to be the basis of education, it seems Church and its enemies” must be to be a necessary consequence that fought on a different ground; and the the religion taught must be that of chief error of some of its most ardent the teacher; in other words, that so and zealous champions has consisted long as we possess a national reli. in taking their stand behind intrench- gion, there can be no system of na. ments which, whatever might have tional education which has not that been their original use or necessity, national religion for its basis. It is were clearly become no longer ad- not indeed indispensably requisite vantageous or tenable. Letno unwor. that, in order to be admitted to a thy fear of possible consequences de participation of the advantages of ter from the performance of any act such an education, the party seeking of strict justice. The worst that can it should be called upon to profess ensue is the temporary encourage- his adherence to the principle upon ment afforded by a certain measure which it is founded; and the prac. of success, to further demands which tice of the two Universities of Oxit may not be either just or expedi- ford and Cambridge is different in ent to grant; and the more violent this very respect. But the difference the opposition which was made to between them is in point of practice the first concession, the greater the only. According to the mode of distriumph, and consequently the cipline adopted at Cambridge, the stronger the excitement to fresh ex- Dissenter, although at liberty to en. actions. But this consideration ought, ter without the formality of any reof all others, to lead men who are ligious subscription, is required, duunited in attachment to one common ring the whole term of his residence, principle, to concert together the to conform to the Church, by attendbest means of defence, and prede- ance both at divine worship, and at termine the line at which concession whatever course of theological lecmust end, and a hearty and strenu- tures the regulations of each partious resistance commence.
cular college may render requisite; There can be no question, that of and it is, at least, extremely difficult all the existing institutions of the to determine the precise shade of country, not merely ecclesiastical in distinction, in point of hardship, their origin and in the objects to between the sort of conformity thus which they are applicable, the twoold required, and that which is implied, English Universities are those with at Oxford, in the mere act of subwhich the interests of religion, as scription to the Articles of the Church. connected with the security of the This distinction, however, be the Church Establishment, are most in- value attached to it what it may, extimately and inseparably bound up ists only during the estate of underand identified. Education is, no graduateship. "The test required, in doubt, an object of primary import- order to take a degree, is the same ance, -of general and even universal at both Universities, and, equally in concernment–in the promotion and each, to the exclusion of the honest advancement of which, upon the Dissenter. The question then arises most extensive foundation, Church- whether these ancient and venerable men and Dissenters of all classes institutions are or are not an essenand denominations are equally inte. tial part of the Church Establishrested; but it does not follow that ment ?–a question of political exthe design of such an advancement, pediency, which it is quite absurd to however meritorious or however argue on the ground of mere abstract law or parliamentary enactment, ing—their bigoted adherence to old resting, as it does, on the far higher and exploded forms—their blind atground of Religion, as a vital branch tachment to useless and obsolete of the Commonwealth.
science-while, on the contrary, they In any other point of view than have as regularly kept on extolling the preceding, the claim of the Dis- their own superior lights and are senters to be admitted to the benefit tainments - their comparative, if of degrees at both Universities is a not absolute freedom from error claim, to all appearance, so con80- and prejudice—and, above all, their nant with every humane and liberal great advantages in numbers, wealth, principle, that it is scarce possible and intelligence, sufficient to rento conceive a question on which it der them able, as they are no doubt would be more painful to a person of willing, to compete with the Church enlarged and comprehensive views, in splendour of institutions and unbiassed by the spirit of sectarian- liberality of endowment. Why, ism in religion, or by that of party with the superior opportunities in politics, to find himself at variance of attaining excellence in all usewith so large a proportion of those ful knowledge which are thus afamongst whom he is generally proud forded by their own colleges and to be enrolled as a fellow.labourer academies, seek wantonly to force and associate. Many of the names the unwilling gates, and disturb the subscribed to the first petition from lazy slumbers, of our old monastic Cambridge, are of individuals with establishments ? Not, surely, for the whom it is impossible not to feel it professed object of participation in a as an honour to appear in the same system of learning which they delist for any public purpose. The spise, or in the distribution of boobject avowed—which is no less nours which are to them therefore than the absolute freedom of science valueless! Nay, so gross and paland literature from every trammel pable is the absurdity of such a of human imposition — is sublime supposition, that it is almost incon. and captivating. The end announ- ceivable by what process of reasonced is unobjectionable, provided it ing so many individuals of the first could be safely predicated that all eminence in philosophy, and of the who seek the benefit of the proposed most unquestionable attachment to abolition are of the same mind with the Church, as are to be found in the the Cambridge petitioners. But it list of subscribers to the Cambridge is impossible for any well-wisher to petition, could have persuaded themthe Establishment, who is at the same selves that in bringing about the contime free in his own person from the cession there sought for, and then bias of party spirit, and placed by stopping short of ulterior concesresidence at a distance from the im- sions, they could satisfy a single Dismediate scene of the movement, not senter, or convert a single enemy to perceive that the ostensible actors into a friend of the Establishment; in the drama are nothing more than and the fact that they did subscribe puppets in the hands of those who it with that view and with that inseek the overthrow of the Church, tention, only adds one more to the and that concession, in this instance, many instances which experience must infallibly, and by direct logical affords us of the blindness of human consequence, lead to the total sepa- nature when under the influence of ration of the Universities from the some ruling passion or principleEstablishment. The pretence of the that principle being, as in the present advancement of science is too weak case, of no less lofty or honourable and flimsy to deceive the most ordi. a nature than the pure love of nary capacity, apart from the excite- science, and the motive, its encour. ment of political warfare, and the agement to the greatest possible deillusions of a self-applauding philo- gree of extension. sophy. On this subject it is enough It does not, bowever, require the that the Dissenters should speak for aid of arguments-not even such as themselves--they who have been for are furnished by the admirable Artithe last hundred and fifty years cla- cle at the head of your last month's morous against the corruption and Number, to the truth and justice of abuses of the ancient seats of learn which I fully subscribe—to prove
the necessary, the infallible conse- ments on the momentous subject of quence of making the concession my present communication, I have thus loudly demanded. The Dissen- added little or nothing in the shape ters themselves—80 far as we are of argument to what has been aljustified in giving that general title ready, and much more ably enforced to the body of men represented by by other writers; and yet I hope it the late deputation, (whose actual may not be accounted mere perforce and numbers are probably far sonal vanity which urged me to from proportioned to the noise they make it, under the impression that make,)-have, even while I have been it may not be altogether useless to occupied in writing these hasty lines, record the firm and decided convicput an end to all such necessity, by tion of one who is already known a most frank and honest avowal of to most of your numerous readers, their true end and objects-objects, by his former professions of modeto which the mere granting degrees ration, if not of neutrality, in matin the Universities would be only ters of party politics. I have also as dust in the balance-being no less another reason, purely personal, for than the free and equal participation wishing not to remain a silent specof all academical or collegiate offices tator of this great controversy. Bred and emoluments, and that which and educated as a Dissenter, I was they are too clear-sighted not to see, myself entered as a member of the or too honest not to confess, as the University of Cambridge, with the direct and immediate consequence- knowledge that I should necessarily the extinction of the Establishment. be excluded from the honour and This, at least, is plain dealing; and advantages of a degree-an excluI, for one, heartily rejoice that the sion which, though I regretted its mask is dropped, and that the ene necessity, I did not even then immies of the Church are at length so pute as an act of illiberality or injusopen and unreserved in the expres- tice, on the part of the University sion of their hostility, that it is no requiring subscription to the Articles longer possible for any professing as a condition of admission, because themselves friends of the Establish- I bad never been taught to regard ment, to continue in league with the Church with any hostile feelthem under the shelter of any weakings, although prevented by scruples scheme of accommodation or com- of a doctrinal nature from enrolling prehension. Humility, moderation, myself among its children. Those forbearance, patience, forgiveness, scruples have long since, although charity-all these are qualities which not till considerably after the period stand in the highest rank of Chris- of my quitting College, given way tian virtues; but in respect of the before gradual, but hearty, convicgreat concerns of religion, it is not tion; and I am happy to avail myin the tame spirit of hollow compro- self of this opportunity to state so mise that they ought to be exercised. much of the circumstances of my “HE THAT IS NOT FOR ME IS AGAINST own case, because I am persuaded me.” This was the language of the that it has its parallel in many other meek and lowly Jesus; and, when instances, and that there are now, and engaged in the defence of Gospel have always been, numbers, without truth, it must be that of his follow the pale of the Establisbment, wbo, ers also—or they are no more wore although Separatists, are not enethy to be called his disciples. On mies, and who regard it with sentiall points of mere human wisdomments of affection and veneration, and policy men may reasonably and which, aided by time and reflection, conscientiously differ, and honestly may end in strict conformity. Yet and prudently seek to adjust their even the chance of increasing the differences by mutual concession; number of those who are thus afbut on the ground of religion there fected, is a very insufficient reason must be no wavering, no yielding, for doing any act towards weakening no coquetting with those who seek one of the Church's strongest deits destruction, and with whom com- fences. pliance is sinful, and negotiation I have only now to add, as one unsafe and dangerous.
debarred, by the cause already I feel that in making this short and stated, from joining in any public imperfect exposition of my senti- act of the members of either Voiversity, the expression of my hearty claim of exemption from established concurrence with the counter-peti- forms of discipline and instruction. tions, and my earnest wishes that Indeed, so far I hold their admission their prayers may be heard and rather likely to lead to the confora granted; my opinion on the subject mity of such individuals; and the of them being more especially in signature of Articles on matriculation strict accordance with that of the at Oxford-though I fully concur, “ Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars as do all Oxford men, in the Bishop of the University of Cambridge,” of Exeter's view of it-has never where it sets_forth—" that in the seemed to me a good kind of test. event of the Bill being passed into But I hold that the University, from a law, the University will necessarily its constitution, has alone the right cease to be an institution for the to alter or modify in these matters, education of youth in the principles and parliamentary interference is of the Church of England, and the most upjust, impolitic, and (I thereby its most important object may say) wicked thing, I can possie will be frustrated;”-as also, “That bly conceive. If it does not invade the open recognition of dissent with the private charter of every college in the University will either be a singly, as well as of the Unirersity continued source of religious con- bodily—that is, if it only leads to de. troversy and contention, detrimental grees from some lodging-house, and to its studies, and destructive of its establishes no right to places of internal peace, or will introduce an emolument in colleges-it is mereindifference to religion itself, the ly givivg the Dissenter a new sore consequence of which would be still place, exposed to rubbing and chamore fatal.”
fing worse than he ever had before. “ As to Church matters"-(I am If, on the contrary, it says there shall now using the words of a friend and be no difference of creed in our correspondent-a very liberal and Church nursery, and everything intelligent member of the sister Uni- shall be open to all
, which was in versity, who appears to have taken tended for one-(that is, for the Caprecisely the view of the case which tholic before he was reformed, and is most consonant with my own sen- now for the reformed Catholie)-it timents-)"they are certainly in an is a direct and almost undisguised awkward state. That the Church attempt to upset the whole Church, will be most strongly supported by and, with the Church, all the existe almost all the higher and the educa. ing State fabric. The weak admis. ted class, is certain. Independent of sions which men in office now make, many other grave reasons, there is without any consideration, the first one of policy which every day be- time a subject is started to stick by comes more evident. The Church is which is ruin-to escape from which in fact now standing in the breach; can only be done by paltry subblow it down, or weaken it very terfuge—is the most alarming picmuch, and the whole present social ture of the times. I am no party. system of the empire is desolated man now—and no wise man is-it is and gone, and will probably never be the general aspect which alone occurebuilt in any decent order and pro- pies the whole mind. And, so much portion under some two or three for politics." generations. It is a different thing Feeling that any farther remarks to subvert that which is, or to do of my own would only weaken the without that which never was”—(as, force of these excellent observations, witness, the different conditions of I shall for the present take leave of England and America)—" but even the subject; not without the intenthis plainest of axioms seems over. tion, should you deem what I have looked by the presumptuous and now written worthy of insertion, to empty fools who differ from each return to it, possibly more than once, other in all but in doing mischief one should the course of " coming way or other,
events” be such as their á fore-cast "As to the University question, shadows" appear but too clearly to it is a most vital one indeed. I never indicate.--I am, Sir, &c. &c. &c. objected to receiving any Dissenters,
METRODORUS. nor do I now, provided there is no May 12, 1834.
THE CAESARS. CHAP. IV.
THE PATRIOT EMPERORS.
The five Cæsars who succeeded who declined even on such an occaimmediately to the first twelve, were, sion to cover their heads. Perhaps in as high a sense as their office al- in imitation of these celebrated leadlowed, Patriots. Hadrian is perhaps ers, Hadrian adopted the same practhe first of all whom circumstances tice, but not with the same result; permitted to shew his patriotism for to him, either from age or con: without fear. It illustrates at one stitution, this very custom proved and the same moment a trait in this the original occasion of his last illEmperor's character, and in the Ro- ness. man habits, that he acquired much Imitation, indeed, was a general reputation for hardiness by walking principle of action with Hadrian, bareheaded. "Never, on any occa and the key to much of his public sion," says one of his memorialists conduct; and allowably enough, con(Dio), “neither in summer heat nor sidering the exemplary lives (in à in winter's cold, did he cover his public sense) of some who had pre. head; but, as well in the Celtic ceded him, and the singular anxiety snows as in Egyptian heats, he went with which he distinguished between about bareheaded.” This anecdote the lights and shadows of their excould not fail to win the especial amples. He imitated the great Dicadmiration of Isaac Casaubon, who tator, Julius, in his vigilance of inlived in an age when men believed spection into the civil, not less than a hat no less indispensable to the the martial police of his times, shahead, even within doors, than shoes ping his new regulations to meet or stockings to the feet. His asto. abuses as they arose, and strenuousnishment on the occasion is thus ex. ly maintaining the old ones in vigopressed :-" Tantum est n donn015;" rous operation. As respected the such and so mighty is the force of army, this was matter of peculiar habit and daily use. And then he praise, because peculiarly disintegoes on to ask="Quis hodie nudum rested; for his foreign policy was caput radiis solis, aut omnia per pacific;t he made no new con. urenti frigori, ausit exponere?" Yet quests; and he retired from the old we ourselves, and our illustrious ones of Trajan, where they could not friend, Christopher North, have have been maintained without diswalked for twenty years amongst proportionate bloodshed, or a jeaour British lakes and mountains hat- lousy beyond the value of the stake. less, and amidst both snow and rain, In this point of his administration he such as Romans did not often expe- took Augustus for his model; as rience. We were naked, and yet not again in his care of the army, in his ashamed. Nor in this are we alto- occasional bounties, and in his pagether singular. But, says Casau- ternal solicitude for their comforts, bon, the Romans went farther; for he looked rather to the example of they walked about the streets of Julius. Him also he imitated in his Rome * bareheaded, and never as- affability and in his ambitious coursumed a hat or a cap, a petasus or a tesies; one instance of which, as galerus, a Macedonian causia, or a blending an artifice of political subpileus, whether Thessalian, Arcadian, tlety and simulation with a remarkor Laconic, unless when they enter- able exertion of memory, it may be ed upon a journey. Nay, some there well to mention. The custom was, were, as Masinissa and Julius Cæsar, in canvassing the citizens of Rome,
* And hence we may the better estimate the trial to a Roman's feelings in the personal deformity of baldness, connected with the Roman theory of its cause, for the exposure of it was perpetual.
* " Expeditiones sub eo,” says Spartian, "graves nullæ fuerunt. Bella etiam silentio pene transacta." But he does not the less add, "A militibus, propter curam exercitûs nimiam, multum amatus est."